Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 4.663
Filtrar
1.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 96(1): 148-151, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33413811

RESUMO

Community transmission of severe acute respiratory illness Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) in Arizona was noted in March 2020. It was our hypothesis that the associated implementation of physical distancing and masking led to a decline in circulation and detection of common respiratory viruses. Nasopharyngeal swabs processed with the Biofire, Film Array respiratory panel at Mayo Clinic Arizona were reviewed from January 1, 2017, to July 31, 2020. A total of 13,324 nasopharyngeal swabs were analyzed. Between April and July 2017- 2019 (Period A) a mean of 262 tests were performed monthly, falling to 128 for the corresponding months of 2020 (Period B). A reduction in the monthly mean number of positive tests (Period A 71.5; Period B 2.8) and mean positivity rate (Period A 25.04%; Period B 2.07%) was observed. Rhinovirus/enterovirus was the most prevalent virus, with a monthly mean of 21.6 cases (30.2% of positives) for Period A and 2 cases (72.7% of positives) for Period B. Positivity for a second virus occurred in a mean of 2.1 positive tests (3.3%) in Period A but was absent in Period B. Implementation of distancing and masking coincides with a marked reduction in respiratory virus detection and likely circulation. Data from the fall/winter of 2020 will help clarify the potential role for distancing and masking as a mitigation strategy, not only for SARS-CoV-2 but also in the seasonal battle against common respiratory viruses.


Assuntos
/prevenção & controle , Máscaras , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Arizona/epidemiologia , /transmissão , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão
3.
Surg Clin North Am ; 101(1): 109-119, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33212072

RESUMO

New telehealth platforms and interventions have proliferated over the past decade and will be further spurred by the COVID-19 pandemic. Emerging literature examines the efficacy and safety of these interventions. Early pilot studies and trials demonstrate equivalent outcomes of telehealth interventions that seek to replace routine postoperative care in low-risk patients who have undergone low-risk surgeries. Studies are underway to evaluate interventions in higher-risk populations undergoing more complex procedures. Tele-ICU platforms demonstrate promise to provide specialized, high-acuity care to underserved areas and may also be used to augment compliance with evidence-based protocols.


Assuntos
Assistência Ambulatorial , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Cuidados Críticos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios , Telemedicina , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão
4.
J Infect Chemother ; 27(1): 120-122, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32988731

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Information on the effectiveness of personal protective equipment (PPE) for preventing severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection among healthcare workers (HCWs), especially among HCWs with frequent contact with patients with SARS-CoV-2, is limited. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study on 49 HCWs who worked in close contact with patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. HCWs had blood samples taken every 2 weeks to test for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies using two different types of assay. RESULTS: Forty-nine participants (31 nurses, 15 doctors, 3 other workers) were enrolled. In total, 112 blood samples are obtained from participants. The median work days in 2 weeks was 9 (interquartile range (IQR): 5-10) days. In a single work day, 30 of the 49 participants (61.5%) had contact with patients with suspected or conformed SARS-CoV-2 at least 8 times, and approximately 60% of participants had more than 10 min of contact with a single patient. The median self-reported compliance to PPE was 90% (IQR: 80-100%). Seven participants tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 antibody using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA); however, none were seropositive for SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibody, so the positive ELISA results were assumed to be false-positive. CONCLUSIONS: The study provides evidence that appropriate PPE is sufficient to prevent infection amongHCWs. It is necessary to establish a system that provides a stable supply of PPE for HCWs to perform their duties.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Pessoal de Saúde , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Paciente para o Profissional/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Adulto , Idoso , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
6.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2225: 25-38, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33108655

RESUMO

Various systems exist for the robust production of recombinant proteins. However, only a few systems are optimal for human vaccine protein production. Plant-based transient protein expression systems offer an advantageous alternative to costly mammalian cell culture-based systems and can perform posttranslational modifications due to the presence of an endomembrane system that is largely similar to that of the animal cell. Technological advances in expression vectors for transient expression in the last two decades have produced new plant expression systems with the flexibility and speed that cannot be matched by those based on mammalian or insect cell culture. The rapid and high-level protein production capability of transient expression systems makes them the optimal system to quickly and versatilely develop and produce vaccines against viruses such as 2019-nCoV that have sudden and unpredictable outbreaks. Here, expression of antiviral subunit vaccines in Nicotiana benthamiana plants via transient expression is demonstrated.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Plantas/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Vacinas de Subunidades/administração & dosagem , Vacinas de Subunidades/biossíntese , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Vetores Genéticos , Humanos , Plantas/genética , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/virologia
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 751: 142317, 2021 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33182011

