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2.
J Transl Med ; 19(1): 29, 2021 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33413480

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Limited data was available for rapid and accurate detection of COVID-19 using CT-based machine learning model. This study aimed to investigate the value of chest CT radiomics for diagnosing COVID-19 pneumonia compared with clinical model and COVID-19 reporting and data system (CO-RADS), and develop an open-source diagnostic tool with the constructed radiomics model. METHODS: This study enrolled 115 laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 and 435 non-COVID-19 pneumonia patients (training dataset, n = 379; validation dataset, n = 131; testing dataset, n = 40). Key radiomics features extracted from chest CT images were selected to build a radiomics signature using least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) regression. Clinical and clinico-radiomics combined models were constructed. The combined model was further validated in the viral pneumonia cohort, and compared with performance of two radiologists using CO-RADS. The diagnostic performance was assessed by receiver operating characteristics curve (ROC) analysis, calibration curve, and decision curve analysis (DCA). RESULTS: Eight radiomics features and 5 clinical variables were selected to construct the combined radiomics model, which outperformed the clinical model in diagnosing COVID-19 pneumonia with an area under the ROC (AUC) of 0.98 and good calibration in the validation cohort. The combined model also performed better in distinguishing COVID-19 from other viral pneumonia with an AUC of 0.93 compared with 0.75 (P = 0.03) for clinical model, and 0.69 (P = 0.008) or 0.82 (P = 0.15) for two trained radiologists using CO-RADS. The sensitivity and specificity of the combined model can be achieved to 0.85 and 0.90. The DCA confirmed the clinical utility of the combined model. An easy-to-use open-source diagnostic tool was developed using the combined model. CONCLUSIONS: The combined radiomics model outperformed clinical model and CO-RADS for diagnosing COVID-19 pneumonia, which can facilitate more rapid and accurate detection.


Assuntos
/métodos , /diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , /estatística & dados numéricos , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala/métodos , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Estatísticos , Nomogramas , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Interpretação de Imagem Radiográfica Assistida por Computador/métodos , Interpretação de Imagem Radiográfica Assistida por Computador/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisa Médica Translacional
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(1): e24108, 2021 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33429778

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This meta-analysis aimed to compare the clinical symptoms of COVID-19 pneumonia in children. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Electronic databases including PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) database, Wanfang Database, and Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM) were searched from its inception to June 21, 2020. We only included studies that reported clinical symptoms of COVID pneumonia in children. Quality of the included studies was assessed by 2 authors. Pooled results were summarized by STATA 12.0 software.The heterogeneity was measured by I2 tests (I2 < 50 indicates little heterogeneity, I2≥50 indicates high heterogeneity). Publication bias was performed by funnel plot and statistically assessed by Begg test (P > .05 as no publication bias). RESULTS: Results will be shown as figures or tables. CONCLUSION: Our study aims to systematically present the clinical symptoms of COVID-19 pneumonia patients in children, so as to further provide guidance for clinical management.


Assuntos
/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Projetos de Pesquisa , Criança , Humanos , Metanálise como Assunto , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
4.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(1): e25535, 2021 01 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33404516

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Effectively identifying patients with COVID-19 using nonpolymerase chain reaction biomedical data is critical for achieving optimal clinical outcomes. Currently, there is a lack of comprehensive understanding in various biomedical features and appropriate analytical approaches for enabling the early detection and effective diagnosis of patients with COVID-19. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to combine low-dimensional clinical and lab testing data, as well as high-dimensional computed tomography (CT) imaging data, to accurately differentiate between healthy individuals, patients with COVID-19, and patients with non-COVID viral pneumonia, especially at the early stage of infection. METHODS: In this study, we recruited 214 patients with nonsevere COVID-19, 148 patients with severe COVID-19, 198 noninfected healthy participants, and 129 patients with non-COVID viral pneumonia. The participants' clinical information (ie, 23 features), lab testing results (ie, 10 features), and CT scans upon admission were acquired and used as 3 input feature modalities. To enable the late fusion of multimodal features, we constructed a deep learning model to extract a 10-feature high-level representation of CT scans. We then developed 3 machine learning models (ie, k-nearest neighbor, random forest, and support vector machine models) based on the combined 43 features from all 3 modalities to differentiate between the following 4 classes: nonsevere, severe, healthy, and viral pneumonia. RESULTS: Multimodal features provided substantial performance gain from the use of any single feature modality. All 3 machine learning models had high overall prediction accuracy (95.4%-97.7%) and high class-specific prediction accuracy (90.6%-99.9%). CONCLUSIONS: Compared to the existing binary classification benchmarks that are often focused on single-feature modality, this study's hybrid deep learning-machine learning framework provided a novel and effective breakthrough for clinical applications. Our findings, which come from a relatively large sample size, and analytical workflow will supplement and assist with clinical decision support for current COVID-19 diagnostic methods and other clinical applications with high-dimensional multimodal biomedical features.


