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1.
Acta Vet Hung ; 68(3): 275-284, 2020 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33221738

RESUMO

The causative role of some infectious agents found in cases of feline pneumonia is under debate, because they are also part of the physiological microbiota of the respiratory tract of healthy animals. In this retrospective study, archived formalin-fixed and paraffin-wax-embedded lung samples of 69 severe and lethal cases of pneumonia in cats were examined by immunohistochemistry (IHC) for the detection of nine selected infectious agents: Pasteurella multocida, Bordetella bronchiseptica, Mycoplasma felis, M. gateae, Chlamydia felis, feline herpesvirus type 1, feline coronavirus, canine distemper virus, and Toxoplasma gondii. The intention was to elucidate their immediate involvement in pneumonia formation. Due to the cross-reactivity of the applied antibodies, a species-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for both targeted Mycoplasma species was applied additionally. In the 42 cases (60.9%) positive for at least one pathogen, several agents were present in a high proportion of the samples (P. multocida - 34.8%, B. bronchiseptica - 29.0%), while others were present in a moderate (feline herpesvirus type 1 - 18.8%, M. gateae - 13.0%, M. felis - 10.1%) or low percentage (T. gondii - 1.4%). All samples were negative for C. felis, feline coronavirus and canine distemper virus. Mixed infections of up to four pathogens were more frequent than single infections. Mycoplasma preferably colonised lung tissue damaged by other pathogens because they never occurred as single infections. Pasteurella multocida, B. bronchiseptica, M. felis, feline herpesvirus type 1 and T. gondii showed abundant replication within lung lesions, thus suggesting a prominent role in pneumonia formation.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/microbiologia , Pulmão/microbiologia , Pneumonia/veterinária , Animais , Doenças do Gato/patologia , Doenças do Gato/virologia , Gatos , Pulmão/patologia , Pulmão/virologia , Pneumonia/microbiologia , Pneumonia/patologia , Pneumonia/virologia , Pneumonia Bacteriana/microbiologia , Pneumonia Bacteriana/patologia , Pneumonia Bacteriana/veterinária , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/veterinária , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Estudos Retrospectivos
2.
Vet Q ; 40(1): 322-330, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33138721

RESUMO

Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is a viral-induced, immune-mediated disease of cats caused by virulent biotypes of feline coronaviruses (FCoV), known as the feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV). Historically, three major pharmacological approaches have been employed to treat FIP: (1) immunomodulators to stimulate the patient's immune system non-specifically to reduce the clinical effects of the virus through a robust immune response, (2) immunosuppressive agents to dampen clinical signs temporarily, and (3) re-purposed human antiviral drugs, all of which have been unsuccessful to date in providing reliable efficacious treatment options for FIPV. Recently, antiviral studies investigating the broad-spectrum coronavirus protease inhibitor, GC376, and the adenosine nucleoside analogue GS-441524, have resulted in increased survival rates and clinical cure in many patients. However, prescriber access to these antiviral therapies is currently problematic as they have not yet obtained registration for veterinary use. Consequently, FIP remains challenging to treat. The purpose of this review is to provide an update on the current status of therapeutics for FIP. Additionally, due to interest in coronaviruses resulting from the current human pandemic, this review provides information on domesticated cats identified as SARS-CoV-2 positive.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Peritonite Infecciosa Felina/tratamento farmacológico , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Pandemias/veterinária , Pneumonia Viral/veterinária , Animais , COVID-19 , Gatos , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , SARS-CoV-2
3.
mBio ; 11(5)2020 10 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33051368