RESUMO

Nowadays, there is an important controversy about coronavirus air transmission. The aim of this study was to determine aerosol transmission from patients with coronavirus infection using "COVID-19 traps" that included different untouched surfaces within them. 42 swab samples of 6 different surfaces placed in the rooms of 6 patients with a positive diagnostic of COVID-19 were analyzed with RT-PCR technique to evaluate the presence of the virus and its stability. Samples were collected at 24, 48 and 72 h. Patients were in an intensive care unit (ICU) and in a COVID-19 ward unit (CWU) at a Spanish referral hospital. None of the samples placed in the ICU unit were positive for COVID-19. However, two surfaces, placed in a CWU room with a patient that required the use of respiratory assistance were positive for coronavirus at 72 h. Surfaces could not be touched by patients or health workers, so viral spreading was unequivocally produced by air transmission. Thus, fomites should be considered as a possible mode of transmission of coronavirus and frequent disinfection of surfaces should be taken into account. Our results, although preliminary, point the importance of SARS-CoV-2 virus air transmission indoors and may shed some light in this debate.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Ar , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Contaminação de Equipamentos , Fômites , Humanos , Projetos Piloto , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão
8.
Enferm. clín. (Ed. impr.) ; 30(6): 360-370, nov.-dic. 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-191719

RESUMO

OBJETIVO: Describir los factores relacionados con la situación de contagio del SARS-CoV-2 identificados por los profesionales de la salud en España y proponer estrategias de prevención. MÉTODO: Estudio descriptivo transversal. La población fueron profesionales de la salud trabajando en instituciones con atención a pacientes con COVID-19 y caso confirmado de infección por SARS-CoV-2. Se utilizó un cuestionario con variables sociodemográficas, laborales y epidemiológicas. Se realizó análisis descriptivo y bivariado según la naturaleza de las variables. RESULTADOS: Se analizan 2230 cuestionarios sobre una población potencial de 41,239 (5,47%). El motivo para realizar el diagnóstico fue: caso sospechoso (63,4%) y caso probable (12,3%). Se hizo estudio de contactos al 50,3%. La percepción sobre la disponibilidad de medidas de protección como "siempre/frecuentemente" fueron: mascarilla FPP1 57,3%, guantes 89,5%, jabón 95% y solución hidroalcohólica 91,5% y en EPIs, mascarillas FPP2, FPP3, gafas y batas desechables alrededor del 50%. La disponibilidad de medidas protectoras, por ámbito de trabajo, presentó diferencias significativas. La media de pacientes atendidos se relacionó con la realización de higiene de manos del momento 4 y en la percepción de realizarla correctamente en momentos 4 y 5. CONCLUSIONES: Se presentan datos con carácter preliminar y con variabilidad en la tasa de respuesta por Comunidad Autónoma. Los profesionales de la salud contagiados por SARS-CoV-2 identifican la gestión de la cadena de contagios, el uso y adecuación en la disponibilidad de equipos de protección, así como la efectividad en la realización del lavado de manos, como factores relacionados con el contagio de los profesionales


OBJECTIVE: To describe the factors related to the situation of SARS-CoV-2 transmission identified by health professionals in Spain and to propose prevention strategies. METHOD: Cross-sectional descriptive study. The population were healthcare professionals working in institutions caring forCOVID-19 patients and also confirmed cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection. A questionnaire with sociodemographic, occupational and epidemiological variables was used. Descriptive and bivariate analysis was performed according to the nature of the variables. RESULTS: Twenty-two hundred and thirty questionnaires were analysed on a potential population of 41,239 (5.47%). The diagnosis was made based on a suspicious case (63.4%) and a probable case (12.3%). A study of contacts was carried out at 50.3%. The perception about the availability of protective measures as "always/frequently" were: FPP1 mask 57.3%, gloves 89.5%, soap 95% and hydroalcoholic solution 91.5%. In PPE, FPP2, FPP3 mask, goggles and disposable gowns at around50%. The availability of protective measures, by field of work, presented significant differences. The average number of patients attended related to the performance of hand hygiene at moment 4 and the perception of performing it correctly at moments 4 and 5. CONCLUSIONS: Preliminary data are presented, with variability in the response rate by Autonomous Region. Healthcare professionals infected by SARS-CoV-2 identified the management of the chain of infection transmission, the use and adequacy of protective equipment, as well as the effectiveness of handwashing as factors related to the transmission of the virus among professionals


Assuntos
Humanos , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/epidemiologia , Planos e Programas de Saúde , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/prevenção & controle , Espanha/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Betacoronavirus
9.
World J Gastroenterol ; 26(38): 5749-5758, 2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33132632

RESUMO

Since the outbreak of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), various measures have been taken to protect against the infection. As droplet and contact transmission are the main routes of COVID-19 infection, endoscopy centers are considered to be high-risk areas for exposure to COVID-19. We have undertaken several countermeasures in our endoscopic center during the pandemic, and have gained significant experience in terms of prevention and control of COVID-19. We here present our experience and strategies adopted for preventing hospital infection in our endoscopy center during the COVID-19 pandemic. We describe our management of the environment, endoscope, patients, and medical staff, and our self-made masks.