Assuntos
/diagnóstico , Sistemas de Apoio a Decisões Clínicas , Saúde , Aprendizado de Máquina , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , /diagnóstico por imagem , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico por imagem , Máquina de Vetores de Suporte , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
5.
Am Heart J ; 231: 93-95, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33181067

RESUMO

We evaluated the incidence of thrombosis in patients hospitalized with non-COVID-19 acute viral respiratory illnesses nationwide from 2012 to 2014 and compared this to the incidence among patients hospitalized with COVID-19 at a large health system in New York. Non-COVID-19 viral respiratory illness was complicated by acute MI in 2.8% of hospitalizations, VTE in 1.6%, ischemic stroke in 0.7%, and other systemic embolism in 0.1%. The proportion of hospitalizations complicated by thrombosis was lower in patients with viral respiratory illness in 2002-2014 than in COVID-19 (5% vs 16%; P< .001). BACKGROUND: Thrombosis is a prominent feature of the novel Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The incidence of thrombosis during hospitalization for non-COVID-19 viral respiratory infections is uncertain. We evaluated the incidence of thrombosis in patients hospitalized with non-COVID-19 acute viral respiratory illnesses compared to COVID-19. METHODS: Adults age >18 years hospitalized with a non-COVID-19 viral respiratory illness between 2002 and 2014 were identified. The primary study outcome was a composite of venous and arterial thrombotic events, including myocardial infarction (MI), acute ischemic stroke, and venous thromboembolism (VTE), as defined by ICD-9 codes. The incidence of thrombosis in non-COVID-19 viral respiratory illnesses was compared to the recently published incidence of thrombosis in COVID-19 from 3,334 patients hospitalized in New York in 2020. RESULTS: Among 954,521 hospitalizations with viral pneumonia from 2002 to 2014 (mean age 62.3 years, 57.1% female), the combined incidence of arterial and venous thrombosis was 5.0%. Acute MI occurred in 2.8% of hospitalizations, VTE in 1.6%, ischemic stroke in 0.7%, and other systemic embolism in 0.1%. Patients with thrombosis had higher in-hospital mortality (14.9% vs 3.3%, P< .001) than those without thrombosis. The proportion of hospitalizations complicated by thrombosis was lower in patients with viral respiratory illness in 2002-2014 than in COVID-19 (median age 64; 39.6% female) in 2020 (5% vs 16%; P< .001) CONCLUSION: In a nationwide analysis of hospitalizations for viral pneumonias, thrombosis risk was lower than that observed in patients with COVID-19. Investigations into mechanisms of thrombosis and risk reduction strategies in COVID-19 and other viral respiratory infections are necessary.


Assuntos
Infarto do Miocárdio , Pneumonia Viral , Infecções Respiratórias , Trombose , Tromboembolia Venosa , /diagnóstico , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , /epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/etiologia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Infecções Respiratórias/complicações , Infecções Respiratórias/diagnóstico , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Medição de Risco , Trombose/epidemiologia , Trombose/virologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Tromboembolia Venosa/diagnóstico , Tromboembolia Venosa/epidemiologia , Tromboembolia Venosa/etiologia
6.
J Infect Chemother ; 27(1): 126-129, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33060046

