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1.
Rev. clín. esp. (Ed. impr.) ; 222(8): 468-478, oct. 2022.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-209985

RESUMO

Objetivo Diversos estudios han identificado factores asociados con el riesgo de muerte en pacientes infectados por SARS-CoV-2. Sin embargo, su tamaño muestral ha sido muchas veces limitado, y sus resultados parcialmente contradictorios. Este estudio ha evaluado los factores asociados con la mortalidad por COVID-19 en la población madrileña mayor de 75 años, en los pacientes infectados y en los hospitalizados hasta enero de 2021. Pacientes y métodos Estudio de cohortes de base poblacional con todos los residentes de la Comunidad de Madrid nacidos antes del 1 de enero de 1945 y vivos a 31 de diciembre de 2019. Se obtuvieron variables demográficas y clínicas de la historia clínica electrónica de atención primaria (AP-Madrid), de los ingresos hospitalarios a través del Conjunto Mínimo Básico de Datos (CMBD) y de la mortalidad a través del Índice Nacional de Defunciones (INDEF). Se recogieron los datos de infección, hospitalización y muerte por SARS-CoV-2 entre el 1 de marzo e 2020 y el 31 de enero de 2021. Resultados De los 587.603 sujetos incluidos en la cohorte, 41.603 (7,1%) desarrollaron una infección confirmada por SARS-CoV-2. De ellos, 22.362 (53,7% de los infectados) se hospitalizaron y 11.251 (27%) murieron. El sexo masculino y la edad fueron los factores más asociados con la mortalidad, si bien también contribuyeron numerosas comorbilidades. La asociación fue de mayor magnitud en los análisis poblacionales que en los análisis con pacientes infectados u hospitalizados. La mortalidad en los hospitalizados fue menor en la segunda ola (33,4%) que en la primera ola (41,2%) de la pandemia Conclusión La edad, el sexo y las numerosas comorbilidades se asocian con el riesgo de muerte por COVID-19. La mortalidad en los pacientes hospitalizados se redujo apreciablemente después de la primera ola de la pandemia (AU)


Objective Various studies have identified factors associated with risk of mortality in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, their sample size has often been limited and their results partially contradictory. This study evaluated factors associated with COVID-19 mortality in the population of Madrid over 75 years of age, in infected patients, and in hospitalized patients up to January 2021. Patients and Methods This population-based cohort study analyzed all residents of the Community of Madrid born before January 1, 1945 who were alive as of December 31, 2019. Demographic and clinical data were obtained from primary care electronic medical records (PC-Madrid), data on hospital admissions from the Conjunto Mínimo Básico de Datos (CMBD, Minimum Data Set), and data on mortality from the Índice Nacional de Defunciones (INDEF, National Death Index). Data on SARS-CoV-2 infection, hospitalization, and death were collected from March 1, 2020 to January 31, 2021. Results A total of 587,603 subjects were included in the cohort. Of them, 41,603 (7.1%) had confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, of which 22,362 (53.7% of the infected individuals) were hospitalized and 11,251 (27%) died. Male sex and age were the factors most closely associated with mortality, though many comorbidities also had an influence. The associations were stronger in the analysis of the total population than in the analysis of infected or hospitalized patients. Mortality among hospitalized patients was lower during the second wave (33.4%) than during the first wave (41.2%) of the pandemic. Conclusion Age, sex, and numerous comorbidities are associated with risk of death due to COVID-19. Mortality in hospitalized patients declined notably after the first wave of the pandemic (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pandemias , Estudos de Coortes , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Etários , Espanha/epidemiologia
3.
Nutr. hosp ; 39(3): 547-553, may. - jun. 2022. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-209935

RESUMO

Aim: type-2 diabetes (T2DM) seems to worsen the prognosis of patients admitted for COVID-19, although most studies included Asiatic patients. We aimed to assess whether this condition applies for Mediterranean patients. Methods: a total of 90 patients admitted for COVID-19 with T2DM were retrospectively compared with 50 patients without T2DM. Results: subjects with T2DM were older than their counterparts (73.3 ± 12.4 vs 53 ± 15.7 years; p < 0.0001). Either absolute lymphocyte count (1.1 ± 0.6 vs 1.3 ± 0.7 x 109/L; p = 0.005) or hemoglobin (11.9 ± 1.6 vs 13.1 ± 2.1 g/dL; p < 0.0001) were lower among subjects with T2DM. CRP and procalcitonin were higher among subjects with T2DM (91.9 ± 71.2 vs 70.1 ± 63.3 mg/L; p = 0.002 and 0.8 ± 0.3 vs 0.4 ± 0.1 ng/mL; p < 0.0001, respectively). Albumin was lower among patients with T2DM (3.4 ± 0.5 vs 3.8 ± 0.5 g/L: p < 0.001). Length of stay was longer among subjects with T2DM (11.7 ± 7.7 vs 9.7 ± 8.6 days; p = 0.01). However, both groups were comparable regarding both the proportion of subjects who were admitted to the ICU (16.5 % vs 8 %; p = 0.1) and mortality (11 % vs 4 %; p = 0.2). Conclusions: in a Mediterranean sample, despite of age, comorbidities, nutritional status, and inflammatory markers, subjects with T2DM with a proper glycemic control admitted for COVID-19 had similar prognostic outcomes than patients without this metabolic condition (AU)