Assuntos
Desinfecção , Endoscopia Gastrointestinal/métodos , Planejamento Ambiental , Controle de Infecções/organização & administração , Admissão e Escalonamento de Pessoal , Betacoronavirus , China , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão
10.
J Acoust Soc Am ; 148(4): 1824, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33138499

RESUMO

Peru declared a state of emergency on March 16 in order to prevent SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) transmissions; thus, the International Airport was closed and the soundscape of urban zones under the flight tracks have been changed in view of the fact that airplane traffic was suspended. The authors have been conducting noise monitoring since February and because of that sufficient noise data for knowing the soundscape before and during the lockdown were obtained. This article presents a case of aircraft annoyance noise in one of Lima's city districts, which is near the aircraft climbing curve, toward the ocean on departure from Lima.


Assuntos
Viagem Aérea , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Exposição Ambiental/prevenção & controle , Humor Irritável , Ruído dos Transportes/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Isolamento Social , Saúde da População Urbana , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Peru , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Espectrografia do Som , Fatores de Tempo
11.
J Acoust Soc Am ; 148(4): 2096, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33138536

RESUMO

Brass wind instruments with long sections of cylindrical pipe, such as trumpets and trombones, sound "brassy" when played at a fortissimo level due to the generation of a shock front in the instrument. It has been suggested that these shock fronts may increase the spread of COVID-19 by propelling respiratory particles containing the SARS-CoV-2 virus several meters due to particle entrainment in the low pressure area behind the shocks. To determine the likelihood of this occurring, fluorescent particles, ranging in size from 10-50 µm, were dropped into the shock regions produced by a trombone, a trumpet, and a shock tube. Preliminary results indicate that propagation of small airborne particles by the shock fronts radiating from brass wind instruments is unlikely.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Exposição por Inalação/prevenção & controle , Música , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Isolamento Social , Aerossóis , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Desenho de Equipamento , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Movimento (Física) , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Tamanho da Partícula , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/virologia
12.
Dermatol Online J ; 26(10)2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33147660

RESUMO

Owing to the evolving COVID-19 pandemic and emerging data regarding immunosuppressant therapies for inflammatory cutaneous diseases, dermatologists are being encouraged to reevaluate their patients' treatment regimens to minimize any potential risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection. This article includes an overview of the up-to-date international and U.S. treatment guidelines for psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, hidradenitis suppurativa, and acne/rosacea; it provides tables summarizing these resources to assist providers and patients in remaining updated regarding recommended treatment modifications during the pandemic (See Tables 1-4).


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Dermatite Atópica/tratamento farmacológico , Hidradenite Supurativa/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Psoríase/tratamento farmacológico , Rosácea/tratamento farmacológico , Produtos Biológicos/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Humanos , Imunossupressores , Internacionalidade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Estados Unidos
13.
Niger Postgrad Med J ; 27(4): 268-270, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33154277

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a highly infectious coronavirus, has been rapidly spreading after its surge in China in December 2019. It is currently a global pandemic. A myriad of transmission routes have been documented, however established thus far, are respiratory droplet, contact and airborne transmissions. Susceptible persons at proximity, usually within 1-2 m, to infected persons are largely at risk of being infected. Unfortunately, health workers usually evaluate patients within this distance. Eye care professionals (ECPs) are faced with a higher risk scenario of being infected as they undertake routine clinical eye examination procedures at a close face-to-face proximity to patients, which place them at a high risk of respiratory droplets and aerosolised particles, particularly from asymptomatic and pre-symptomatic carriers. The slit lamp examination procedure is typically at a distance of between 0.25 m and 0.5 m. While undertaking certain procedures on the slit lamp, such as gonioscopy and slit lamp indirect ophthalmoscopy, the ECP holds the accessory lenses either directly on the patient's eye or at about 5-10 cm from the patient's face, respectively. The authors found it pertinent to articulate this narrative review article to guide slit lamp examination practice by ECPs during routine ophthalmic evaluation, with a view to reducing the spread of SARS-CoV-2 to ECPs. In conclusion, ECPs are at increased risk of infection due to high-risk scenarios for routine slit lamp examination procedures of the eye. Adherence to standard precautionary measures with slit lamp use is highly recommended.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Oftalmologia/métodos , Optometria/métodos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Microscopia com Lâmpada de Fenda , Betacoronavirus , Humanos , Nigéria , Risco
15.
Biomedica ; 40(Supl. 2): 44-49, 2020 10 30.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33152187