RESUMO

Considering the issues of shortage of medical resources and the invasiveness and infection risk involved in the collection of nasopharyngeal swab specimens, there is a need for an effective alternative test specimen for SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection. Here, we investigated suitability of saliva as a non-invasively obtained specimen for molecular detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in Japanese patients with COVID-19. In total, 28 paired clinical specimens of saliva and nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from 12 patients at various time points after symptom onset. Each specimen was assayed using reverse transcription real-time polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) on the BD MAX open system using primers and probes targeting the N-gene. The saliva and nasopharyngeal swab specimens showed 19 and 15 positive results, respectively. No invalid (PCR inhibition) result was observed for any specimen. The qualitative results of each specimen obtained in the period immediately after symptom onset were similar. Three convalescent patients presented saliva-positive results, whereas their nasopharyngeal swabs were negative at four different time points, suggesting that saliva may be superior to nasopharyngeal swabs in terms of obtaining stable assay result of SARS-CoV-2. In conclusion, our results suggest that saliva can potentially serve as an alternative to nasopharyngeal swabs as a specimen for SARS-CoV-2 rRT-PCR. As saliva can be collected by patients themselves, it may be an effective way to overcome the shortage of personal protective equipment and specimen sampling tools.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Nasofaringe/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , RNA Viral/isolamento & purificação , Saliva/virologia , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Humanos , Japão , Pandemias , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Manejo de Espécimes/métodos
7.
CMAJ ; 193(1): E10-E18, 2021 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33293424

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many studies reporting coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) complications have involved case series or small cohorts that could not establish a causal association with COVID-19 or provide risk estimates in different care settings. We sought to study all possible complications of COVID-19 to confirm previously reported complications and to identify potential complications not yet known. METHODS: Using United States health claims data, we compared the frequency of all International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-10-CM) diagnosis codes occurring before and after the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic in an exposure-crossover design. We included patients who received a diagnosis of COVID-19 between Mar. 1, 2020, and Apr. 30, 2020, and computed risk estimates and odds ratios (ORs) of association with COVID-19 for every ICD-10-CM diagnosis code. RESULTS: Among 70 288 patients with COVID-19, 69 of 1724 analyzed ICD-10-CM diagnosis codes were significantly associated with COVID-19. Disorders showing both strong association with COVID-19 and high absolute risk included viral pneumonia (OR 177.63, 95% confidence interval [CI] 147.19-214.37, absolute risk 27.6%), respiratory failure (OR 11.36, 95% CI 10.74-12.02, absolute risk 22.6%), acute kidney failure (OR 3.50, 95% CI 3.34-3.68, absolute risk 11.8%) and sepsis (OR 4.23, 95% CI 4.01-4.46, absolute risk 10.4%). Disorders showing strong associations with COVID-19 but low absolute risk included myocarditis (OR 8.17, 95% CI 3.58-18.62, absolute risk 0.1%), disseminated intravascular coagulation (OR 11.83, 95% CI 5.26-26.62, absolute risk 0.1%) and pneumothorax (OR 3.38, 95% CI 2.68-4.26, absolute risk 0.4%). INTERPRETATION: We confirmed and provided risk estimates for numerous complications of COVID-19. These results may guide prognosis, treatment decisions and patient counselling.


Assuntos
/métodos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Medição de Risco/métodos , Adulto , /epidemiologia , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/etiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
8.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 171: 112716, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33068880

RESUMO

With the aim of contributing to the fight against the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), numerous strategies have been proposed. While developing an effective vaccine can take months up to years, detection of infected patients seems like one of the best ideas for controlling the situation. The role of biosensors in containing highly pathogenic viruses, saving lives and economy is evident. A new competitive numerical platform specifically for designing microfluidic-integrated biosensors is developed and presented in this work. Properties of the biosensor, sample, buffer fluid and even the microfluidic channel can be modified in this model. This feature provides the scientific community with the ability to design a specific biosensor for requested point-of-care (POC) applications. First, the validation of the presented numerical platform against experimental data and then results and discussion, highlighting the important role of the design parameters on the performance of the biosensor is presented. For the latter, the baseline case has been set on the previous studies on the biosensors suitable for SARS-CoV, which has the highest similarity to the 2019 nCoV. Subsequently, the effects of concentration of the targeted molecules in the sample, installation position and properties of the biosensor on its performance were investigated in 11 case studies. The presented numerical framework provides an insight into understanding of the virus reaction in the design process of the biosensor and enhances our preparation for any future outbreaks. Furthermore, the integration of biosensors with different devices for accelerating the process of defeating the pandemic is proposed.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Algoritmos , Técnicas Biossensoriais , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Simulação por Computador , Sistemas Computacionais , Humanos , Hidrodinâmica , Técnicas Analíticas Microfluídicas , Pandemias , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito
9.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 171: 112679, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33069957