RESUMO

Despite numerous barriers to transmission, zoonoses are the major cause of emerging infectious diseases in humans. Among these, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), and ebolaviruses have killed thousands; the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has killed millions. Zoonoses and human-to-animal cross-species transmission are driven by human actions and have important management, conservation, and public health implications. The current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, which presumably originated from an animal reservoir, has killed more than half a million people around the world and cases continue to rise. In March 2020, New York City was a global epicenter for SARS-CoV-2 infections. During this time, four tigers and three lions at the Bronx Zoo, NY, developed mild, abnormal respiratory signs. We detected SARS-CoV-2 RNA in respiratory secretions and/or feces from all seven animals, live virus in three, and colocalized viral RNA with cellular damage in one. We produced nine whole SARS-CoV-2 genomes from the animals and keepers and identified different SARS-CoV-2 genotypes in the tigers and lions. Epidemiologic and genomic data indicated human-to-tiger transmission. These were the first confirmed cases of natural SARS-CoV-2 animal infections in the United States and the first in nondomestic species in the world. We highlight disease transmission at a nontraditional interface and provide information that contributes to understanding SARS-CoV-2 transmission across species.IMPORTANCE The human-animal-environment interface of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is an important aspect of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic that requires robust One Health-based investigations. Despite this, few reports describe natural infections in animals or directly link them to human infections using genomic data. In the present study, we describe the first cases of natural SARS-CoV-2 infection in tigers and lions in the United States and provide epidemiological and genetic evidence for human-to-animal transmission of the virus. Our data show that tigers and lions were infected with different genotypes of SARS-CoV-2, indicating two independent transmission events to the animals. Importantly, infected animals shed infectious virus in respiratory secretions and feces. A better understanding of the susceptibility of animal species to SARS-CoV-2 may help to elucidate transmission mechanisms and identify potential reservoirs and sources of infection that are important in both animal and human health.


Assuntos
Animais de Zoológico/virologia , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Pandemias/veterinária , Panthera/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/veterinária , Animais , Betacoronavirus/classificação , Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , COVID-19 , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Genoma Viral/genética , Haplótipos , Humanos , Cidade de Nova Iorque/epidemiologia , Saúde Única , Filogenia , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/transmissão , Zoonoses/virologia
4.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 2278-2288, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33003988

RESUMO

The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 has resulted in an ongoing global pandemic with significant morbidity, mortality, and economic consequences. The susceptibility of different animal species to SARS-CoV-2 is of concern due to the potential for interspecies transmission, and the requirement for pre-clinical animal models to develop effective countermeasures. In the current study, we determined the ability of SARS-CoV-2 to (i) replicate in porcine cell lines, (ii) establish infection in domestic pigs via experimental oral/intranasal/intratracheal inoculation, and (iii) transmit to co-housed naïve sentinel pigs. SARS-CoV-2 was able to replicate in two different porcine cell lines with cytopathic effects. Interestingly, none of the SARS-CoV-2-inoculated pigs showed evidence of clinical signs, viral replication or SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody responses. Moreover, none of the sentinel pigs displayed markers of SARS-CoV-2 infection. These data indicate that although different porcine cell lines are permissive to SARS-CoV-2, five-week old pigs are not susceptible to infection via oral/intranasal/intratracheal challenge. Pigs are therefore unlikely to be significant carriers of SARS-CoV-2 and are not a suitable pre-clinical animal model to study SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis or efficacy of respective vaccines or therapeutics.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Pandemias/veterinária , Pneumonia Viral/veterinária , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Animais , Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , COVID-19 , Linhagem Celular , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Reservatórios de Doenças , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Feminino , Masculino , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , RNA Viral/sangue , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa/veterinária , SARS-CoV-2 , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/imunologia , Doenças dos Suínos/patologia , Doenças dos Suínos/transmissão , Cultura de Vírus , Replicação Viral , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
5.
Virol J ; 17(1): 143, 2020 10 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33008410

RESUMO

On 11 March 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) announced Corona Virus Disease (COVID-19), a disease caused by a pathogen called Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a pandemic. This ongoing pandemic has now been reported in 215 countries with more than 23 million confirmed cases and more than 803 thousand deaths worldwide as of August 22, 2020. Although efforts are undergoing, there is no approved vaccine or any specific antiretroviral drug to treat COVID-19 so far. It is now known that SARS-CoV-2 can affect not only humans but also pets and other domestic and wild animals, making it a one health global problem. Several published scientific evidence has shown that bats are the initial reservoir hosts of SARS-CoV-2, and pangolins are suggested as an intermediate hosts. So far, little is known concerning the role of pets and other animals in the transmission of COVID-19. Therefore, updated knowledge about the potential role of pets in the current outbreak will be of paramount importance for effective prevention and control of the disease. This review summarized the current evidence about the role of pets and other animals in the transmission of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Pandemias/veterinária , Animais de Estimação/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/veterinária , Zoonoses/transmissão , Animais , Animais Domésticos/virologia , Animais Selvagens/virologia , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , COVID-19 , Quirópteros/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Saúde Global , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle , Zoonoses/virologia
6.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 2322-2332, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33028154

