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1.
Med Sci Monit ; 26: e924403, 2020 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32367888

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Chest CT has an essential role in the detection and evaluation of novel coronary pneumonia (COVID-19) and has be regarded as a critical supplement for RT-PCR. This study explored the dynamic CT manifestations of COVID-19 at different times and the value of some laboratory indicators for clinical guidance. MATERIAL AND METHODS This retrospective review included 44 patients who were infected with COVID-19. The dynamic chest CT and laboratory findings were obtained from electronic medical records. The intervals between onset and CT scans and the dynamic changes of the lesions were recorded. The above data were reviewed, sorted, and analyzed by using SPSS 21.0 software. RESULTS From the time of onset, the dynamic image of the lungs became more complete. Fibrous cord shadow absorption in the lungs were observed. Experimental indicators, biochemical indicators of lymphocytes, and protein series were decreased to varying degrees, while erythrocyte sedimentation, fibrinogen, and D-dimer were increased to varying degrees. CONCLUSIONS The dynamic changes of CT images of lungs of COVID-19 patients, combined with the clinical manifestations and laboratory indicators of patients, can help guide clinical diagnosis and treatment.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Biomarcadores , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Software
2.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 949-961, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32378471

RESUMO

The emergences of coronaviruses have caused a serious global public health problem because their infection in humans caused the severe acute respiratory disease and deaths. The outbreaks of lethal coronaviruses have taken place for three times within recent two decades (SARS-CoV in 2002, MERS-CoV in 2012 and SARS-CoV-2 in 2019). Much more serious than SARS-CoV in 2002, the current SARS-CoV-2 infection has been spreading to more than 213 countries, areas or territories and causing more than two million cases up to date (17 April 2020). Unfortunately, no vaccine and specific anti-coronavirus drugs are available at present time. Current clinical treatment at hand is inadequate to suppress viral replication and inflammation, and reverse organ failure. Intensive research efforts have focused on increasing our understanding of viral biology of SARS-CoV-2, improving antiviral therapy and vaccination strategies. The animal models are important for both the fundamental research and drug discovery of coronavirus. This review aims to summarize the animal models currently available for SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, and their potential use for the study of SARS-CoV-2. We will discuss the benefits and caveats of these animal models and present critical findings that might guide the fundamental studies and urgent treatment of SARS-CoV-2-caused diseases.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronaviridae/patologia , Infecções por Coronaviridae/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pesquisa/tendências , Animais , Humanos , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/fisiologia , Vírus da SARS/fisiologia
3.
J Exp Med ; 217(6)2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32353870

RESUMO

The novel 2019 strain of coronavirus is a source of profound morbidity and mortality worldwide. Compared with recent viral outbreaks, COVID-19 infection has a relatively high mortality rate, the reasons for which are not entirely clear. Furthermore, treatment options for COVID-19 infection are currently limited. In this Perspective, we explore the contributions of the innate and adaptive immune systems to both viral control as well as toxicity during COVID-19 infections and offer suggestions to both understand and therapeutically modulate anti-COVID immunity.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Imunidade Adaptativa/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunidade Adaptativa/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/imunologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/patologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/terapia , Humanos , Hipóxia/patologia , Hipóxia/terapia , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/patologia , Inflamação/terapia , Interleucina-6/antagonistas & inibidores , Interleucina-6/imunologia , Linfopenia/imunologia , Linfopenia/patologia , Linfopenia/terapia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/patologia , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/imunologia , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/patogenicidade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Respiração Artificial , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/patologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/terapia , Vírus da SARS/imunologia , Vírus da SARS/patogenicidade
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(9)2020 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32380787

RESUMO

Coronaviruses (CoVs), including Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), and the novel coronavirus disease-2 (SARS-CoV-2) are a group of enveloped RNA viruses that cause a severe respiratory infection which is associated with a high mortality [...].


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/mortalidade , Lesão Renal Aguda/virologia , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Túbulos Renais Proximais/metabolismo , Túbulos Renais Proximais/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Lesão Renal Aguda/fisiopatologia , Lesão Renal Aguda/prevenção & controle , Angiotensina II/farmacologia , Catepsinas/metabolismo , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Creatinina/sangue , Estado Terminal/mortalidade , Endossomos/efeitos dos fármacos , Endossomos/enzimologia , Endossomos/metabolismo , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Incidência , Túbulos Renais Proximais/fisiopatologia , Lisossomos/efeitos dos fármacos , Lisossomos/enzimologia , Lisossomos/metabolismo , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Receptores Virais/metabolismo , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/sangue , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/mortalidade , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/fisiopatologia , Internalização do Vírus , Replicação Viral
5.
Yonsei Med J ; 61(5): 431-437, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32390367