RESUMO

The 2019 SARS CoV-2 (COVID-19) pandemic has illustrated the need for rapid and accurate diagnostic tests. In this work, a multiplexed grating-coupled fluorescent plasmonics (GC-FP) biosensor platform was used to rapidly and accurately measure antibodies against COVID-19 in human blood serum and dried blood spot samples. The GC-FP platform measures antibody-antigen binding interactions for multiple targets in a single sample, and has 100% selectivity and sensitivity (n = 23) when measuring serum IgG levels against three COVID-19 antigens (spike S1, spike S1S2, and the nucleocapsid protein). The GC-FP platform yielded a quantitative, linear response for serum samples diluted to as low as 1:1600 dilution. Test results were highly correlated with two commercial COVID-19 antibody tests, including an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and a Luminex-based microsphere immunoassay. To demonstrate test efficacy with other sample matrices, dried blood spot samples (n = 63) were obtained and evaluated with GC-FP, yielding 100% selectivity and 86.7% sensitivity for diagnosing prior COVID-19 infection. The test was also evaluated for detection of multiple immunoglobulin isotypes, with successful detection of IgM, IgG and IgA antibody-antigen interactions. Last, a machine learning approach was developed to accurately score patient samples for prior COVID-19 infection, using antibody binding data for all three COVID-19 antigens used in the test.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Técnicas Biossensoriais/instrumentação , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Teste em Amostras de Sangue Seco , Desenho de Equipamento , Fluorescência , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Dispositivos Lab-On-A-Chip , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
10.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 171: 112709, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33075724

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was classified as a pandemic by the World Health Organization and has caused over 550,000 deaths worldwide as of July 2020. Accurate and scalable point-of-care devices would increase screening, diagnosis, and monitoring of COVID-19 patients. Here, we demonstrate rapid label-free electrochemical detection of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies using a commercially available impedance sensing platform. A 16-well plate containing sensing electrodes was pre-coated with receptor binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, and subsequently tested with samples of anti-SARS-CoV-2 monoclonal antibody CR3022 (0.1 µg/ml, 1.0 µg/ml, 10 µg/ml). Subsequent blinded testing was performed on six serum specimens taken from COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 patients (1:100 dilution factor). The platform was able to differentiate spikes in impedance measurements from a negative control (1% milk solution) for all CR3022 samples. Further, successful differentiation and detection of all positive clinical samples from negative control was achieved. Measured impedance values were consistent when compared to standard ELISA test results showing a strong correlation between them (R2=0.9). Detection occurs in less than five minutes and the well-based platform provides a simplified and familiar testing interface that can be readily adaptable for use in clinical settings.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Técnicas Biossensoriais/instrumentação , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Espectroscopia Dielétrica/instrumentação , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Técnicas Biossensoriais/economia , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/economia , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/economia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Espectroscopia Dielétrica/economia , Impedância Elétrica , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos , Proteínas Imobilizadas/imunologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Fatores de Tempo
11.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 171: 112731, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33075725

