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1.
BMJ Glob Health ; 6(3)2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33753401

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We characterised the impact of COVID-19 on the socioeconomic conditions, access to gender affirmation services and mental health outcomes in a sample of global transgender (trans) and non-binary populations. METHODS: Between 16 April 2020 and 3 August 2020, we conducted a cross-sectional survey with a global sample of trans and non-binary people (n=849) through an online social networking app. We conducted structural equational modelling procedures to determine direct, indirect and overall effects between poor mental health (ie, depression and anxiety) and latent variables across socioecological levels: social (ie, reduction in gender affirming services, socioeconomic loss impact) and environmental factors (ie, COVID-19 pandemic environment). RESULTS: Anxiety (45.82%) and depression (50.88%) in this sample were prevalent and directly linked to COVID-19 pandemic environment. Adjusted for gender identity, age, migrant status, region, education and level of socioeconomic status, our final model showed significant positive associations between relationships of (1) COVID-19 pandemic environment and socioeconomic loss impact (ß=0.62, p<0.001), (2) socioeconomic loss impact and reduction in gender affirming services (ß=0.24, p<0.05) and (3) reduction in gender affirming services and poor mental health (ß=0.19, p<0.05). Moreover, socioeconomic loss impact and reduction in gender affirming services were found to be partial mediators in this model. CONCLUSION: The study results supported the importance of bolstering access to gender affirming services and strengthening socioeconomic opportunities and programmatic support to buffer the impact of COVID-19 pandemic environment on poor mental health among trans and non-binary communities globally.


Assuntos
/economia , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Pandemias/economia , Pessoas Transgênero/psicologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Análise de Classes Latentes , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/economia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Prevalência , Mídias Sociais , Fatores Socioeconômicos
2.
Rev. clín. esp. (Ed. impr.) ; 221: 0-0, 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-196546

RESUMO

OBJETIVO: Analizar la asociación entre el gasto sanitario público per cápita y la tasa de mortalidad poblacional por COVID-19 en Europa y en España. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se utilizó el coeficiente de correlación de Pearson. Asimismo, se contrastaron los promedios de TMP-COVID-19 entre países y comunidades autónomas con mayor y menor GSPpc que el promedio. RESULTADOS: No se halló correlación, en los países europeos, entre el gasto sanitario público per cápita y la tasa de mortalidad poblacional por COVID-19 (r: 0,3; p = 0,14), ni en las comunidades autónomas (r: 0,03; p = 0,91). Tampoco se encontraron diferencias significativas en el contraste de la tasa de mortalidad poblacional por COVID-19 por grupos de gasto sanitario público per capita. CONCLUSIONES: La asociación entre «bajo» gasto sanitario público y malos resultados en España en la crisis de la COVID-19 no está sustentada en la evidencia disponible. Los aumentos de financiación de la sanidad pública deberían destinarse a las reformas estructurales para aumentar su eficiencia social


OBJECTIVE: To analyze the association between public health expenditure per capita and the mortality rate due to COVID-19 in Europe and Spain. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to compare and contrast the mortality rate due to COVID-19 between countries and autonomous communities with higher and lower public health expenditure per capita than the mean. RESULTS: No correlation between the public health expenditure per capita and the mortality rate due to COVID-19 (r: 0.3; p = 0.14) was found among European countries or Spain's Autonomous Communities (r: 0.03; p = 0.91). No significant differences were found when comparing the mortality rate due to COVID-19 among the public health expenditure per capita groups. CONCLUSIONS: The available evidence does not support association between «low» public healthcare expenditure and the poor outcomes observed in Spain during the COVID-19 pandemic. Increased funding for the Spanish National Health System should be earmarked for structural reforms to increase its social efficiency


Assuntos
Humanos , Infecções por Coronavirus/economia , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/economia , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pandemias/economia , Gastos em Saúde , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Espanha/epidemiologia
3.
Rev. Hosp. Ital. B. Aires (2004) ; 40(4): 185-190, dic. 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1145464

RESUMO

Esta revisión narrativa describe el daño colateral de la pandemia de COVID-19, tanto en aspectos de la salud, como también sociales, educativos o económicos. Comunicamos el impacto mundial y local. Consideramos que varias de estas consecuencias eran inevitables, especialmente las sucedidas durante los primeros meses de una pandemia que se difundió a gran velocidad y con graves consecuencias directas en la morbimortalidad de la población. Sin embargo, luego de seis meses de su llegada a la Argentina, es oportuno revaluar la situación y replantearse si no se debería cambiar el enfoque para balancear la minimización del impacto directo de COVID-19 junto con la del daño colateral que las medidas para paliarlo produjeron. Es un desafío que no debe limitarse al sistema de salud. Debe encararse con un abordaje intersectorial amplio y con participación activa de la sociedad. Así como aplanamos la curva de COVID-19, cuanto más nos demoremos en aplanar las otras curvas de problemas sanitarios y sociales que se están generando, mayor será su impacto, tanto en el corto como en el largo plazo. (AU)


