Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 2.133
Filtrar
1.
World J Gastroenterol ; 26(19): 2286-2293, 2020 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32476793

RESUMO

In December 2019, a novel coronavirus named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was identified in Wuhan, China causing coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). Numerous studies have shown varying degrees of liver damage in patients infected with SARS-CoV-2. However, in previous case studies of COVID-19, the exact cause of liver injury has not been clearly elucidated, nor is there clear evidence of the interaction between liver injury and COVID-19. This study will analyze the causes of liver injury in COVID-19 and the influence of liver-related complications on the treatment and prognosis of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Hepatopatias/terapia , Hepatopatias/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Betacoronavirus , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Fígado/virologia , Hepatopatias/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Prognóstico
2.
World J Gastroenterol ; 26(19): 2323-2332, 2020 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32476796

RESUMO

The severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) that causes coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) is a global pandemic, manifested by an infectious pneumonia. Although patients primarily present with fever, cough and dyspnea, some patients also develop gastrointestinal (GI) and hepatic manifestations. The most common GI symptoms reported are diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, and abdominal discomfort. Liver chemistry abnormalities are common and include elevation of aspartate transferase, alanine transferase, and total bilirubin. Studies have shown that SARS-CoV-2 infects the GI tract via its viral receptor angiotensin converting enzyme II, which is expressed on enterocytes of the ileum and colon. Viral RNA has also been isolated from stool specimens of COVID-19 patients, which raised the concern for fecal-oral transmission in addition to droplet transmission. Although indirect evidence has suggested possible fecal-oral transmission of SARS-CoV-2, more effort is needed to establish the role of the fecal-oral transmission route. Further research will help elucidate the association between patients with underlying GI diseases, such as chronic liver disease and inflammatory bowel disease, and severity of COVID-19. In this review, we summarize the data on GI involvement to date, as well as the impact of COVID-19 on underlying GI diseases.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Gastroenteropatias/virologia , Hepatopatias/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa , Gastroenteropatias/epidemiologia , Gastroenteropatias/etiologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/virologia , Humanos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/epidemiologia , Fígado/virologia , Hepatopatias/epidemiologia , Hepatopatias/etiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/virologia
3.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 1254-1258, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32515685

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in China and quickly spread globally. In this study, we investigated the characteristics of viral shedding from different sites and the neutralizing antibody (NAb) response during the acute and convalescent phases of nine children with COVID-19. SARS-CoV-2 was detected in their nasopharyngeal swabs (9/9, 100%), stool samples (8/9, 89%), and oropharyngeal swabs (3/9, 33%) but was not detected in their serum and urine samples. The median duration of viral shedding detected in nasopharyngeal swabs, oropharyngeal swabs, and stools was 13, 4, and 43 days respectively, and the maximum duration of viral shedding detected from stools was 46 days after discharge. In children, nasopharyngeal swabs appear to be a more sensitive specimen type for the diagnosis of COVID-19 compared with oropharyngeal swabs. Three of eight patients produced NAbs in the acute phase, and NAbs were detected in all eight patients with convalescent sera. The results of this study provide valuable information for the diagnosis and surveillance of COVID-19 and development of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines for use in children.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/biossíntese , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Eliminação de Partículas Virais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Fezes/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Masculino , Nasofaringe/virologia , Orofaringe/virologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , RNA Viral/análise , Fatores de Tempo
4.
Front Immunol ; 11: 1059, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32477373