Objetivo: la diabetes de tipo 2 (DM2) parece empeorar el pronóstico de los pacientes ingresados por COVID-19, aunque la mayoría de los estudios incluyeron pacientes asiáticos. Nuestro objetivo fue evaluar si esto se aplica a los pacientes de una población Mediterránea. Métodos: un total de 90 pacientes ingresados por COVID-19 con DM2 se compararon retrospectivamente con 50 pacientes sin DM2. Resultados: los sujetos con DM2 eran mayores que sus contrapartes (73,3 ± 12,4 frente a 53 ± 15,7 años; p < 0,0001). El recuento absoluto de linfocitos (1,1 ± 0,6 vs. 1,3 ± 0,7 x 109/L; p = 0,005) o la hemoglobina (11,9 ± 1,6 vs. 13,1 ± 2,1 g/dL; p < 0,0001) fueron menores entre los sujetos con DM2. La PCR y la procalcitonina fueron mayores entre los sujetos con DM2 (91,9 ± 71,2 frente a 70,1 ± 63,3 mg/L; p = 0,002 y 0,8 ± 0,3 frente a 0,4 ± 0,1 ng/ml; p < 0,0001, respectivamente). La albúmina fue menor entre los pacientes con DM2 (3,4 ± 0,5 vs. 3,8 ± 0,5 g/L: p < 0,001). La estancia hospitalaria fue mayor entre los sujetos con DM2 (11,7 ± 7,7 frente a 9,7 ± 8,6 días; p = 0,01). Sin embargo, ambos grupos fueron comparables en cuanto a la proporción de sujetos con ingreso en la UCI (16,5 % vs. 8 %; p = 0,1) y la mortalidad (11 % vs. 4 %; p = 0,2). Conclusiones: en una muestra mediterránea, a pesar de la edad, las comorbilidades, el estado nutricional y los marcadores inflamatorios, los sujetos con DM2 con un adecuado control glucémico ingresados por COVID-19 tuvieron resultados pronósticos similares a los de los pacientes sin esta condición metabólica (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Diabetes Mellitus , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pandemias , Comorbidade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Estudos de Casos e Controles
4.
Rev. clín. esp. (Ed. impr.) ; 222(5): 255-265, Mayo 2022. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-204735

RESUMO

Introducción: Existen pocos estudios sobre pacientes con insuficiencia cardíaca (IC) ingresados por COVID-19. Nuestro objetivo fue describir las características clínicas de los pacientes con IC ingresados por COVID-19 e identificar los factores de riesgo al ingreso de mortalidad intrahospitalaria. Material y métodos: Estudio retrospectivo y multicéntrico de pacientes con IC ingresados por COVID-19 en 150 hospitales españoles (Registro SEMI-COVID-19). Se realizó un análisis de regresión logística para identificar los factores de riesgo al ingreso asociados a la mortalidad. Resultados: Se analizaron 1.718 pacientes (56,5% varones; edad mediana 81,4 años). La tasa de mortalidad global fue del 47,6% (n=819). Los factores de riesgo independientes al ingreso para mortalidad fueron: la edad (odds ratio ajustado [ORA]: 1,03; intervalo de confianza 95% [IC 95%]: 1,02-1,05; p<0,001), la dependencia severa (ORA: 1,62; IC 95%: 1,19-2,20; p=0,002), la taquicardia (ORA: 1,01; IC 95%: 1,00-1,01; p=0,004), la proteína C reactiva (ORA: 1,004; IC 95%:1,002-1,004; p<0,001), la LDH (ORA: 1,001; IC 95%: 1,001-1,002; p<0,001) y la creatinina sérica (ORA: 1,35; IC 95%: 1,18-1,54; p<0,001). Conclusiones: Los pacientes con IC hospitalizados por COVID-19 tienen una alta mortalidad intrahospitalaria. Existen factores clínico-analíticos simples que pueden ayudar a identificar a los pacientes con peor pronóstico (AU)


Background: There are few studies on patients with heart failure (HF) hospitalized for COVID-19. Our aim is to describe the clinical characteristics of patients with HF hospitalized for COVID-19 and identify risk factors for in-hospital mortality upon admission. Methods: We conducted a retrospective, multicenter study in patients with HF hospitalized for COVID-19 in 150 Spanish hospitals (SEMI-COVID-19 Registry). A multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify admission risk factors associated with in-hospital mortality. Results: A total of 1,718 patients were analyzed (56.5% men; median age 81.4 years). The overall case fatality rate was 47.6% (n=819). The independent risk factors at admission for in-hospital mortality were: age (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 1.03; 95% confidence interval [95%CI]: 1.02-1.05; p<.001); severe dependence (AOR: 1.62; 95%CI: 1.19-2.20; p=.002); tachycardia (AOR: 1.01; 95%CI: 1.00-1.01; p=.004); and high C-reactive protein (AOR: 1.004; 95%CI:1.002-1.004; p<.001), LDH (AOR: 1.001; 95%CI: 1.001-1.002; p<.001), and serum creatinine levels (AOR: 1.35; 95%CI: 1.18-1.54; p<.001). Conclusions: Patients with HF hospitalized for COVID-19 have a high in-hospital mortality rate. Some simple clinical and laboratory tests can help to identify patients with a worse prognosis (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Pandemias , Estudos Retrospectivos , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Fatores de Risco , Espanha/epidemiologia
5.
Rev. clín. esp. (Ed. impr.) ; 222(5): 288-292, Mayo 2022. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-204739