RESUMO

Although some information on the epidemiology of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and a few selected cases has been reported, data on the clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients hospitalized therewith in South Korea are lacking. We conducted a retrospective single-center study of 98 consecutive hospitalized patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection at Yeungnam University Medical Center in Daegu, South Korea. Sixty patients were women (61.2%), and the mean age was 55.4±17.1 years. Thirteen patients (13.3%) were treated in the intensive care unit (ICU). The mean interval from symptom onset to hospitalization was 7.7±4.5 days. Patients who received ICU care were significantly older and were more likely to have diabetes mellitus. The National Early Warning Score on the day of admission was significantly higher in patients requiring ICU care. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (13/13 patients; 100%), septic shock (9/13; 69.2%), acute cardiac injury (9/13; 69.2%), and acute kidney injury (8/13; 61.5%) were more common in patients who received ICU care. All patients received antibiotic therapy, and most (97/98 patients; 99.0%) received antiviral therapy (lopinavir/ritonavir). Hydroxychloroquine was used in 79 patients (80.6%), and glucocorticoid therapy was used in 18 patients (18.4%). In complete blood counts, lymphopenia was the most common finding (40/98 patients; 40.8%). Levels of all proinflammatory cytokines were significantly higher in ICU patients. As of March 29, 2020, the mortality rate was 5.1%. Here, we report the clinical characteristics and laboratory findings of SARS-CoV-2 patients in South Korea up to March 29, 2020.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Citocinas/sangue , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/administração & dosagem , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Lopinavir/administração & dosagem , Linfopenia/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ritonavir/administração & dosagem
7.
Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 49(2): 139-146, 2020 May 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32391657

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused a global pandemic. All people including children are generally susceptible to COVID-19, but the condition is relatively mild for children. The diagnosis of COVID-19 is largely based on the epidemiological evidence and clinical manifestations, and confirmed by positive detection of virus nucleic acid in respiratory samples. The main symptoms of COVID-19 in children are fever and cough; the total number of white blood cell count is usually normal or decreased; the chest imaging is characterized by interstitial pneumonia, which is similar to other respiratory virus infections and Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections. Early identification, early isolation, early diagnosis and early treatment are important for clinical management. The treatment of mild or moderate type of child COVID-19 is mainly symptomatic. For severe and critical ill cases, the oxygen therapy, antiviral drugs, antibacterial drugs, glucocorticoids, mechanical ventilation or even extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) may be adopted, and the treatment plan should be adjusted timely through multi-disciplinary cooperation.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Criança , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumonia Viral/etiologia , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia
8.
Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 49(2): 191-197, 2020 May 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32391663

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the dynamic changes of chest CT images of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: Fifty-two cases of COVID-19 were admitted in the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine. The consecutive chest CT scans were followed up for all patients with an average of 4 scans performed per patient during the hospitalization. The shortest interval between each scan was 2 days and the longest was 7 days. The shape, number and distribution of lung shadows, as well as the characteristics of the lesions on the CT images were reviewed. RESULTS: The obvious shadows infiltrating the lungs were shown on CT images in 50 cases, for other 2 cases there was no abnormal changes in the lungs during the first CT examination. Ground-glass opacities (GGO) were found in 48 cases (92.3%), and 19 cases (36.5%) had patchy consolidation and sub-consolidation, which were accompanied with air bronchi sign in 17 cases (32.7%). Forty one cases (78.8%) showed a thickened leaflet interval, 4 cases (7.6%) had a small number of fibrous stripes. During hospitalization, GGO lesions in COVID-19 patients gradually became rare,the fibrous strip shadows increased and it became the most common imaging manifestation. The lesions rapidly progressed in 39 cases (75.0%) within 6-9 days after admission. On days 10-14 of admission, the lesions distinctly resolved in 40 cases (76.9%). CONCLUSIONS: The chest CT images of patients with COVID-19 have certain characteristics with dynamic changes, which are of value for monitoring disease progress and clinical treatment.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , China , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico por imagem , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumonia Viral/patologia
10.
J Immunother Cancer ; 8(1)2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32385146