RESUMO

Rapid person-to-person transfer of viruses such as SARS-CoV-2 and their occasional mutations owing to the human activity and climate/ecological changes by the mankind led to creation of wrecking worldwide challenges. Such fast transferable pathogens requiring practical diagnostic setups to control their transfer chain and stop sever outbreaks in early stages of their appearance. Herein, we have addressed this urgent demand by designing a rapid electrochemical diagnostic kit composed of fixed/screen printed electrodes that can detect pathogenic viruses such as SARS-CoV-2 and/or animal viruses through the differentiable fingerprint of their viral glycoproteins at different voltage positions. The working electrode of developed sensor is activated upon coating a layer of coupled graphene oxide (GO) with sensitive chemical compounds along with gold nanostars (Au NS) that can detect the trace of viruses in any aquatic biological media (e.g., blood, saliva and oropharyngeal/nasopharyngeal swab) through interaction with active functional groups of their glycoproteins. The method do not require any extraction and/or biomarkers for detection of target viruses and can identify trace of different pathogenic viruses in about 1 min. The nanosensor also demonstrated superior limit of detection (LOD) and sensitivity of 1.68 × 10-22 µg mL-1 and 0.0048 µAµg.mL-1. cm-2, respectively, toward detection of SARS-CoV-2 in biological media, while blind clinical evaluations of 100 suspected samples furtherly confirmed the superior sensitivity/specificity of developed nanosystem toward rapid identification of ill people even at incubation and prodromal periods of illness.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/instrumentação , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/análise , Animais , Técnicas Biossensoriais/instrumentação , Eletrodos , Desenho de Equipamento , Ouro/química , Grafite/química , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Pandemias
12.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 171: 112715, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33099241

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a newly emerging human infectious disease. Because no specific antiviral drugs or vaccines are available to treat COVID-19, early diagnostics, isolation, and prevention are crucial for containing the outbreak. Molecular diagnostics using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) are the current gold standard for detection. However, viral RNAs are much less stable during transport and storage than proteins such as antigens and antibodies. Consequently, false-negative RT-PCR results can occur due to inadequate collection of clinical specimens or poor handling of a specimen during testing. Although antigen immunoassays are stable diagnostics for detection of past infection, infection progress, and transmission dynamics, no matched antibody pair for immunoassay of SARS-CoV-2 antigens has yet been reported. In this study, we designed and developed a novel rapid detection method for SARS-CoV-2 spike 1 (S1) protein using the SARS-CoV-2 receptor ACE2, which can form matched pairs with commercially available antibodies. ACE2 and S1-mAb were paired with each other for capture and detection in a lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) that did not cross-react with SARS-CoV Spike 1 or MERS-CoV Spike 1 protein. The SARS-CoV-2 S1 (<5 ng of recombinant proteins/reaction) was detected by the ACE2-based LFIA. The limit of detection of our ACE2-LFIA was 1.86 × 105 copies/mL in the clinical specimen of COVID-19 Patients without no cross-reactivity for nasal swabs from healthy subjects. This is the first study to detect SARS-CoV-2 S1 antigen using an LFIA with matched pair consisting of ACE2 and antibody. Our findings will be helpful to detect the S1 antigen of SARS-CoV-2 from COVID-19 patients.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas Biossensoriais/instrumentação , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/química , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/análise , Anticorpos Monoclonais/química , Técnicas Biossensoriais/economia , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/economia , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/instrumentação , Infecções por Coronavirus/economia , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos , Imunoensaio/economia , Imunoensaio/instrumentação , Imunoconjugados/química , Pandemias , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Fatores de Tempo
13.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 171: 112685, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33113383

RESUMO

The spread of SARS-CoV-2 virus in the ongoing global pandemic has led to infections of millions of people and losses of many lives. The rapid, accurate and convenient SARS-CoV-2 virus detection is crucial for controlling and stopping the pandemic. Diagnosis of patients in the early stage infection are so far limited to viral nucleic acid or antigen detection in human nasopharyngeal swab or saliva samples. Here we developed a method for rapid and direct optical measurement of SARS-CoV-2 virus particles in one step nearly without any sample preparation using a spike protein specific nanoplasmonic resonance sensor. As low as 370 vp/mL were detected in one step within 15 min and the virus concentration can be quantified linearly in the range of 0 to 107 vp/mL. Measurements shown on both generic microplate reader and a handheld smartphone connected device suggest that our low-cost and rapid detection method may be adopted quickly under both regular clinical environment and resource-limited settings.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas Biossensoriais/instrumentação , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Testes Imediatos , Vírion/isolamento & purificação , Anticorpos Imobilizados/química , Técnicas Biossensoriais/economia , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/economia , Infecções por Coronavirus/economia , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Modelos Moleculares , Pandemias , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/análise , Fatores de Tempo
14.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 171: 112753, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33120235