RESUMO

Antecedentes y objetivo: El objetivo de este estudio es describir las características de los pacientes con COVID-19 en un estado del norte de México y determinar las comorbilidades asociadas con la mortalidad. Métodos: Se examinaron pacientes con COVID-19, divididos en supervivientes y no supervivientes. Los datos fueron analizados mediante las pruebas de X2, t de Student y el modelo de regresión de Cox. Resultados: Se incluyeron 17.479 pacientes, reportando un 6,3% de mortalidad. Los factores que se asociaron con esta fueron: edad mayor a 60 años (HR = 8,04; IC 95% 7,03 a 9,19), diabetes (HR = 1,63; IC 95% 1,40 a 1,89), hipertensión arterial sistémica (HR = 1,48; IC 95% 1,28 a 1,72), obesidad (HR = 1,37; IC 95% 1,18 a 1,60) y daño renal crónico (HR = 2,06; IC 95% 1,64 a 2,59). Conclusiones: La diabetes, la hipertensión arterial, la obesidad y el daño renal crónico incrementan la mortalidad en pacientes con COVID-19 en la población de Coahuila, México; el factor que más contribuye para el riesgo de muerte es la edad mayor a 60 años (AU)


Background and objective: This study aims to describe the characteristics of patients with COVID-19 in a state in northern Mexico and establish the comorbidities associated with mortality. Methods: Patients with COVID-19, divided into survivors and non-survivors, were analyzed. The data were analyzed using the chi-square test, Student's t-test, and Cox's regression model. Results: A total of 17,479 patients were included and mortality rate of 6.3% was reported. Age over 60 years (HR = 8.04; 95% CI 7.03-9.19), diabetes (HR = 1.63; 95% CI 1.40-1.89), high blood pressure (HR = 1.48; 95% CI 1.28-1.72), obesity (HR = 1.37; 95% CI 1.18-1.60) and chronic kidney disease (HR = 2.06; 95% CI 1.64-2.59) were significantly associated with mortality. Conclusions: Diabetes, high blood pressure, obesity, and chronic kidney disease increased mortality among patients with COVID-19 in the population of Coahuila, Mexico. The factor that most contributed to risk of death was age over 60 years (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pandemias , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , México/epidemiologia
6.
Rev. clín. esp. (Ed. impr.) ; 222(5): 293-298, Mayo 2022. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-204740

RESUMO

El presente estudio retrospectivo observacional tiene como objetivo analizar la utilidad de las escalas SOFA (Sequential Organ Failure Assessment), qSOFA (Quick SOFA), NEWS (National Early Warning Score ) y Quick NEWS para predecir el fallo respiratorio y la muerte en pacientes con COVID-19 atendidos fuera de la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos (UCI). Se incluyeron 237 adultos con COVID-19 hospitalizados seguidos durante un mes o hasta su fallecimiento. El fallo respiratorio se definió como un cociente PaO2/FiO2 ≤ 200 mmHg o la necesidad de ventilación mecánica. Setenta y siete pacientes (32,5%) desarrollaron fallo ventilatorio; 29 (12%) precisaron ingreso en UCI, y 49 fallecieron (20,7%). La discriminación del fallo ventilatorio fue algo mayor con la puntuación NEWS, seguida de la SOFA. En cuanto a la mortalidad, la puntuación SOFA fue más exacta que las otras escalas. En conclusión, las escalas de sepsis son útiles para predecir el fallo respiratorio y la muerte en COVID-19. Una puntuación ≥ 4 en la escala NEWS sería el mejor punto de corte para predecir fallo respiratorio (AU)


This observational retrospective study aimed to investigate the usefulness of Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA), Quick SOFA (qSOFA), National Early Warning Score (NEWS), and quick NEWS in predicting respiratory failure and death among patients with COVID-19 hospitalized outside of intensive care units (ICU). We included 237 adults hospitalized with COVID-19 who were followed-up on for one month or until death. Respiratory failure was defined as a PaO2/FiO2 ratio ≤ 200 mmHg or the need for mechanical ventilation. Respiratory failure occurred in 77 patients (32.5%), 29 patients (12%) were admitted to the ICU, and 49 patients (20.7%) died. Discrimination of respiratory failure was slightly higher in NEWS, followed by SOFA. Regarding mortality, SOFA was more accurate than the other scores. In conclusion, sepsis scores are useful for predicting respiratory failure and mortality in COVID-19 patients. A NEWS score ≥ 4 was found to be the best cutoff point for predicting respiratory failure (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Sepse/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Insuficiência Respiratória , Estudos Retrospectivos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Curva ROC
8.
SEMERGEN, Soc. Esp. Med. Rural Gen. (Ed. Impr.) ; 48(4): 252-262, mayo - jun. 2022. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-205237