RESUMO

The pandemic caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 has placed an unprecedented burden on healthcare systems around the world. In patients who experience severe disease, acute respiratory distress is often accompanied by a pathological immune reaction, sometimes referred to as 'cytokine storm'. One hallmark feature of the profound inflammatory state seen in patients with COVID-19 who succumb to pneumonia and hypoxia is marked elevation of serum cytokines, especially interferon gamma, tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin 17 (IL-17), interleukin 8 (IL-8) and interleukin 6 (IL-6). Initial experience from the outbreaks in Italy, China and the USA has anecdotally demonstrated improved outcomes for critically ill patients with COVID-19 with the administration of cytokine-modulatory therapies, especially anti-IL-6 agents. Although ongoing trials are investigating anti-IL-6 therapies, access to these therapies is a concern, especially as the numbers of cases worldwide continue to climb. An immunology-informed approach may help identify alternative agents to modulate the pathological inflammation seen in patients with COVID-19. Drawing on extensive experience administering these and other immune-modulating therapies, the Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer offers this perspective on potential alternatives to anti-IL-6 that may also warrant consideration for management of the systemic inflammatory response and pulmonary compromise that can be seen in patients with severe COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Imunoterapia , Interleucina-6/antagonistas & inibidores , Interleucina-6/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/complicações , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/tratamento farmacológico , Sociedades Médicas , Transferência Adotiva , Anticorpos Monoclonais/farmacologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/farmacologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/complicações , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/imunologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/patologia , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos e Macrófagos/antagonistas & inibidores , Humanos , Inflamação/complicações , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/patologia , Interferon gama/antagonistas & inibidores , Interleucina-1/antagonistas & inibidores , Interleucina-17/antagonistas & inibidores , Interleucina-23/antagonistas & inibidores , Interleucina-6/genética , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Janus Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias/terapia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/imunologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/patologia , Fatores de Transcrição STAT/antagonistas & inibidores , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/patologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/antagonistas & inibidores
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(9)2020 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32397174

RESUMO

On 7 January 2020, researchers isolated and sequenced in China from patients with severe pneumonitis a novel coronavirus, then called SARS-CoV-2, which rapidly spread worldwide, becoming a global health emergency. Typical manifestations consist of flu-like symptoms such as fever, cough, fatigue, and dyspnea. However, in about 20% of patients, the infection progresses to severe interstitial pneumonia and can induce an uncontrolled host-immune response, leading to a life-threatening condition called cytokine release syndrome (CRS). CRS represents an emergency scenario of a frequent challenge, which is the complex and interwoven link between infections and autoimmunity. Indeed, treatment of CRS involves the use of both antivirals to control the underlying infection and immunosuppressive agents to dampen the aberrant pro-inflammatory response of the host. Several trials, evaluating the safety and effectiveness of immunosuppressants commonly used in rheumatic diseases, are ongoing in patients with COVID-19 and CRS, some of which are achieving promising results. However, such a use should follow a multidisciplinary approach, be accompanied by close monitoring, be tailored to patient's clinical and serological features, and be initiated at the right time to reach the best results. Autoimmune patients receiving immunosuppressants could be prone to SARS-CoV-2 infections; however, suspension of the ongoing therapy is contraindicated to avoid disease flares and a consequent increase in the infection risk.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Doenças Autoimunes/complicações , Doenças Autoimunes/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Autoimunes/patologia , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/imunologia , Humanos , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/patologia
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(9)2020 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32397684

RESUMO

The current pandemic coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, is a global health emergency because of its highly contagious nature, the great number of patients requiring intensive care therapy, and the high fatality rate. In the absence of specific antiviral drugs, passive prophylaxis, or a vaccine, the treatment aim in these patients is to prevent the potent virus-induced inflammatory stimuli from leading to the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), which has a severe prognosis. Here, the mechanism of action and the rationale for employing immunological strategies, which range from traditional chemically synthesized drugs, anti-cytokine antibodies, human immunoglobulin for intravenous use, to vaccines, are reviewed.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Imunoterapia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/imunologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/patologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/terapia , Humanos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/terapia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/patologia
13.
Pediatr Dev Pathol ; 23(3): 177-180, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32397896

RESUMO

This study describes the pathology and clinical information on 20 placentas whose mother tested positive for the novel Coronovirus (2019-nCoV) cases. Ten of the 20 cases showed some evidence of fetal vascular malperfusion or fetal vascular thrombosis. The significance of these findings is unclear and needs further study.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Doenças Placentárias/etiologia , Doenças Placentárias/patologia , Placenta/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/patologia , Trombose/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Doenças Fetais/etiologia , Doenças Fetais/patologia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , New York , Pandemias , Gravidez , Trombose/patologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Iran J Kidney Dis ; 14(3): 231-234, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32361701

RESUMO

in the reports presented about COVID-19, patients receiving kidney transplantation have not been specifically studied and based on national flowchart, this population is classified as highrisk group, thus it is necessary to be aware of the step-by-step treatment approach of these patients. Suspicious cases included patients with a history of dry cough, chills or sore throat accompanying by shortness of breath with or without fever, patients with upper/lower respiratory symptoms with radiological manifestations as single or double-sided multilobular infiltrations on CT scan or plain chest radiography, any one that has a history of close contact with a definite COVID-19 case within the last 14 days, any one with a history of presence in COVID-19 epidemic regions within the last 14 days and patient with pneumonia that despite of proper treatment has an inappropriate clinical response and clinical condition becomes more severe in an unusual way or unexpectedly.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Transplante de Rim , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Transplantados/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico por imagem , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumonia Viral/patologia
16.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 24(8): 4572-4575, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32373997