RESUMO

A polyethyleneimine (PEI)-assisted copper in-situ growth (CISG) strategy was proposed as a controlled signal amplification strategy to enhance the sensitivity of gold nanoparticle-based lateral flow sensors (AuNP-LFS). The controlled signal amplification is achieved by introducing PEI as a structure-directing agent to regulate the thermodynamics of anisotropic Cu nanoshell growth on the AuNP surface, thus controlling shape and size of the resultant AuNP@Cu core-shell nanostructures and confining free reduction and self-nucleation of Cu2+ for improved reproducibility and decreased false positives. The PEI-CISG-enhanced AuNP-LFS showed ultrahigh sensitivities with the detection limits of 50 fg mL-1 for HIV-1 capsid p24 antigen and 6 CFU mL-1 for Escherichia coli O157:H7. We further demonstrated its clinical diagnostic efficacy by configuring PEI-CISG into a commercial AuNP-LFS detection kit for SARS-CoV-2 antibody detection. Altogether, this work provides a reliable signal amplification platform to dramatically enhance the sensitivity of AuNP-LFS for rapid and accurate diagnostics of various infectious diseases.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Cobre/química , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Escherichia coli/diagnóstico , Ouro/química , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas Biossensoriais/instrumentação , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Desenho de Equipamento , Escherichia coli O157/isolamento & purificação , Proteína do Núcleo p24 do HIV/análise , HIV-1/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/ultraestrutura , Oxirredução , Pandemias , Polietilenoimina/química , Fitas Reagentes/análise
15.
J Infect Chemother ; 27(1): 120-122, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32988731

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Information on the effectiveness of personal protective equipment (PPE) for preventing severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection among healthcare workers (HCWs), especially among HCWs with frequent contact with patients with SARS-CoV-2, is limited. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study on 49 HCWs who worked in close contact with patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. HCWs had blood samples taken every 2 weeks to test for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies using two different types of assay. RESULTS: Forty-nine participants (31 nurses, 15 doctors, 3 other workers) were enrolled. In total, 112 blood samples are obtained from participants. The median work days in 2 weeks was 9 (interquartile range (IQR): 5-10) days. In a single work day, 30 of the 49 participants (61.5%) had contact with patients with suspected or conformed SARS-CoV-2 at least 8 times, and approximately 60% of participants had more than 10 min of contact with a single patient. The median self-reported compliance to PPE was 90% (IQR: 80-100%). Seven participants tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 antibody using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA); however, none were seropositive for SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibody, so the positive ELISA results were assumed to be false-positive. CONCLUSIONS: The study provides evidence that appropriate PPE is sufficient to prevent infection amongHCWs. It is necessary to establish a system that provides a stable supply of PPE for HCWs to perform their duties.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Pessoal de Saúde , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Paciente para o Profissional/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Adulto , Idoso , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Infect Chemother ; 27(1): 117-119, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32994136

RESUMO

The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is diagnosed by positive result of reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for the novel coronavirus. We concluded that cycle threshold value (Ct-value) of real-time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR) assay could decrease as patients recover. Results of rRT-PCR assay could remain positive among asymptomatic patients for longer than 2 weeks. The discharge criteria of COVID-19 patients using a negative result of rRT-PCR should be reconsidered.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doenças Assintomáticas , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nasofaringe/virologia , Pandemias , Alta do Paciente , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Carga Viral , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Infect Chemother ; 27(1): 110-112, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33039267

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is often characterized by abnormal olfactory and gustatory symptoms in adults; however, detailed studies on pediatric patients with COVID-19 are extremely limited. A 13-year-old Japanese girl presented with fever and cough, and after 2 days, her olfactory and taste sensations suddenly disappeared. A real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was performed using a nasopharyngeal swab. Because a positive result was seen, she was admitted on the 7th day of illness. On admission, the visual analogue scale (VAS) score for smell and taste was 0 of 100%. An intravenous olfaction test using prosultiamine (Alinamin test) was performed on the 15th day of illness to evaluate olfaction, and an increase in latency (33 seconds) and a decrease in duration (55 seconds) were observed. In the odor identification test using 12 different odor cards, only 7 odors were correctly identified. On the 18th day of illness, SARS-CoV-2 tested negative in the RT-PCR test; simultaneously, the VAS score for smell and taste fully improved to 100 of 100%. On the 77th day of illness, full recovery was confirmed in the Alinamin test (latency, 7 seconds; duration, 82 seconds). In this present case, an improvement in olfactory and gustatory dysfunctions was observed with negative results in RT-PCR test for SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Olfato/etiologia , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Distúrbios do Paladar/etiologia , Adolescente , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Transtornos do Olfato/diagnóstico , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Olfato , Paladar , Distúrbios do Paladar/diagnóstico
18.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 171: 112703, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33049563