RESUMO

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the cause of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) and responsible for the current pandemic. Recent SARS-CoV-2 susceptibility studies in cats show that the virus can replicate in these companion animals and transmit to other cats. Here, we present an in-depth study of SARS-CoV-2 infection, disease and transmission in domestic cats. Cats were challenged with SARS-CoV-2 via intranasal and oral routes. One day post challenge (DPC), two sentinel cats were introduced. Animals were monitored for clinical signs, clinicopathological abnormalities and viral shedding. Postmortem examinations were performed at 4, 7 and 21 DPC. Viral RNA was not detected in blood but transiently in nasal, oropharyngeal and rectal swabs and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid as well as various tissues. Tracheobronchoadenitis of submucosal glands with the presence of viral RNA and antigen was observed in airways of the infected cats. Serology showed that both, principals and sentinels, developed antibodies to SARS-CoV-2. All animals were clinically asymptomatic during the course of the study and capable of transmitting SARS-CoV-2 to sentinels. The results of this study are critical for understanding the clinical course of SARS-CoV-2 in a naturally susceptible host species, and for risk assessment.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Doenças do Gato/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Pandemias/veterinária , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/veterinária , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/química , COVID-19 , Doenças do Gato/patologia , Doenças do Gato/virologia , Gatos , Linhagem Celular , Chlorocebus aethiops , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Masculino , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , RNA Viral/análise , RNA Viral/isolamento & purificação , SARS-CoV-2 , Células Vero , Replicação Viral
7.
Commun Biol ; 3(1): 641, 2020 10 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33110195

RESUMO

The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 has caused over a million human deaths and massive global disruption. The viral infection may also represent a threat to our closest living relatives, nonhuman primates. The contact surface of the host cell receptor, ACE2, displays amino acid residues that are critical for virus recognition, and variations at these critical residues modulate infection susceptibility. Infection studies have shown that some primate species develop COVID-19-like symptoms; however, the susceptibility of most primates is unknown. Here, we show that all apes and African and Asian monkeys (catarrhines), exhibit the same set of twelve key amino acid residues as human ACE2. Monkeys in the Americas, and some tarsiers, lemurs and lorisoids, differ at critical contact residues, and protein modeling predicts that these differences should greatly reduce SARS-CoV-2 binding affinity. Other lemurs are predicted to be closer to catarrhines in their susceptibility. Our study suggests that apes and African and Asian monkeys, and some lemurs, are likely to be highly susceptible to SARS-CoV-2. Urgent actions have been undertaken to limit the exposure of great apes to humans, and similar efforts may be necessary for many other primate species.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Especificidade de Hospedeiro/genética , Pandemias/veterinária , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/genética , Pneumonia Viral/veterinária , Doenças dos Primatas/enzimologia , Primatas/genética , Receptores Virais/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2 , Animais , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Evolução Biológica , COVID-19 , Quirópteros/genética , Sequência Conservada , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mamíferos/genética , Modelos Moleculares , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/química , Filogenia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Mutação Puntual , Doenças dos Primatas/virologia , Ligação Proteica , Conformação Proteica , Risco , SARS-CoV-2 , Alinhamento de Sequência , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos , Especificidade da Espécie , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo
8.
Vet Res Commun ; 44(3-4): 119-130, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32926266