RESUMO

Introducción: En España, los sistemas sanitarios están transferidos a las Comunidades Autónomas (CC.AA.), constituyendo 19 sistemas sanitarios con gestión y recursos diferenciados. Durante la primera onda epidémica de la COVID-19 se objetivaron diferencias en los sistemas de declaración y en las tasas de letalidad (TL) entre las CC.AA. El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar las TL por CC.AA. durante la segunda onda epidémica (del 20 de julio al 25 de diciembre de 2020) y su relación con la prevalencia de la infección. Material y métodos: Se realizó un estudio observacional descriptivo con la información disponible sobre el número de fallecidos por COVID-19 registrados en el Ministerio de Sanidad, Consejerías de Salud y los Departamentos de Salud Pública de las CC.AA. y según el exceso de mortalidad informado por el Sistema de Monitorización de Mortalidad Diaria (MoMo). La prevalencia de la infección se estimó a partir de las diferencias entre la segunda y cuarta ronda del estudio ENE-COVID y sus intervalos de confianza del 95%. Se calcularon las TL (fallecidos por cada mil infectados) globales, por sexo, grupos de edad (< 65 y ≥ 65 años) y CC.AA. Se calculó la razón estandarizada de letalidad por edad (REL) de las CC.AA. utilizando las TL de España para cada grupo de etario. Estas estimaciones se realizaron con las defunciones declaradas oficialmente (TLo) y el exceso de defunciones estimadas por MoMo (TLMo). Se estimaron las correlaciones entre las prevalencias de infección y las TLo y TLMo, ponderando por población. Resultados: Para el conjunto de España, la TLo durante la segunda onda epidémica fue del 7,6%, oscilando entre 3,8% de Baleares y 16,4% de Asturias, y la TLMo fue de 10,1%, oscilando entre el 4,8% de Madrid y el 21,7% en Asturias. Se observaron diferencias significativas entre la TLo y la TLMo en Canarias, Castilla la Mancha, Extremadura, Comunidad Valenciana, Andalucía y las Ciudades Autónomas de Ceuta y Melilla (AU)


Introduction: In Spain, health systems are transferred to the Autonomous Communities (AC), constituting 19 health systems with differentiated management and resources. During the first epidemic wave of COVID-19, differences were observed in reporting systems and in case-fatality rates (FR) between the AC. The objective of this study was to analyze the FR according to AC. during the 2 nd epidemic wave (from July 20 to December 25, 2020), and its relationship with the prevalence of infection. Material and methods: A descriptive observational study was carried out, extracting the information available on the number of deaths from COVID-19 registered in the Ministry of Health, the Health Councils and the Public Health Departments of the AC, and according to the excess mortality reported by the System Monitoring of Daily Mortality (MoMo). The prevalence of infection was estimated from the differences between the second and fourth rounds of the ENE-COVID study and their 95% confidence intervals. The global FR (deaths per thousand infected) were calculated according to sex, age groups (< 65 and ≥ 65 years) and AC. The age-Standardized Fatality Rates (SFR) of the AC were calculated using the FR of Spain for each age group. These estimates were made with officially declared deaths (FRo) and excess deaths estimated by MoMo (FRMo). The correlations between the prevalences of infection and the FRo and FRMo were estimated, weighting by population. Results: For the whole of Spain, the FRo during the second epidemic wave was 7.6%, oscillating between 3.8% in the Balearic Islands and 16.4% in Asturias, and the TLMo was 10.1%, oscillating between 4.8% from Madrid and 21.7% in Asturias. Significant differences were observed between the FRo and the FRMo in the Canary Islands, Castilla la Mancha, Extremadura, the Valencian Community, Andalusia and the Autonomous Cities of Ceuta and Melilla. The FRo was significantly higher in men (8.2%) than in women (7.1%) (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Idoso , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pandemias , Espanha/epidemiologia
9.
Med. intensiva (Madr., Ed. impr.) ; 46(4): 179-191, abr. 2022. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-204248

RESUMO

Objective: The objective of the study is to identify the risk factors associated with mortality at six weeks, especially by analyzing the role of antivirals and munomodulators. Design: Prospective descriptive multicenter cohort study. Setting: 26 Intensive care units (ICU) from Andalusian region in Spain. Patients or participants: Consecutive critically ill patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection were included from March 8 to May 30. Interventions: None. Variables: Variables analyzed were demographic, severity scores and clinical condition. Support therapy, drug and mortality were analyzed. An univariate followed by multivariate Cox regression with propensity score analysis was applied. Results: 495 patients were enrolled, but 73 of them were excluded for incomplete data. Thus, 422 patients were included in the final analysis. Median age was 63 years and 305 (72.3%) were men. ICU mortality: 144/422 34%; 14 days mortality: 81/422 (19.2%); 28 days mortality: 121/422 (28.7%); 6-week mortality 152/422 36.5%. By multivariable Cox proportional analysis, factors independently associated with 42-day mortality were age, APACHE II score, SOFA score at ICU admission >6, Lactate dehydrogenase at ICU admission >470U/L, Use of vasopressors, extrarenal depuration, %lymphocytes 72h post-ICU admission <6.5%, and thrombocytopenia whereas the use of lopinavir/ritonavir was a protective factor. Conclusion: Age, APACHE II, SOFA>value of 6 points, along with vasopressor requirements or renal replacement therapy have been identified as predictor factors of mortality at six weeks. Administration of corticosteroids showed no benefits in mortality, as did treatment with tocilizumab. Lopinavir/ritonavir administration is identified as a protective factor (AU)