This narrative review shows the collateral damage of the COVID-19 pandemic, whether in health, social, educational or economic aspects. We report on the impact at the global and local levels. Many of these consequences were inevitable, especially in the first months of a pandemic that spread at great speed and with serious direct consequences on the morbidity and mortality of the population. However, six months after the arrival in our country, it is an opportunity to reassess the situation and rethink whether the approach should not be changed to balance the minimization of the direct impact of COVID-19 with that of the collateral damage that mitigation measures produced. This is a challenge that should not be limited to the health system. It must be addressed with a broad intersectoral approach and active participation of society. Just as we flatten the COVID-19 curve, the longer we delay in flattening the other curves of health and social problems that are being generated, the greater the impact, both in the short and long term. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/economia , Infecções por Coronavirus/economia , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Argentina , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida , Isolamento Social , Problemas Sociais/prevenção & controle , Problemas Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos , Estratégias de Saúde Nacionais , Sistemas de Saúde/tendências , Indicadores de Morbimortalidade , Mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Impactos na Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Equidade no Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Análise de Consequências , Comunicação em Saúde/métodos , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos
4.
An. pediatr. (2003. Ed. impr.) ; 93(6): 420.e1-420.e6, dic. 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-192559

RESUMO

Con más de 575.000 muertes y cerca de 13,3 millones de casos a nivel global, la pandemia por COVID-19ha causado un terrible impacto en apenas medio año de evolución desde que por primera vez fuesen detectados casos en China. Conscientes de las dificultades planteadas en entornos con sistemas de salud robustos, donde la mortalidad ha sido significativa, y la transmisión difícilmente controlable, había una lógica preocupación por ver cómo el virus podría afectar a los países africanos, donde sus frágiles sistemas de salud auguraban un impacto aún mayor. Este «tsunami» anunciado, de potenciales consecuencias devastadoras, parece, sin embargo, no haber llegado todavía, y los países africanos, donde ya se ha evidenciado una creciente transmisión, no están viendo el impacto en la salud de sus habitantes que muchos habían predicho. En este artículo repasamos la situación actual de la pandemia en el continente africano, intentando entender los determinantes de su lenta progresión


With over 575,000 deaths and about 13.3 million cases globally, the COVID-19 pandemic has had a terrible impact globally during the 6 months since cases were first detected in China. Conscious of the many challenges presented in settings with abundance of resources and with robust health systems, where mortality has been significant and transmission difficult to control, there was a logical concern to see how the virus could impact African countries, and their fragile and weak health systems. Such an anticipated "tsunami", with potentially devastating consequences, seems however to not have yet arrived, and African countries, albeit witnessing an increasing degree of autochthonous transmission, seem to this day relatively unaffected by the pandemic. In this article we review the current situation of the pandemic in the African continent, trying to understand the determinants of its slow progress


Assuntos
Humanos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Infecções por Coronavirus/economia , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/economia , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , África/epidemiologia
5.
Pan Afr Med J ; 35(Suppl 2): 149, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33193964

RESUMO

HIV/AIDS is an infectious disease that has claimed the lives of millions of people worldwide. Currently, there is no vaccine that has been developed in a bid to fight this deadly infection, however, antiretrovirals (ARVs), which are drugs used in the treatment of HIV infection are routinely prescribed to infected persons. They act via several mechanisms of action to reduce the severity of infection and rate of infectivity of the virus by decreasing the viral load while increasing CD4 counts. COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in unprecedented events affecting almost all areas of humans' life including availability of medicines and other consumables. This paper analyses the availability of ARVs during COVID-19 era and offered recommendations to be adopted in order to prevent shortages.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Fármacos Anti-HIV/economia , Fármacos Anti-HIV/provisão & distribuição , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Antirretrovirais/economia , Antirretrovirais/provisão & distribuição , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/economia , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/economia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Países em Desenvolvimento , Custos de Medicamentos/tendências , Indústria Farmacêutica , Infecções por HIV/economia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Seguro de Serviços Farmacêuticos , Adesão à Medicação , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Pandemias/economia , Pneumonia Viral/economia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Carga Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
6.
Malar J ; 19(1): 411, 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33198747

RESUMO

The global COVID-19 pandemic has been affecting the maintenance of various disease control programmes, including malaria. In some malaria-endemic countries, funding and personnel reallocations were executed from malaria control programmes to support COVID-19 response efforts, resulting mainly in interruptions of disease control activities and reduced capabilities of health system. While it is principal to drive national budget rearrangements during the pandemic, the long-standing malaria control programmes should not be left behind in order to sustain the achievements from the previous years. With different levels of intensity, many countries have been struggling to improve the health system resilience and to mitigate the unavoidable stagnation of malaria control programmes. Current opinion emphasized the impacts of budget reprioritization on malaria-related resources during COVID-19 pandemic in malaria endemic countries in Africa and Southeast Asia, and feasible attempts that can be taken to lessen these impacts.