RESUMO

Coronaviruses are a large family of viruses that are known to infect both humans and animals. However, the evidence of inter-transmission of coronavirus between humans and companion animals is still a debatable issue. There is substantial evidence that the virus outbreak is fueled by zoonotic transmission because this new virus belongs to the same family of viruses as SARS-CoV associated with civet cats, and MERS-CoV associated with dromedary camels. While the whole world is investigating the possibility about the transmission of this virus, the transmission among humans is established, but the interface between humans and animals is not much evident. Not only are the lives of human beings at risk, but there is an equal potential threat to the animal world. With multiple reports claiming about much possibility of transmission of COVID-19 from humans to animals, there has been a significant increase in the number of pets being abandoned by their owners. Additionally, the risk of reverse transmission of COVID-19 virus from companion pets like cats and dogs at home is yet another area of concern. The present article highlights different evidence of human-animal interface and necessitates the precautionary measures required to combat with the consequences of this interface. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the World Health Organization (WHO) have suggested various ways to promote awareness and corroborate practices for helping people as well as animals to stay secure and healthy.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Zoonoses/transmissão , Animais , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , COVID-19 , Gatos/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Cães/virologia , Furões/virologia , Humanos , Pandemias/veterinária , Pneumonia Viral/veterinária , Aves Domésticas/virologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Suínos/virologia , Zoonoses/virologia
9.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 2013-2019, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32867625

RESUMO

COVID-19 is a new respiratory illness caused by SARS-CoV-2, and has constituted a global public health emergency. Cat is susceptible to SARS-CoV-2. However, the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 in cats remains largely unknown. Here, we investigated the infection of SARS-CoV-2 in cats during COVID-19 outbreak in Wuhan by serological detection methods. A cohort of serum samples were collected from cats in Wuhan, including 102 sampled after COVID-19 outbreak, and 39 prior to the outbreak. Fifteen sera collected after the outbreak were positive for the receptor binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2 by indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Among them, 11 had SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies with a titer ranging from 1/20 to 1/1080. No serological cross-reactivity was detected between SARS-CoV-2 and type I or II feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV). In addition, we continuously monitored serum antibody dynamics of two positive cats every 10 days over 130 days. Their serum antibodies reached the peak at 10 days after first sampling, and declined to the limit of detection within 110 days. Our data demonstrated that SARS-CoV-2 has infected cats in Wuhan during the outbreak and described serum antibody dynamics in cats, providing an important reference for clinical treatment and prevention of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Pandemias/veterinária , Pneumonia Viral/veterinária , Animais , COVID-19 , Gatos , China , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo de Coronavírus , Coronavirus Felino/imunologia , Reações Cruzadas/imunologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo/imunologia , Fosfoproteínas , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia
10.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 16007, 2020 09 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32994418

RESUMO

Since severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) became a pandemic event in the world, it has not only caused huge economic losses, but also a serious threat to global public health. Many scientific questions about SARS-CoV-2 and Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) were raised and urgently need to be answered, including the susceptibility of animals to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Here we tested whether tree shrew, an emerging experimental animal domesticated from wild animal, is susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection. No clinical signs were observed in SARS-CoV-2 inoculated tree shrews during this experiment except the increasing body temperature particularly in female animals. Low levels of virus shedding and replication in tissues occurred in all three age groups. Notably, young tree shrews (6 months to 12 months) showed virus shedding at the earlier stage of infection than adult (2 years to 4 years) and old (5 years to 7 years) animals that had longer duration of virus shedding comparatively. Histopathological examine revealed that pulmonary abnormalities were the main changes but mild although slight lesions were also observed in other tissues. In summary, tree shrew is less susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection compared with the reported animal models and may not be a suitable animal for COVID-19 related researches. However, tree shrew may be a potential intermediate host of SARS-CoV-2 as an asymptomatic carrier.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Especificidade de Hospedeiro/fisiologia , Pandemias/veterinária , Pneumonia Viral/veterinária , Tupaiidae/virologia , Animais , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/veterinária , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/virologia , Feminino , Masculino , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Carga Viral , Eliminação de Partículas Virais/fisiologia
11.
J Spec Oper Med ; 20(3): 103-108, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32969012

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARSCov- 2) is hypothesized to have originated from a spillover event from an animal reservoir. This has raised many questions, with an important one being whether the widely disseminated coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is transmissible to other animal species. SARS-CoV-2 is primarily transmitted person to person. K9-to-human transmission, although theoretically possible via fomites, is considered minimal, if at all, and there have been no reported cases of K9-to-human transmission. Human-to-K9 transmission, although rare, seems more likely; however, in only one case has a K9 been suspected to have displayed symptoms of COVID-19. Preparation, decontamination, hand hygiene, and distancing remain the key factors in reducing transmission of the virus. The information presented is applicable to personnel operating within the military conventional and Special Operation Forces as well as civilian Tactical Emergency Medical Services communities who may have the responsibility of supporting an operational K9.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Cães/virologia , Militares , Pandemias/veterinária , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/veterinária , Animais , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 15917, 2020 09 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32985513