RESUMO

COVID-19 pandemic has affected everyone throughout the world and has resulted in the loss of lives of many souls. Due to the restless efforts of the researchers working hard day and night, some success has been gained for the detection of virus. As on date, the traditional polymerized chain reactions (PCR), lateral flow devices (LFID) and enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) are being adapted for the detection of this deadly virus. However, a more exciting avenue is the detection of certain biomarkers associated with this viral infection which can be done by simply re-purposing our existing infrastructure. SARS-CoV-2 viral infection triggers various inflammatory, biochemical and hematological biomarkers. Because of the infection route that the virus follows, it causes significant inflammatory response. As a result, various inflammatory markers have been reported to be closely associated with this infection such as C-reactive proteins, interleukin-6, procalcitonin and ferritin. Sensing of these biomarkers can simultaneously help in understanding the illness level of the affected patient. Also, by monitoring these biomarkers, we can predict the viral infections in those patients who have low SARS-CoV-2 RNA and hence are missed by traditional tests. This can give more targets to the researchers and scientists, working in the area of drug development and provide better prognosis. In this review, we propose to highlight the conventional as well as the non-conventional methods for the detection of these inflammatory biomarkers which can act as a single platform of knowledge for the researchers and scientists working for the treatment of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Inflamação/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Animais , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Biomarcadores/análise , Técnicas Biossensoriais/instrumentação , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Desenho de Equipamento , Ferritinas/análise , Humanos , Interleucina-6/análise , Pandemias , Pró-Calcitonina/análise
19.
Talanta ; 222: 121534, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33167242

RESUMO

As COVID-19 has reached pandemic status and the number of cases continues to grow, widespread availability of diagnostic testing is critical in helping identify and control the emergence of this rapidly spreading and serious illness. However, a lacking in making a quick reaction to the threat and starting early development of diagnostic sensing tools has had an important impact globally. In this regard, here we will review critically the current developed diagnostic tools in response to the COVID-19 pandemic and compare the different types through the discussion of their pros and cons such as nucleic acid detection tests (including PCR and CRISPR), antibody and protein-based diagnosis tests. In addition, potential technologies that are under development such as on-site diagnosis platforms, lateral flow, and portable PCR units are discussed. Data collection and epidemiological analysis could also be an interesting factor to incorporate with the emerging technologies especially with the wide access to smartphones. Lastly, a SWOT analysis and perspectives on how the development of novel sensory platforms should be treated by the different decision-makers are analyzed.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/instrumentação , Humanos , Testes Imediatos , Kit de Reagentes para Diagnóstico
20.
Front Biosci (Elite Ed) ; 13: 117-139, 2021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33048778

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a member of the human coronavirus (HCoV) family that targets the lower part of the respiratory tract and causes severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). In a short span of time, this infection has led to a global pandemic and has become a significant threat to the existence of present human society. Currently, there are no treatments for this infection and the measures established across various countries such as social distancing, usage of mask to prevent entry of the virus into the respiratory tract, quarantine, and containment together have reduced the prevalence of this disease and mortality in highly susceptible individuals. Here, we examine the structure, replication cycle, phylogeny and genomic organization of this virus and discuss the role of spike (S) protein of the virus, an important structure that interacts with the host ACE2 receptor facilitating viral entry. Further, we explore the epidemiology, symptoms of the disease, describe the reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) that establishes the diagnosis of the disease and also review its unique diagnostic features in the chest CT-Scan. Finally, we review the current approaches to develop therapies and vaccines as a measure for disease prevention and control.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia
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