Assuntos
Orçamentos/tendências , Infecções por Coronavirus/economia , Doenças Endêmicas/economia , Recursos em Saúde/economia , Malária/economia , Pandemias/economia , Pneumonia Viral/economia , África , Ásia Sudeste , Orçamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Doenças Endêmicas/prevenção & controle , Recursos em Saúde/tendências , Humanos , Malária/prevenção & controle , Controle de Mosquitos/economia , Controle de Mosquitos/tendências , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle
9.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 56(11)2020 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33172013

RESUMO

Pathogens are various organisms, such as viruses, bacteria, fungi, and protozoa, which can cause severe illnesses to their hosts. Throughout history, pathogens have accompanied human populations and caused various epidemics. One of the most significant outbreaks was the Black Death, which occurred in the 14th century and caused the death of one-third of Europe's population. Pathogens have also been studied for their use as biological warfare agents by the former Soviet Union, Japan, and the USA. Among bacteria and viruses, there are high priority agents that have a significant impact on public health. Bacillus anthracis, Francisella tularensis, Yersinia pestis, Variola virus, Filoviruses (Ebola, Marburg), Arenoviruses (Lassa), and influenza viruses are included in this group of agents. Outbreaks and infections caused by them might result in social disruption and panic, which is why special operations are needed for public health preparedness. Antibiotic-resistant bacteria that significantly impede treatment and recovery of patients are also valid threats. Furthermore, recent events related to the massive spread of Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are an example of how virus-induced diseases cannot be ignored. The impact of outbreaks, such as SARS-CoV-2, have had far-reaching consequences beyond public health. The economic losses due to lockdowns are difficult to estimate, but it would take years to restore countries to pre-outbreak status. For countries affected by the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19), their health systems have been overwhelmed, resulting in an increase in the mortality rate caused by diseases or injuries. Furthermore, outbreaks, such as SARS-CoV-2, will induce serious, wide-ranging (and possibly long-lasting) psychological problems among, not only health workers, but ordinary citizens (this is due to isolation, quarantine, etc.). The aim of this paper is to present the most dangerous pathogens, as well as general characterizations, mechanisms of action, and treatments.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Infecções , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Saúde Pública , Betacoronavirus , Guerra Biológica/métodos , Guerra Biológica/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/economia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Humanos , Infecções/epidemiologia , Infecções/microbiologia , Infecções/terapia , Pandemias/economia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/economia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Psicologia
10.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 24(20): 10902-10912, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33155254

RESUMO

The world will never be the same after the current COVID-19 pandemic. We may have to live with the coronavirus for a long time. The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has resulted in a major burden on the global health system and economy. This report describes the current COVID-19 landscape and its socioeconomic implications. Despite the concerns for second waves of infection, gradual lifting of lockdown restrictions has occurred worldwide to relieve economic pressures and likely contributes towards possibly surging of outbreak although region wise variation exists due to several other biological factors, such as testing capacity and basic healthcare facilities among susceptible population within that region. Different prediction models have been put forth to forecast the spread of the current outbreak. However, it is challenging to perceive the precise changes happening in the real world as every time dynamics differ same as other epidemics cannot possibly be exactly superimposed to COVID-19. Currently, to decrypt the conundrum for effective antiviral drug against SARS-CoV-2 is in full swing. Due to high rate of mortality and it expeditiously spread is it decisive to understand the biological properties, clinical characteristics, epidemiology, evolution, pathogenesis for vaccine development and pathogenicity studies against the viral curb. Instant diagnostic and adequate therapeutics serve as a major intervention for the management of pandemic containment. Our study aims to analyze the impact of current measures and to suggest appropriate administrative strategic planning rather than to make somewhat authentic prediction in relation to the current scenario. Our predictive analysis study should be helpful against prevention, cure and control of the current outbreak of COVID-19 till the availability of cure or vaccine.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pandemias/economia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/economia , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos , Diagnóstico Precoce , Saúde Global , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/economia
15.
Salud Colect ; 16: e2995, 2020 10 29.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33147394