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 is the novel coronavirus responsible for the outbreak of COVID-19, a disease that has spread to over 100 countries and, as of the 26th July 2020, has infected over 16 million people. Despite the urgent need to find effective therapeutics, research on SARS-CoV-2 has been affected by a lack of suitable animal models. To facilitate the development of medical approaches and novel treatments, we compared the ACE2 receptor, and TMPRSS2 and Furin proteases usage of the SARS-CoV-2 Spike glycoprotein in human and in a panel of animal models, i.e. guinea pig, dog, cat, rat, rabbit, ferret, mouse, hamster and macaque. Here we showed that ACE2, but not TMPRSS2 or Furin, has a higher level of sequence variability in the Spike protein interaction surface, which greatly influences Spike protein binding mode. Using molecular docking simulations we compared the SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 Spike proteins in complex with the ACE2 receptor and showed that the SARS-CoV-2 Spike glycoprotein is compatible to bind the human ACE2 with high specificity. In contrast, TMPRSS2 and Furin are sufficiently similar in the considered hosts not to drive susceptibility differences. Computational analysis of binding modes and protein contacts indicates that macaque, ferrets and hamster are the most suitable models for the study of inhibitory antibodies and small molecules targeting the SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein interaction with ACE2. Since TMPRSS2 and Furin are similar across species, our data also suggest that transgenic animal models expressing human ACE2, such as the hACE2 transgenic mouse, are also likely to be useful models for studies investigating viral entry.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Pandemias/veterinária , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/veterinária , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos/genética , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2 , Animais , COVID-19 , Gatos , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Cricetinae , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Cães , Furões , Furina/genética , Furina/metabolismo , Cobaias , Humanos , Macaca fascicularis , Camundongos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/genética , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Coelhos , Ratos , SARS-CoV-2 , Serina Endopeptidases/genética , Serina Endopeptidases/metabolismo
14.
Cytokine ; 136: 155256, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866898

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has rapidly spread around the world with significant morbidity and mortality in a subset of patients including the elderly. The poorer outcomes are associated with 'cytokine storm-like' immune responses, otherwise referred to as 'hyperinflammation'. While most of the infected individuals show minimal or no symptoms and recover spontaneously, a small proportion of the patients exhibit severe symptoms characterized by extreme dyspnea and low tissue oxygen levels, with extensive damage to the lungs referred to as acute respiratory distress symptom (ARDS). The consensus is that the hyperinflammatory response of the host is akin to the cytokine storm observed during sepsis and is the major cause of death. Uncertainties remain on the factors that lead to hyperinflammatory response in some but not all individuals. Hyperinflammation is a common feature in different viral infections such as dengue where existing low-titer antibodies to the virus enhances the infection in immune cells through a process called antibody-dependent enhancement or ADE. ADE has been reported following vaccination or secondary infections with other corona, Ebola and dengue virus. Detailed analysis has shown that antibodies to any viral epitope can induce ADE when present in sub-optimal titers or is of low affinity. In this review we will discuss ADE in the context of dengue and coronavirus infections including Covid-19.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Facilitadores/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Peritonite Infecciosa Felina/imunologia , Inflamação/patologia , Pandemias/veterinária , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/veterinária , Dengue Grave/imunologia , Animais , COVID-19 , Gatos , Citocinas/metabolismo
15.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(40): 24790-24793, 2020 10 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32948692