Objetivo: Identificar los factores de riesgo asociados con la mortalidad a las seis semanas. Diseño: Estudio prospectivo multicéntrico. Ámbito: Se incluyeron a 26 pacientes de la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos (UCI) de Andalucía. Pacientes o participantes: Pacientes ingresados en UCI por neumonía grave por SARS-CoV-2 del 8 de marzo al 30 de mayo de 2020. Intervenciones: Ninguna. Variables de interés principales: Características demográficas, clínicas y escalas de gravedad. Se analizaron tratamientos de soporte, fármacos y la mortalidad. Resultados: Se incluyeron 495 pacientes, 73 fueron excluidos por incompletos y 422 pacientes se incorporaron en el análisis final. La mediana de edad fue de 63 años, 305 (72,3%) eran hombres. La mortalidad en la UCI fue: 144/422 34%; mortalidad a los 14 días: 81/422 (19,2%); mortalidad a los 28 días: 121/422 (28,7%); mortalidad a las seis semanas 152/422 36,5%. Los factores asociados con la mortalidad a los 42 días fueron la edad, APACHE II, SOFA > 6 y LDH al ingreso > 470 U/L, uso de vasopresores, necesidad de técnicas de reemplazo de la función renal, porcentaje de linfocitos a las 72 horas del ingreso en UCI < 6,5%, y trombocitopenia, mientras que el uso de lopinavir/ritonavir fue identificado como un factor protector. Conclusiones: La edad, gravedad y fracaso orgánico junto con la necesidad de terapias de soporte fueron identificadas como factores predictores de mortalidad a las seis semanas. La administración de corticoesteroides a dosis altas no mostró beneficios en la mortalidad, al igual que el tratamiento con tocilizumab, lopinavir/ritonavir se identificaron como un factor protector (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pandemias , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos de Coortes , Estado Terminal , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
10.
Nutr. hosp ; 39(2): 266-272, mar.- abr. 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-209693

RESUMO

Introducción: se desconoce si los pacientes diagnosticados de infección respiratoria aguda por SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) presentan más riesgo de complicaciones asociadas a la nutrición parenteral (NP). Objetivo: conocer la incidencia, los factores de riesgo y la mortalidad de las complicaciones asociadas a la NP en esta población. Métodos: estudio de cohortes prospectivo de 87 pacientes diagnosticados de infección por SARS-CoV-2. Se analizan la tasa de incidencia de las complicaciones y las odds ratio (OR) de diferentes factores. Resultados: la edad ≥ 65 años (OR: 2,52, IC 95 %: 1,16 a 5,46), los antecedentes de obesidad (OR: 3,34, IC 95 %: 2,35 a 4,33) y el tratamiento con propofol (OR: 2,45, IC 95 %: 1,55 a 3,35) o lopinavir/ritonavir (OR: 4,98, IC 95 %: 3,60 a 6,29) se asociaron al desarrollo de hipertrigliceridemia. Los pacientes con obesidad (OR: 3,11, IC 95 %: 1,10 a 8,75) o dislipemia (OR: 3,22, IC 95 %: 1,23 a 8,40) y los tratados con propofol (OR: 5,47, IC 95 %: 1,97 a 15,1) presentaron mayor riesgo de infección asociada al catéter (IAC). No se observó ningún factor de riesgo relacionado con el desarrollo de hiperglucemia. La mortalidad fue mayor en los pacientes con IAC (46,7 % vs. 10,8 %, p = 0,014). El riesgo de mortalidad fue superior en los enfermos de ≥ 65 años (OR: 2,74, IC 95 %: 1,08 a 6,95) o con IAC (OR: 3,22, IC 95 %: 1,23 a 8,40). Conclusiones: la incidencia de complicaciones asociadas a la NP en pacientes diagnosticados de infección por SARS-CoV-2 es elevada. El riesgo de mortalidad es superior en los enfermos mayores de 65 años o con IAC (AU)


Background: it is unknown whether patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) secondary to COVID-19 are at greater risk of developing complications associated with parenteral nutrition (PN). Aim: to describe the incidence, risk factors, and clinical impact of complications in patients with ARDS-COVID-19 receiving PN. Methods: a prospective cohort study of 87 patients with ARDS-COVID-19 infection. The incidence of complications and odds ratios of risk factors were analysed. Results: age ≥ 65 years (OR, 2.52, 95 % CI: 1.16 to 5.46), obesity (OR, 3.34, 95 % CI: 2.35 to 4.33) and treatment with propofol (OR, 2.45, 95 % CI: 1.55 to 3.35) or lopinavir/ritonavir (OR, 4.98, 95 % CI: 3.60 to 6.29) were risk factors for hipertriglyceridemia. Obesity (OR, 3.11, 95 % CI: 1.10 to 8.75), dyslipidemia (OR, 3.22, 95 % CI: 1.23 to 8.40) or treatment with propofol (OR, 5.47, 95 % CI: 1.97 to 15.1) were risk factors for intravascular catheter-related infection. No risk factors were described for hiperglycemia. Mortality was higher in patients with intravascular catheter-related infection (46.7 % vs 10.8 %, p = 0.014). Mortality risk was higher in older patients (OR, 2.74, 95 % CI: 1.08 to 6.95) or patients with intravascular catheter-related infection (OR, 3.22, 95 % CI: 1.23 to 8.40). Conclusions: the incidence of complications associated with PN in patients with COVID-19-related ARDS is frequent. The mortality risk is higher in older patients or those with catheter-related infection (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pandemias , Nutrição Parenteral/mortalidade , Estudos Longitudinais , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos de Coortes , Fatores de Risco , Incidência
11.
Med. intensiva (Madr., Ed. impr.) ; 46(3): 132-139, Mar. 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-204234