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The recent outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 greatly involves the resources of the global healthcare system, as it affects newborns, adults, and elders. This infection runs in three major stages: a mild cold-like illness, a moderate respiratory syndrome and a severe acute interstitial pneumonia. SARS-CoV-2 infection seems to have a more benign evolution in children. As a matter of fact, low susceptibility and minor aggressivity have been highlighted in most cases. There are currently no effective antiviral drugs treatment for the affected children. No sufficient results have been reached by the use of interferon (IFN), lopinavir/ritonavir, orbidol, and oseltamivir in the treatment of the coronaviruses infection. The aim of this short review is to highlight the differences existing between COVID-19 cases in adults and children.


Assuntos
Fatores Etários , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Criança , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia
17.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 24(8): 4576-4584, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32373998

RESUMO

Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection has rapidly spread all over the world, in just two months. As of 27 March, globally, 509,164 cases confirmed included 23,335 deaths in approximately 150 countries. Recently, WHO has defined COVID-19 as a global pandemic, and considerable researches have focused on the identification and prevention of SARS-CoV-2. As a result, accumulated publications successively reported their early findings, leading to the constant updating of information, which might make confusion for readers. Therefore, this review summarized the current researches about the genomic evolution, variation of SARS-CoV-2, and demonstrated its viral structure for pathogenesis. Meanwhile, we analyzed the epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of COVID-19, in order to provide recommendations for present clinical treatments and inspirations for potential therapy options.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus/classificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Evolução Molecular , Genoma Viral , Humanos , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/química , Filogenia , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química
18.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 24(8): 4585-4596, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32373999

RESUMO

In December 2019, an outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was reported in Wuhan, China, and it subsequently spread in many countries around the world. Many efforts have been applied to control and prevent the spread of COVID-19, and many scientific studies have been conducted in a short period of time. Here we present an overview of the viral structure, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and clinical features of COVID-19 based on the current state of knowledge, and we compare its clinical characteristics with SARS and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS). Current researches on potentially effective treatment alternatives are discussed. We hope this review can help medical workers and researchers around the world contain the current COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/química , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , RNA Viral , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave , Proteínas Virais/química
19.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 24(8): 4597-4606, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32374000

RESUMO

The last two decades have witnessed two large-scale pandemics caused by coronaviruses, including severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS). At the end of 2019, another novel coronavirus, designated as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), hit Wuhan, a city in the center of China, and subsequently spread rapidly to the whole world. Latest reports revealed that more than 800 thousand people in over 200 countries are involved in the epidemic disease by SARS-CoV-2. Due to the high mortality rate and the lack of optimum therapeutics, it is crucial to understand the biological characteristics of the virus and its possible pathogenesis to respond to the SARS-CoV-2. Rapid diagnostics and effective therapeutics are also important interventions for the management of infection control. However, the rapid evolution of SARS-CoV-2 exerted tremendous challenges on its diagnostics and therapeutics. Therefore, there is an urgent need to summarize the existing research results to guide decision-making on the prioritization of resources for research and development. In this review, we focus on our current understanding of epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnostics and therapeutics of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Humanos , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/química , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Kit de Reagentes para Diagnóstico
20.
Molecules ; 25(9)2020 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32365556

RESUMO

The cytokine storm is an abnormal production of inflammatory cytokines, due to the over-activation of the innate immune response. This mechanism has been recognized as a critical mediator of influenza-induced lung disease, and it could be pivotal for COVID-19 infections. Thus, an immunomodulatory approach targeting the over-production of cytokines could be proposed for viral aggressive pulmonary disease treatment. In this regard, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ, a member of the PPAR transcription factor family, could represent a potential target. Beside the well-known regulatory role on lipid and glucose metabolism, PPAR-γ also represses the inflammatory process. Similarly, the PPAR-γ agonist thiazolidinediones (TZDs), like pioglitazone, are anti-inflammatory drugs with ameliorating effects on severe viral pneumonia. In addition to the pharmacological agonists, also nutritional ligands of PPAR-γ, like curcuma, lemongrass, and pomegranate, possess anti-inflammatory properties through PPAR-γ activation. Here, we review the main synthetic and nutritional PPAR-γ ligands, proposing a dual approach based on the strengthening of the immune system using pharmacological and dietary strategies as an attempt to prevent/treat cytokine storm in the case of coronavirus infection.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , PPAR gama/agonistas , Plantas Medicinais/química , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Tiazolidinedionas/farmacologia , Animais , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Citocinas/antagonistas & inibidores , Óleos de Peixe/farmacologia , Humanos , Ligantes , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Especiarias/análise
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