RESUMO

This essay intends to carry out an ethical and philosophical reflection on the effects of the emergency contingencies of the COVID-19 pandemic. With a focus on Brazil, it seeks to understand, critique, and attribute meaning to references to the pandemic, in particularly dramatic moments brought about by the synergy produced between the serious disease affecting the country and the world and a government that stands out for its remarkable unwillingness and inability to deal with this calamity. This text was written during the Brazilian "quarantine," which lasted from mid-March to late April, 2020. During this period, we were bombarded by facts that never ceased to haunt us, and lived each day under the terrible dominion of the pandemic. Therefore, this text was written in the midst of a social context marked by control efforts, with great attention directed at the health of those affected, despite the complex political framework and serious economic difficulties facing the country.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Política de Saúde , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Quarentena , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Brasil/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/economia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Governo Federal , Humanos , Pandemias/economia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/economia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Quarentena/economia , Quarentena/métodos , Quarentena/psicologia , Risco
16.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 85(4): 475-482, 2020 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33136748

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, causative agent of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has necessitated widespread lockdown to mitigate the pandemic. This study examines the influence of resilience on the impact of COVID-related stress and enforced lockdown on mental health, drug use, and treatment adherence among people living with HIV (PLWH) in Argentina. SETTING: PLWH residing predominantly in Buenos Aires Metropolitan Area and urban regions of Argentina were identified from a private clinic electronic database. METHODS: Participants completed an anonymous online survey to evaluate the impact of COVID-19 on economic disruption, resilience, mental health outcomes (depression, anxiety, stress, and loneliness), adherence to HIV treatment, and substance use. We performed ordinary least squares and logistic regressions to test whether resilient coping buffered the impact of economic disruption on mental health and drug use during quarantine. RESULTS: A total of 1336 PLWH aged 18-82 were enrolled. The impact of economic disruption on mental health ΔF(1,1321) = 8.86, P = 0.003 and loneliness ΔF(1,1326) = 5.77, P = 0.016 was buffered by resilience. A 3-way interaction between resilient buffering, stress, and sex was significant ΔF(1,1325) = 4.76, P = 0.029. Participants reported less than excellent adherence to medication (33%), disruption to mental health services (11%), and disruption to substance abuse treatment (1.3%) during lockdown. DISCUSSION: The impact of COVID-stress and lockdown on emotional distress seemed mitigated by resilience coping strategies, and the buffering impact of resilience on perceived stress was greater among women. Results highlight PLWH's capacity to adhere to treatment in challenging circumstances and the importance of developing resilience skills for better coping with stress and adversity.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Saúde Mental/tendências , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Traumático Agudo/psicologia , Adaptação Psicológica , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Argentina , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/economia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Humanos , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/tendências , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Modelos Logísticos , Solidão , Masculino , Serviços de Saúde Mental/normas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias/economia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/economia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Resiliência Psicológica , Fatores Sexuais , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Apoio Social , Transtornos de Estresse Traumático Agudo/etiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/etiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/terapia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Cooperação e Adesão ao Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
18.
Acta Med Indones ; 52(3): 196-198, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33020330

RESUMO

Since the detection of the first confirmed case of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in early March 2020, 248,852 cases have been detected in Indonesia by 21 September 2020. At least 100 doctors have died from COVID-19 nationwide. Full large-scale social restriction was a temporary measure, followed by an early transition to the new normal era during the never-ending first wave in the country. Workers in industrial, retail, transport, and tourism fields suffered a significant decrease in work. Many countries are, however, in dilemma of protecting the health of the citizens and prioritising economy. Health should be prioritised because it is an important aspect of our lives for our economy. Poor health is estimated to reduce global gross domestic product (GDP) by 15% annually through premature deaths and potential loss of productivity of the working-age citizens. Pandemics also depress economy through decrease in both supply and demand. Data from flu pandemic a century ago suggested the importance of aggressiveness and speed of intervention. Taiwan's early action led to beneficial effects on SARS-CoV-2 infection rate and economy recovery. The target of enhancement of containment measures, provision of personal protective equipments, and testing and isolation facilities should be achieved earlier and be more than the projected demand.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Atenção à Saúde/organização & administração , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/economia , Humanos , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Pandemias/economia , Pneumonia Viral/economia
19.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239797, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027272

RESUMO

The current coronavirus pandemic is an unprecedented public health challenge that is having a devastating economic impact on households. Using a sample of 230,540 respondents to an online survey from 17 countries in Latin America and the Caribbean, the study shows that the economic impacts are large and unequal: 45 percent of respondents report that a household member has lost their job and, among households owning small businesses, 59 percent of respondents report that a household member has closed their business. Among households with the lowest income prior to the pandemic, 71 percent report that a household member lost their job and 61 percent report that a household member has closed their business. Declines in food security and health are among the disproportionate impacts. The findings provide evidence that the current public health crisis will exacerbate economic inequality and provides some of the first estimates of the impact of the pandemic on the labor market and well-being in developing countries.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/economia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Países em Desenvolvimento/economia , Pandemias/economia , Pneumonia Viral/economia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto , Região do Caribe/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Características da Família , Feminino , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Humanos , Renda , América Latina/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Pobreza , Inquéritos e Questionários , Desemprego
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