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the etiological agent of COVID-19, is considered a zoonotic pathogen mainly transmitted human to human. Few reports indicate that pets may be exposed to the virus. The present report describes a cat suffering from severe respiratory distress and thrombocytopenia living with a family with several members affected by COVID-19. Clinical signs of the cat prompted humanitarian euthanasia and a detailed postmortem investigation to assess whether a COVID-19-like disease was causing the condition. Necropsy results showed the animal suffered from feline hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and severe pulmonary edema and thrombosis. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was only detected in nasal swab, nasal turbinates, and mesenteric lymph node, but no evidence of histopathological lesions compatible with a viral infection were detected. The cat seroconverted against SARS-CoV-2, further evidencing a productive infection in this animal. We conclude that the animal had a subclinical SARS-CoV-2 infection concomitant to an unrelated cardiomyopathy that led to euthanasia.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/veterinária , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Pandemias/veterinária , Pneumonia Viral/veterinária , Animais , COVID-19 , Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/patologia , Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/virologia , Gatos , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Evolução Fatal , Humanos , Achados Incidentais , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , SARS-CoV-2
16.
J Transl Med ; 18(1): 358, 2020 09 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32957995

RESUMO

COVID-19 caused by a novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) originated in Wuhan (Hubei province, China) during late 2019. It has spread across the globe affecting nearly 21 million people with a toll of 0.75 million deaths and restricting the movement of most of the world population during the past 6 months. COVID-19 became the leading health, economic, and humanitarian challenge of the twenty-first century. In addition to the considerable COVID-19 cases, hospitalizations, and deaths in humans, several cases of SARS-CoV-2 infections in animal hosts (dog, cat, tiger, lion, and mink) have been reported. Thus, the concern of pet owners is increasing. Moreover, the dynamics of the disease requires further explanation, mainly concerning the transmission of the virus from humans to animals and vice versa. Therefore, this study aimed to gather information about the reported cases of COVID-19 transmission in animals through a literary review of works published in scientific journals and perform genomic and phylogenetic analyses of SARS-CoV-2 isolated from animal hosts. Although many instances of transmission of the SARS-CoV-2 have been reported, caution and further studies are necessary to avoid the occurrence of maltreatment in animals, and to achieve a better understanding of the dynamics of the disease in the environment, humans, and animals. Future research in the animal-human interface can help formulate and implement preventive measures to combat the further transmission of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Pandemias/veterinária , Pneumonia Viral/veterinária , Zoonoses/transmissão , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Betacoronavirus/classificação , Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , COVID-19 , Gatos , Coronavirus/classificação , Coronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Reservatórios de Doenças/veterinária , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Cães , Genoma Viral , Humanos , Vison/virologia , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Exposição Ocupacional , Animais de Estimação/virologia , Filogenia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , SARS-CoV-2 , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Pesquisa Médica Translacional , Zoonoses/epidemiologia
17.
ACS Chem Neurosci ; 11(19): 2903-2905, 2020 10 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32945160

RESUMO

Several lines of evidence suggest the presence of severe acute respiratory coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) in wastewater. The use of sewage water for irrigation is common in many developing countries, and it is only partially treated in the majority of countries with less than 10% of collected wastewater receiving any form of treatment globally. Wastewater is unsafe for human and animal consumption and contains impurities and microbial pathogens. Here, we pose the question of whether the reuse of untreated or partially treated wastewater for irrigation can expose susceptible populations and pets, leading to COVID-19 disease recurrence in the community? It is imperative to study the ecological relationships between humans, animals, and environmental health in relation to COVID-19 to contribute to a "One Health Concept" to design preventative strategies and attain optimal health for people, animals, and the environment.


Assuntos
Irrigação Agrícola/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Águas Residuárias/virologia , Animais , Animais Domésticos/virologia , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Humanos , Pandemias/veterinária , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/veterinária , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2 , Esgotos/virologia , Purificação da Água/métodos
19.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(2): 236-244, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32796792