RESUMO

During the SARS COV-2 pandemic, the vast majority of infected patients are showing symptoms related to lung damage. At pediatric ages, especially newborns, symptoms from other organ systems without respiratory illness could make COVID-19 hard to diagnose. We are reporting three cases of newborns who were attended in the course of the mitigation phase in the emergency service of a maternal hospital in Barranquilla, Colombia, for high temperature and general compromised condition. During their clinical course, they developed gastrointestinal symptoms without showing any respiratory manifestations. They were not epidemiologically linked to a contact suspected to be a COVID-19 case and their mothers had had no respiratory symptoms since the public health emergency in our country was declared 45 days before. The absence of clinical respiratory manifestations in this group of patients with COVID-19 should draw clinicians' attention to the need to suspect SARS CoV-2 infection in febrile newborns.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Febre/etiologia , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa , Sepse Neonatal/etiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Adolescente , Adulto , Doenças Assintomáticas , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Diarreia Infantil/etiologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Enterocolite Necrosante/diagnóstico , Feminino , Produtos de Degradação da Fibrina e do Fibrinogênio/análise , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Sepse Neonatal/virologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/virologia , Migrantes , Adulto Jovem
16.
Biomedica ; 40(Supl. 2): 73-76, 2020 10 30.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33152190

RESUMO

Amid the global pandemic crisis, international concern has centered on the control and prevention measures aimed at reducing the speed of the virus transmission while a more radical sanitary measure, such as vaccines, is achieved. Governmental and social efforts have had great impact on various sectors of society and their consequences have exceeded the sphere of health. This essay discusses the scope of specific measures in the sense of the appropriation of risk control measures and proposes the epidemiological method as an alternative that goes beyond the quantification of risks and the attribution of responsibilities. To conclude, the emphasis is placed on the need to promote information about socialization processes to better understand the consequences of individual acts favoring alternatives other than pandemic control based on the use of coercive measures.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Autocuidado , Mudança Social , Responsabilidade Social , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/organização & administração , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Saúde Pública , Política Pública , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Fatores Socioeconômicos
17.
Biomedica ; 40(Supl. 2): 180-187, 2020 10 30.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33152202

RESUMO

The pandemic caused by COVID19 is associated with an increase in the number of cases of cardiorespiratory arrest, which has resulted in ethical concerns regarding the enforceability of cardiopulmonary resuscitation, as well as the conditions to carry it out. The risk of aerosol transmission and the clinical uncertainties about the efficacy, the potential sequelae, and the circumstances that could justify limiting this procedure during the pandemic have multiplied the ethical doubts on how to proceed in these cases. Based on ethical and legal grounds, this paper offers a practical guide on how to proceed in the clinical setting in cases of cardiopulmonary arrest during the pandemic. The criteria of justice, benefit, no harm, respect for autonomy, precaution, integrity, and transparency are asserted in an organized and practical framework for decision-making regarding cardiopulmonary resuscitation.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/ética , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Parada Cardíaca/terapia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Diretivas Antecipadas , Aerossóis , Microbiologia do Ar , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/métodos , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Parada Cardíaca/etiologia , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Paciente para o Profissional/prevenção & controle , Futilidade Médica , Exposição Ocupacional , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Autonomia Pessoal , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Justiça Social
20.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 19589, 2020 11 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33177563

RESUMO

Evidence suggests that SARS-CoV-2, as well as other coronaviruses, can be dispersed and potentially transmitted by aerosols directly or via ventilation systems. We therefore investigated ventilation openings in one COVID-19 ward and central ducts that expel indoor air from three COVID-19 wards at Uppsala University Hospital, Sweden, during April and May 2020. Swab samples were taken from individual ceiling ventilation openings and surfaces in central ducts. Samples were subsequently subjected to rRT-PCR targeting the N and E genes of SARS-CoV-2. Central ventilation HEPA filters, located several stories above the wards, were removed and portions analyzed in the same manner. In two subsequent samplings, SARS-CoV-2 N and E genes were detected in seven and four out of 19 room vents, respectively. Central ventilation HEPA exhaust filters from the ward were found positive for both genes in three samples. Corresponding filters from two other, adjacent COVID-19 wards were also found positive. Infective ability of the samples was assessed by inoculation of susceptible cell cultures but could not be determined in these experiments. Detection of SARS-CoV-2 in central ventilation systems, distant from patient areas, indicate that virus can be transported long distances and that droplet transmission alone cannot reasonably explain this, especially considering the relatively low air change rates in these wards. Airborne transmission of SARS-CoV-2 must be taken into consideration for preventive measures.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Hospitais , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Aerossóis , Animais , Betacoronavirus/genética , Chlorocebus aethiops , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Filtração , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , RNA Viral/análise , Ventilação , Células Vero
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA