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1.
Tex Med ; 116(8): 20-25, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866271

RESUMO

Ricardo Garza, MD, was still walking the tightrope: standing, but unable to withstand another gust of wind. COVID-19 swept away about 35% of the San Antonio solo cardiologist's practice revenue, and that was just what he could calculate as he waited for insurers to process straggling claims. But he had returned to in-office operations without any layoffs. While some practices are surviving - and trying their best to prepare for future threats - others weren't so lucky. On-the-ground experiences align with the Texas Medical Association's Practice Viability Survey in showing COVID-19 was, and still is, a disruptor unlike any other - challenging or torpedoing the viability of various practice types.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Prática Profissional , Telemedicina , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/economia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Tomada de Decisões Gerenciais , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Inovação Organizacional , Pandemias/economia , Pneumonia Viral/economia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Padrões de Prática Médica/organização & administração , Padrões de Prática Médica/tendências , Prática Profissional/economia , Prática Profissional/tendências , Texas/epidemiologia
4.
Drug Discov Ther ; 14(4): 153-160, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32908070

RESUMO

The COVID-19 infection has been a matter of urgency to tackle around the world today, there exist 200 countries around the world and 54 countries in Africa that the COVID-19 infection cases have been confirmed. This situation prompted us to look into the challenges African laboratories are facing in the diagnosis of novel COVID-19 infection. A limited supply of essential laboratory equipment and test kits are some of the challenges faced in combatting the novel virus in Africa. Also, there is inadequate skilled personnel, which might pose a significant danger in case there is a surge in COVID-19 infection cases. The choice of diagnostic method in Africa is limited as there are only two available diagnostic methods being used out of the six methods used globally, thereby reducing the opportunity of supplementary diagnosis, which will further lead to inappropriate diagnosis and affect the accuracy of diagnostic reports. Furthermore, challenges like inadequate power supply, the method used in sample collection, storage and transportation of specimens are also significant as they also pose their respective implication. From the observations, there is an urgent need for more investment into the laboratories for proper, timely, and accurate diagnosis of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Virologia/organização & administração , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Orçamentos , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/economia , Infecções por Coronavirus/economia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/economia , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/economia , Humanos , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Pandemias/economia , Pneumonia Viral/economia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Carga Viral , Virologia/economia , Fluxo de Trabalho
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32942766

RESUMO

This paper examines the linkages in financial markets during coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic outbreak. For this purpose, daily stock market returns were used over the period of December 31, 2019-April 20, 2020 for the following economies: USA, Spain, Italy, France, Germany, UK, China, and Romania. The study applied the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) model to explore whether the Romanian stock market is impacted by the crisis generated by novel coronavirus. Granger causality was employed to investigate the causalities among COVID-19 and stock market returns, as well as between pandemic measures and several commodities. The outcomes of the ARDL approach failed to find evidence towards the impact of Chinese COVID-19 records on the Romanian financial market, neither in the short-term, nor in the long-term. On the other hand, our quantitative approach reveals a negative effect of the new deaths' cases from Italy on the 10-year Romanian bond yield both in the short-run and long-run. The econometric research provide evidence that Romanian 10-year government bond is more sensitive to the news related to COVID-19 than the index of the Bucharest Stock Exchange. Granger causality analysis reveals causal associations between selected stock market returns and Philadelphia Gold/Silver Index.


Assuntos
Comércio/economia , Infecções por Coronavirus/economia , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Pandemias/economia , Pneumonia Viral/economia , Betacoronavirus , China , França , Alemanha , Humanos , Itália , Romênia , Espanha , Reino Unido , Estados Unidos
6.
S Afr Med J ; 110(7): 621-624, 2020 06 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880335

RESUMO

Infectious diseases pandemics have devastating health, social and economic consequences, especially in developing countries such as South Africa. Scarce medical resources must often be rationed effectively to contain the disease outbreak. In the case of COVID-19, even the best-resourced countries will have inadequate intensive care facilities for the large number of patients needing admission and ventilation. The scarcity of medical resources creates the need for national governments to establish admission criteria that are evidence-based and fair. Questions have been raised whether infection with HIV or tuberculosis (TB) may amplify the risk of adverse COVID-19 outcomes and therefore whether these conditions should be factored in when deciding on the rationing of intensive care facilities. In light of these questions, clinical evidence regarding inclusion of these infections as comorbidities relevant to intensive care unit admission triage criteria is investigated in the first of a two-part series of articles. There is currently no evidence to indicate that HIV or TB infection on their own predispose to an increased risk of infection with SARS-CoV-2 or worse outcomes for COVID-19. It is recommended that, as for other medical conditions, validated scoring systems for poor prognostic factors should be applied. A subsequent article examines the ethicolegal implications of limiting intensive care access of persons living with HIV or TB.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Alocação de Recursos para a Atenção à Saúde/métodos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Triagem/organização & administração , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Coinfecção , Infecções por Coronavirus/economia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/economia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/normas , Pandemias/economia , Seleção de Pacientes , Pneumonia Viral/economia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Prognóstico , Medição de Risco , África do Sul/epidemiologia
7.
S Afr Med J ; 110(7): 625-628, 2020 06 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880336

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has brought discussions around the appropriate and fair rationing of scare resources to the forefront. This is of special importance in a country such as South Africa (SA), where scarce resources interface with high levels of need. A large proportion of the SA population has risk factors associated with worse COVID-19 outcomes. Many people are also potentially medically and socially vulnerable secondary to the high levels of infection with HIV and tuberculosis (TB) in the country. This is the second of two articles. The first examined the clinical evidence regarding the inclusion of HIV and TB as comorbidities relevant to intensive care unit (ICU) admission triage criteria. Given the fact that patients with HIV or TB may potentially be excluded from admission to an ICU on the basis of an assumption of lack of clinical suitability for critical care, in this article we explore the ethicolegal implications of limiting ICU access of persons living with HIV or TB. We argue that all allocation and rationing decisions must be in terms of SA law, which prohibits unfair discrimination. In addition, ethical decision-making demands accurate and evidence-based strategies for the fair distribution of limited resources. Rationing decisions and processes should be fair and based on visible and consistent criteria that can be subjected to objective scrutiny, with the ultimate aim of ensuring accountability, equity and fairness.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Alocação de Recursos para a Atenção à Saúde/métodos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Pandemias , Seleção de Pacientes/ética , Pneumonia Viral , Alocação de Recursos , Triagem , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Coinfecção , Infecções por Coronavirus/economia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/economia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/normas , Pandemias/economia , Pneumonia Viral/economia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Alocação de Recursos/ética , Alocação de Recursos/legislação & jurisprudência , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Triagem/economia , Triagem/ética , Triagem/legislação & jurisprudência
14.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238683, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32936815

RESUMO

We report and interpret preferences of a sample of the Dutch adult population for different strategies to end the so-called 'intelligent lockdown' which their government had put in place in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. Using a discrete choice experiment, we invited participants to make a series of choices between policy scenarios aimed at relaxing the lockdown, which were specified not in terms of their nature (e.g. whether or not to allow schools to re-open) but in terms of their effects along seven dimensions. These included health-related effects, but also impacts on the economy, education, and personal income. From the observed choices, we were able to infer the implicit trade-offs made by the Dutch between these policy effects. For example, we find that the average citizen, in order to avoid one fatality directly or indirectly related to COVID-19, is willing to accept a lasting lag in the educational performance of 18 children, or a lasting (>3 years) and substantial (>15%) reduction in net income of 77 households. We explore heterogeneity across individuals in terms of these trade-offs by means of latent class analysis. Our results suggest that most citizens are willing to trade-off health-related and other effects of the lockdown, implying a consequentialist ethical perspective. Somewhat surprisingly, we find that the elderly, known to be at relatively high risk of being affected by the virus, are relatively reluctant to sacrifice economic pain and educational disadvantages for the younger generation, to avoid fatalities. We also identify a so-called taboo trade-off aversion amongst a substantial share of our sample, being an aversion to accept morally problematic policies that simultaneously imply higher fatality numbers and lower taxes. We explain various ways in which our results can be of value to policy makers in the context of the COVID-19 and future pandemics.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Política de Saúde , Modelos Econométricos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Quarentena/psicologia , Valor da Vida , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Altruísmo , Comportamento de Escolha , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/legislação & jurisprudência , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Comportamento do Consumidor , Infecções por Coronavirus/economia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Pesquisa Empírica , Feminino , Humanos , Renda , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Pandemias/economia , Pandemias/legislação & jurisprudência , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/economia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Quarentena/economia , Quarentena/legislação & jurisprudência , Quarentena/estatística & dados numéricos , Risco , Instituições Acadêmicas , Valores Sociais , Impostos , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Occup Environ Med ; 62(9): 686-691, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32890205