RESUMO

Objective: Higher blood nitrate and nitrite levels have been found in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients than in healthy subjects. The present study explores the potential association between serum nitrate levels and mortality in COVID-19 patients. Design: A prospective observation study was carried out. Setting: Eight Intensive Care Units (ICUs) from 6 hospitals in the Canary Islands (Spain). Patients: COVID-19 patients admitted to the ICU. Interventions: Determination of serum nitrate levels at ICU admission. Main variable of interest: Mortality at 30 days. Results: Non-surviving (n=11) compared to surviving patients (n=42) showed higher APACHE-II (p<0.001) and SOFA scores (p=0.004), and higher serum nitrate levels (p=0.001). Logistic regression analyses showed serum nitrate levels to be associated to 30-day mortality after controlling for SOFA (OR=1.021; 95%CI=1.006–1.036; p=0.01) or APACHE-II (OR=1.023; 95%CI=1.006–1.041; p=0.01). There were no differences in the area under the curve (AUC) for mortality prediction by serum nitrate levels (AUC=83%; 95%CI=73–92%; p<0.001), APACHE II (AUC=85%; 95%CI=75–96%; p<0.001) and SOFA (AUC=78%; 95%CI=63–92%; p=0.005) based on the DeLong method. The Kaplan–Meier analysis found patients with serum nitrates levels>68.4μmol/l to have a higher mortality rate (hazard ratio=138.8; 95%CI=22.3–863.9; p<0.001). Conclusions: The main novel finding was the association between serum nitrate levels and mortality in COVID-19 patients controlling for the SOFA or APACHE-II scores, though larger studies are needed to confirm this observation (AU)


Objetivo: Se han encontrado niveles más elevados de nitratos en la sangre de pacientes con enfermedad del coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) que en sujetos sanos. Por lo tanto, el objetivo de estudio consistió en explorar la posible asociación entre los niveles séricos de nitratos y la mortalidad de pacientes por COVID-19. Diseño: Estudio observacional y prospectivo. Ámbito: Ocho unidades de cuidados intensivos (UCI) de 6 hospitales de las Islas Canarias (España). Pacientes: Pacientes COVID-19 ingresados en la UCI. Intervenciones: Se midieron los niveles séricos de nitratos al ingreso en la UCI. Variable de interés principal: Mortalidad a los 30 días. Resultados: Los pacientes fallecidos (n=11) comparados con los supervivientes (n=42) presentaron mayores APACHE-II (p<0,001), SOFA (p=0,004) y niveles séricos de nitratos (p=0,001). Los análisis de regresión logística mostraron una asociación entre los niveles séricos de nitratos al ingreso en la UCI y la mortalidad a los 30 días controlando por SOFA (OR:1.021; IC 95%:1.006-1.036; p=0,01) o APACHE-II (OR:1.023; IC 95%:1.006-1.041; p=0,01). No encontramos diferencias en el área bajo la curva (ABC) para la predicción de mortalidad entre los niveles séricos de nitratos (ABC:83%; IC 95%:73-92%; p<0,001), APACHE-II (ABC:85%; IC 95%:75-96%; p<0,001) y SOFA (ABC:78%; IC 95%:63-92%; p=0,005) con el método de DeLong. El análisis de Kaplan-Meier mostró que los pacientes que tenían niveles séricos de nitratos al ingreso en la UCI>68,4μmol/l presentaban mayor riesgo de fallecer (hazard ratio:138,8; IC 95%:22,3-863,9; p<0,001). Conclusiones: El principal nuevo hallazgo fue la asociación entre los niveles séricos de nitratos y la mortalidad de pacientes COVID-19 controlando por SOFA o APACHE-II; pero estudios de mayor tamaño muestral son necesarios para confirmar este resultado (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Nitratos/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Estudos Prospectivos , APACHE , Biomarcadores/sangue
13.
Nutr. hosp ; 39(1): 93-100, ene. - feb. 2022. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-209672

RESUMO

Introducción: la identificación del riesgo nutricional al ingreso hospitalario es importante para establecer intervenciones oportunas en el ciclo de atención del paciente con COVID-19, debido al alto riesgo de asociarse a complicaciones.Objetivo: determinar la asociación entre el nivel de riesgo nutricional al ingreso y la mortalidad intrahospitalaria a 28 días en pacientes con diagnóstico de COVID-19 atendidos entre marzo y octubre de 2020 en una red de dos instituciones hospitalarias de Colombia.Metodología: estudio observacional retrospectivo. Se incluyeron pacientes hospitalizados con diagnóstico de COVID-19 y valorados por el Servicio de Nutrición con la escala de identificación de riesgo nutricional en emergencias, adaptada de la escala NRS 2002. Se analizó como resultado principal la mortalidad intrahospitalaria a 28 días y como secundarios, la estancia hospitalaria, el ingreso a la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos (UCI) y el requerimiento de ventilación mecánica.Resultados:se incluyeron 1230 pacientes, con edad promedio de 65,43 ± 15,90 años, principalmente hombres (57,1 %, n = 702). Se identificó un alto riesgo nutricional (≥ 2 puntos) en el 74,3 % (n = 914). Se evidenció que los pacientes con alto riesgo nutricional tenían una mayor probabilidad de muerte intrahospitalaria a 28 días (HR: 1,64; IC 95 %: 1,11-2,44) y un mayor riesgo de requerir ventilación mecánica (OR = 1,78; IC 95 %: 1,11-2,86), de ingreso en la UCI (OR = 1,478; IC 95 %: 1,05-2,09) y de estancia hospitalaria superior a 7 días (OR = 1,91; IC 95 %: 1,47-2,48).Conclusiones: los pacientes con diagnóstico de COVID-19 y riesgo nutricional alto presentaron una mortalidad intrahospitalaria a 28 días significativamente mayor y una mayor probabilidad de requerir ventilación mecánica y atención en la UCI, así como estancias hospitalarias prolongadas. (AU)