RESUMO

Infection with the new corona virus (SARS-CoV-2) was first registered in December 2019 in China, and then later spread rapidly to the rest of the world. On December 31, 2019, the World Health Organization (WHO) informed the public for the first time about causes of pneumonnia of unknown origin, in the city of Wuhan (Hubei Province, China), in people who were epidemiologically linked to a seafood and wet animal whole sale local market in Wuhan. Coronavrus disease, called COVID-19 (Corona virus disease 2019), after China quickly spread to most countries in the wold, and the WHO on March 11, 2020 declared a pandmic with this virus. SARS-CoV-2, has a high level of sequential similarities to the SARS-CoV-1 and uses the same receptors when it enters the human body (angiotensin-converting enzyme 2/ACE2). COVID-19 is respiratry infection that is primarily transmitted via respiratry droplets. Typical symptoms of COVID-19 infection can be very moderate (infected can be even asymptomatic) to very severe, with severe respiratory symptoms (bilateral severe pneumonia), septic schock, and fatal outcome. Numeous unknows regarding the biological, epidemilogical adn clinical characteristics of COVID-19, still exist, and make it impossible to predict with certainty the further course of the current pandemic. COVID-19 is primarily a disease of the respiratory system, but SARS-CoV-2, in a number of patients also penetrates the CNS, and apparently could be responsible for fatal outcome in some cases. The entrry of the virus into the brain can lead to neurological and psychiatric manifestationss, which are not uncommon, including headache, paresthesia, myalgia, impaired consciousnessm, confusion or delirum and cerebrovascular diseases. SARS-CoV-2 positive individuals should be evaluated in a timely manner for neurological and psychiatic symptoms because tretament of infection-related neurological and psychiatric complications is an important factor in better prognosis of severe COVID-19 patients.From the current point of view, it seems that in COVID-19 survivors, in the coming years and decades, the inflammatory systemic process and/or the inflammatory process of the brain could trigger long-term mechanisms that generally lead to an increase of neurological and neurodegenerative disorders. Psychosocial consequences as well as consequences for mental health are also significant, both for the general population and especially for health workers of all profiles. COVID-19 pandemia is associtaed with negative psychosocial consequences, including depressive symptoms, anxiety, anger and stress, sleep disorders, simpotms of posttrauamtic stres disorder, social isolation, loneliness and stigmatization.


Assuntos
Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Animais , COVID-19 , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Humanos , Pandemias/veterinária , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/veterinária
20.
Open Vet J ; 10(2): 164-177, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32821661

RESUMO

Viruses are having great time as they seem to have bogged humans down. Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), and novel coronavirus (COVID-19) are the three major coronaviruses of present-day global human and animal health concern. COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 is identified as the newest disease, presumably of bat origin. Different theories on the evolution of viruses are in circulation, yet there is no denying the fact that the animal source is the skeleton. The whole world is witnessing the terror of the COVID-19 pandemic that is following the same path of SARS and MERS, and seems to be more severe. In addition to humans, several species of animals are reported to have been infected with these life-threatening viruses. The possible routes of transmission and their zoonotic potentialities are the subjects of intense research. This review article aims to overview the link of all these three deadly coronaviruses among animals along with their phylogenic evolution and cross-species transmission. This is essential since animals as pets or food are said to pose some risk, and their better understanding is a must in order to prepare a possible plan for future havoc in both human and animal health. Although COVID-19 is causing a human health hazard globally, its reporting in animals are limited compared to SARS and MERS. Non-human primates and carnivores are most susceptible to SARS-coronavirus and SARS-CoV-2, respectively, whereas the dromedary camel is susceptible to MERS-coronavirus. Phylogenetically, the trio viruses are reported to have originated from bats and have special capacity to undergo mutation and genomic recombination in order to infect humans through its reservoir or replication host. However, it is difficult to analyze how the genomic pattern of coronaviruses occurs. Thus, increased possibility of new virus-variants infecting humans and animals in the upcoming days seems to be the biggest challenge for the future of the world. One health approach is portrayed as our best way ahead, and understanding the animal dimension will go a long way in formulating such preparedness plans.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/classificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/classificação , Pandemias/veterinária , Pneumonia Viral/veterinária , Vírus da SARS/classificação , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/veterinária , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Betacoronavirus/genética , COVID-19 , Camelídeos Americanos/virologia , Camelus/virologia , Gatos , Quirópteros/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/veterinária , Cães , Eutérios/virologia , Furões/virologia , Humanos , Leões/virologia , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/genética , Filogenia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Primatas/virologia , Cães Guaxinins/virologia , Vírus da SARS/genética , SARS-CoV-2 , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/imunologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/transmissão , Serpentes/virologia , Tigres/virologia , Viverridae/virologia
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