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether job insecurity due to COVID-19 and financial concern were associated with worse mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHOD: Participants (N = 474 employed U.S. individuals) completed an online survey from April 6 to 12, 2020. Linear regressions were used to examine factors associated with mental health. RESULTS: After accounting for demographic characteristics, health status, other COVID-19 experiences, and anxiety symptoms, greater job insecurity due to COVID-19 was related to greater depressive symptoms. Conversely, after accounting for covariates and depressive symptoms, greater financial concern was related to greater anxiety symptoms. Further, greater job insecurity was indirectly related to greater anxiety symptoms due to greater financial concern. CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that employers should aim to reduce job insecurity and financial concern among employees during the COVID-19 pandemic to address the associated mental health consequences.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Emprego/psicologia , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Infecções por Coronavirus/economia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias/economia , Pneumonia Viral/economia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Occup Environ Med ; 62(9): 692-699, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32890206

RESUMO

: COVID-19 illness can cause multiorgan illness. Some States have passed legislation granting a rebuttable presumption of causation by workplace exposure in certain occupations. This paper summarizes methodology for evaluating claimants utilizing known science and as well as information from the American Medical Association Guides resources.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/economia , Doenças Profissionais/economia , Exposição Ocupacional , Pandemias/economia , Pneumonia Viral/economia , Indenização aos Trabalhadores/organização & administração , Infecções por Coronavirus/etiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Humanos , Doenças Profissionais/etiologia , Doenças Profissionais/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/etiologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Estados Unidos
20.
Nutrients ; 12(9)2020 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32887422

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has exacerbated economic vulnerabilities and disrupted the Australian food supply, with potential implications for food insecurity. This study aims to describe the prevalence and socio-demographic associations of food insecurity in Tasmania, Australia, during the COVID-19 pandemic. A cross-sectional survey (deployed late May to early June 2020) incorporated the U.S. Household Food Security Survey Module: Six-Item Short Form, and fifteen demographic and COVID-related income questions. Survey data (n = 1170) were analyzed using univariate and multivariate binary logistic regression. The prevalence of food insecurity was 26%. The adjusted odds of food insecurity were higher among respondents with a disability, from a rural area, and living with dependents. Increasing age, a university education, and income above $80,000/year were protective against food insecurity. Food insecurity more than doubled with a loss of household income above 25% (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR): 2.02; 95% CI: 1.11, 3.71; p = 0.022), and the odds further increased with loss of income above 75% (AOR: 7.14; 95% CI: 2.01, 24.83; p = 0.002). Our results suggest that the prevalence of food insecurity may have increased during the COVID-19 pandemic, particularly among economically vulnerable households and people who lost income. Policies that support disadvantaged households and ensure adequate employment opportunities are important to support Australians throughout and post the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Abastecimento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/economia , Estudos Transversais , Demografia , Pessoas com Deficiência , Escolaridade , Emprego , Família , Feminino , Abastecimento de Alimentos/economia , Humanos , Renda , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias/economia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/economia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , População Rural , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Tasmânia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
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