Introduction: the identification of nutritional risk at hospital admission is important to establish timely interventions in the COVID-19 patient care cycle, due to a high risk of it being associated with complications.Objective: to determine the association between the level of nutritional risk upon admission and in-hospital mortality at 28 days in patients diagnosed with COVID-19 treated between March and October 2020 in two hospital institutions in Colombia.Methods: a retrospective, observational study. Hospitalized patients with a diagnosis of COVID-19 were included and assessed by the Nutrition Service using the nutritional risk identification in emergencies scale, adapted from the NRS 2002 scale. In-hospital mortality at 28 days was analyzed as the primary endpoint, and hospital stay, admission to Intensive Care Unit (ICU), and requirement for mechanical ventilation as secondary endpoints.Results: a total of 1230 patients were included, with a mean age of 65.43 ± 15.90 years, mainly men (57.1 %, n = 702). A high nutritional risk (≥ 2 points) was identified in 74.3 % (n = 914). Patients with a high nutritional risk had a greater probability of in-hospital death at 28 days (HRadj: 1.64; 95 % CI: 1.11-2.44), and a greater risk of requiring mechanical ventilation (OR = 1.78; 95 % CI: 1.11-2.86) or ICU admission (OR = 1.478; 95 % CI: 1.05-2.09), as well as hospital stay longer than 7 days (OR = 1.91; 95 % CI: 1.47-2.48).Conclusions: patients with a diagnosis of COVID-19 at high nutritional risk had a significantly higher in-hospital mortality at 28 days and a higher probability of requiring mechanical ventilation, ICU admission, and prolonged hospital stay. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Distúrbios Nutricionais , Pandemias , Estudos Retrospectivos , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Respiração Artificial , Avaliação Nutricional
14.
Viruses ; 14(2)2022 01 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35215799

RESUMO

Critically ill patients, such as those in intensive care units (ICUs), can develop herpes simplex virus (HSV) pneumonitis. Given the high prevalence of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and multiple pre-existing conditions among ICU patients with HSV pneumonitis, factors predicting mortality in this patient population require further investigation. In this retrospective study, the bronchoalveolar lavage or sputum samples of ICU patients were cultured or subjected to a polymerase chain reaction for HSV detection. Univariable and multivariable Cox regressions were conducted for mortality outcomes. The length of hospital stay was plotted against mortality on Kaplan-Meier curves. Among the 119 patients with HSV pneumonitis (age: 65.8 ± 14.9 years), the mortality rate was 61.34% (73 deaths). The mortality rate was significantly lower among patients with diabetes mellitus (odds ratio [OR] 0.12, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.02-0.49, p = 0.0009) and significantly higher among patients with ARDS (OR: 4.18, 95% CI: 1.05-17.97, p < 0.0001) or high (≥30) Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II scores (OR: 1.08, 95% CI: 1.00-1.18, p = 0.02). Not having diabetes mellitus (DM), developing ARDS, and having a high Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score were independent predictors of mortality among ICU patients with HSV pneumonitis.


Assuntos
Estado Terminal/mortalidade , Herpes Simples/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/complicações , Simplexvirus/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Herpes Simples/etiologia , Herpes Simples/virologia , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/etiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Simplexvirus/genética
15.
JAMA Pediatr ; 176(3): e216436, 2022 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35044430

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: Little is known about COVID-19 outcomes among children and adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa, where preexisting comorbidities are prevalent. OBJECTIVE: To assess the clinical outcomes and factors associated with outcomes among children and adolescents hospitalized with COVID-19 in 6 countries in sub-Saharan Africa. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This cohort study was a retrospective record review of data from 25 hospitals in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria, South Africa, and Uganda from March 1 to December 31, 2020, and included 469 hospitalized patients aged 0 to 19 years with SARS-CoV-2 infection. EXPOSURES: Age, sex, preexisting comorbidities, and region of residence. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: An ordinal primary outcome scale was used comprising 5 categories: (1) hospitalization without oxygen supplementation, (2) hospitalization with oxygen supplementation, (3) ICU admission, (4) invasive mechanical ventilation, and (5) death. The secondary outcome was length of hospital stay. RESULTS: Among 469 hospitalized children and adolescents, the median age was 5.9 years (IQR, 1.6-11.1 years); 245 patients (52.4%) were male, and 115 (24.5%) had comorbidities. A total of 39 patients (8.3%) were from central Africa, 172 (36.7%) from eastern Africa, 208 (44.3%) from southern Africa, and 50 (10.7%) from western Africa. Eighteen patients had suspected (n = 6) or confirmed (n = 12) multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children. Thirty-nine patients (8.3%) died, including 22 of 69 patients (31.9%) who required intensive care unit admission and 4 of 18 patients (22.2%) with suspected or confirmed multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children. Among 468 patients, 418 (89.3%) were discharged, and 16 (3.4%) remained hospitalized. The likelihood of outcomes with higher vs lower severity among children younger than 1 year expressed as adjusted odds ratio (aOR) was 4.89 (95% CI, 1.44-16.61) times higher than that of adolescents aged 15 to 19 years. The presence of hypertension (aOR, 5.91; 95% CI, 1.89-18.50), chronic lung disease (aOR, 2.97; 95% CI, 1.65-5.37), or a hematological disorder (aOR, 3.10; 95% CI, 1.04-9.24) was associated with severe outcomes. Age younger than 1 year (adjusted subdistribution hazard ratio [asHR], 0.48; 95% CI, 0.27-0.87), the presence of 1 comorbidity (asHR, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.40-0.72), and the presence of 2 or more comorbidities (asHR, 0.26; 95% CI, 0.18-0.38) were associated with reduced rates of hospital discharge. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: In this cohort study of children and adolescents hospitalized with COVID-19 in sub-Saharan Africa, high rates of morbidity and mortality were observed among infants and patients with noncommunicable disease comorbidities, suggesting that COVID-19 vaccination and therapeutic interventions are needed for young populations in this region.


Assuntos
COVID-19/terapia , Criança Hospitalizada , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Adolescente , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/mortalidade , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Oxigenoterapia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Respiração Artificial , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Rev. clín. esp. (Ed. impr.) ; 222(1): 37-41, ene. 2022. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-204613

RESUMO

Objetivo: Valorar la utilidad del CURB-65 para predecir la mortalidad a 30 días en pacientes adultos hospitalizados con COVID-19. Métodos: Cohorte realizada entre el 1 de marzo y el 30 de abril de 2020 en Ecuador. Resultados: Se incluyeron 247 pacientes (edad media 60±14 años, 70% varones, mortalidad global 41,3%). Los pacientes con CURB-65≥2 presentaron mayor mortalidad (57 vs. 17%, p<0,001), en asociación con otros marcadores de riesgo: edad avanzada, hipertensión arterial, sobrepeso/obesidad, fracaso renal, hipoxemia, requerimiento de ventilación mecánica o desarrollo de distrés respiratorio.Conclusiones: En el análisis univariado (Kaplan-Meier) y multivariado (regresión de Cox) el CURB-65≥2 se relacionó con una mayor mortalidad a 30 días (AU)


Objective: This article aims to assess the utility of CURB-65 in predicting 30-day mortality in adult patients hospitalized with COVID-19. Methods: This work is a cohort study conducted between March 1 and April 30, 2020 in Ecuador. Results: A total of 247 patients were included (mean age 60±14 years, 70% men, overall mortality 41.3%). Patients with CURB-65≥2 had a higher mortality rate (57 vs. 17%, p<.001) that was associated with other markers of risk: advanced age, hypertension, overweight/obesity, kidney failure, hypoxemia, requirement for mechanical ventilation, or onset of respiratory distress. Conclusions: CURB-65≥2 was associated with higher 30-day mortality on the univariate (Kaplan-Meier estimator) and multivariate (Cox regression) analysis (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pandemias , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Estudos de Coortes , Prognóstico , Equador
19.
Am J Otolaryngol ; 43(1): 103230, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34537504

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Tracheostomy is an aerosol-generating procedure, thus performing it during the COVID-19 pandemic arises considerations such as the most appropriate timing and the patients to whom it is suitable. Medical teams lack sufficient data to assist determining whether or not to conduct tracheostomy, its short- and long-term implications are not fully understood. This study aims to shed light on the critically ill COVID-19 patients that require tracheostomy, and to investigate its value. METHODS: A retrospective multicentral case-control study of 157 hospitalized critically ill COVID-19 patients, among whom 30 patients went through tracheostomy and consisted of our study group. RESULTS: The mean age was similar between study and control groups (68.9 ± 12.7 years vs 70.5 ± 15.8 years, p = 0.57), as well as comorbidity prevalence (56.7% vs 67.7%, p = 0.25). Patients in the study group were hospitalized for longer duration until defined critically ill (5 ± 4.3 vs 3 ± 3.9 days; p = 0.01), until admitted to the intensive care unit (6 ± 6.6 vs 2.5 ± 3.7 days respectively; p = 0.005), and until discharged (24 ± 9.7 vs 10.7 ± 9.1 days, p < 0.001). Mortality rate was lower in the study group (30% vs 59.8%, p = 0.003). Kaplan Meier survival analysis revealed a statistically significant difference in survival time between groups (Log rank chi-sq = 20.91, p < 0.001) with mean survival time of 41 ± 3.1 days vs 21 ± 2.2 days. Survival was significantly longer in the study group (OR = 0.37, p = 0.004). CONCLUSION: Tracheostomy allows for more prolonged survival for gradually deteriorating critically ill COVID-19 patients. This should be integrated into the medical teams' considerations when debating whether or not to conduct tracheostomy.


Assuntos
COVID-19/terapia , Estado Terminal/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Traqueostomia , Idoso , COVID-19/mortalidade , Estado Terminal/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Taxa de Sobrevida
20.
J Med Virol ; 94(2): 461-468, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34415627

RESUMO

The burden of pneumonia, especially that caused by respiratory viruses, is markedly high in the pediatric age group. This study aimed to assess viral agents causing severe pneumonia among mechanically ventilated patients. Nonbronchoscopic bronchoalveolar lavage was performed for pediatric patients having severe pneumonia indicated for mechanical ventilation to be tested with a multiplex PCR immediate diagnosis of their etiologic pathogen. Among the 75 patients recruited, viral agents were detected in 73.4% of cases. Rhinovirus and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) were the most common viruses detected in 32.1% and 29.5%, respectively. The rate of viral infection showed a clear increased incidence in the winter season. The mortality rate among viral-associated severe pneumonia reached 56.36%. Odds of mortality increased threefolds in presence of comorbid conditions and 10-folds with congenital heart disease. The study demonstrated the neglected importance of rhinovirus besides RSV in causing severe critical pneumonia in the pediatric age.


Assuntos
Infecções por Picornaviridae/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Respiração Artificial , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/virologia , Vírus/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/virologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Egito , Feminino , Cardiopatias Congênitas/complicações , Humanos , Lactente , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex , Infecções por Picornaviridae/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/diagnóstico , Vírus Sincicial Respiratório Humano/genética , Sistema Respiratório , Rhinovirus/genética , Estações do Ano , Vírus/genética
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