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic keeps the world in suspense. In addition to the fundamental challenges for the health care system, the individual departments must decide how to deal with patients at risk. Neurologists are confronted with the question, how they should advise their patients regarding immunosuppressive treatment. In particular, the large number of different disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) in the treatment of neuroimmunological diseases such as multiple sclerosis poses a challenge. To a limited extent, it might be useful to transfer knowledge from previous SARS- and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) coronavirus outbreaks in 2002/2003 and 2012 to the current situation. Overall, immunosuppressive therapy does neither seem to have a major impact on infection with SARS- and MERS-CoV nor does it seem to lead to a severe disease course in many cases. Considering the immunological responses against infections with novel coronaviruses in humans, interferons, glatiramer acetate, and teriflunomide appear to be safe. As lymphopenia seems to be associated with a more severe disease course, all DMTs causing lymphopenia, such as cladribine, alemtuzumab, and dimethyl fumarate, need to be reviewed more thoroughly. As they are, in general, associated with a higher risk of infection, depleting anti-CD20 antibodies may be problematic drugs. However, it has to be differentiated between the depletion phase and the phase of immune reconstitution. In summary, previous coronavirus outbreaks have not shown an increased risk for immunocompromised patients. Patients with severe neuroimmunological diseases should be kept from hasty discontinuation of immunotherapy.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Imunossupressão/métodos , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/imunologia , Esclerose Múltipla/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/imunologia , Fatores Etários , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Imunossupressores/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Fatores de Risco , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/virologia , Fatores Sexuais
5.
Fertil Steril ; 113(6): 1135-1139, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32482249

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-coronavirus 2 (CoV-2) in seminal fluid of patients recovering from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and to describe the expression profile of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and Transmembrane Serine Protease 2 (TMPRSS2) within the testicle. DESIGN: Observational, cross-sectional study. SETTING: Tertiary referral center. PATIENT(S): Thirty-four adult Chinese males diagnosed with COVID-19 through confirmatory quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) from pharyngeal swab samples. INTERVENTION(S): None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Identification of SARS-CoV-2 on qRT-PCR of single ejaculated semen samples. Semen quality was not assessed. Expression patterns of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 in the human testis are explored through previously published single-cell transcriptome datasets. RESULT(S): Six patients (19%) demonstrated scrotal discomfort suggestive of viral orchitis around the time of COVID-19 confirmation. Severe acute respiratory syndrome-CoV-2 was not detected in semen after a median of 31 days (interquartile range, 29-36 days) from COVID-19 diagnosis. Single-cell transcriptome analysis demonstrates sparse expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2, with almost no overlapping gene expression. CONCLUSION(S): Severe acute respiratory syndrome-CoV-2 was not detected in the semen of patients recovering from COVID-19 1 month after COVID-19 diagnosis. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2-mediated viral entry of SARS-CoV-2 into target host cells is unlikely to occur within the human testicle based on ACE2 and TMPRSS2 expression. The long-term effects of SARS-CoV-2 on male reproductive function remain unknown.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Sêmen/virologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Betacoronavirus/genética , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/enzimologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/genética , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/genética , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/enzimologia , Pneumonia Viral/genética , RNA-Seq , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Serina Endopeptidases/genética , Testículo/enzimologia , Testículo/virologia , Fatores de Tempo , Transcriptoma , Internalização do Vírus , Adulto Jovem
6.
Fertil Steril ; 113(6): 1140-1149, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32482250

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To summarize current understanding of the effects of novel and prior coronaviruses on human reproduction, specifically male and female gametes, and in pregnancy. DESIGN: Review of English publications in PubMed and Embase to April 6, 2020. METHOD(S): Articles were screened for reports including coronavirus, reproduction, pathophysiology, and pregnancy. INTERVENTION(S): None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Reproductive outcomes, effects on gametes, pregnancy outcomes, and neonatal complications. RESULT(S): Seventy-nine reports formed the basis of the review. Coronavirus binding to cells involves the S1 domain of the spike protein to receptors present in reproductive tissues, including angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2), CD26, Ezrin, and cyclophilins. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 1 (SARS-CoV-1) may cause severe orchitis leading to germ cell destruction in males. Reports indicate decreased sperm concentration and motility for 72-90 days following Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. Gonadotropin-dependent expression of ACE2 was found in human ovaries, but it is unclear whether SARS-Coronavirus 2 (CoV-2) adversely affects female gametogenesis. Evidence suggests that COVID-19 infection has a lower maternal case fatality rate than SARS or Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), but anecdotal reports suggest that infected, asymptomatic women may develop respiratory symptoms postpartum. Coronavirus Disease 2019 infections in pregnancy are associated with preterm delivery. Postpartum neonatal transmission from mother to child has been reported. CONCLUSION(S): Coronavirus Disease 2019 infection may affect adversely some pregnant women and their offspring. Additional studies are needed to assess effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection on male and female fertility.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Infertilidade Feminina/virologia , Infertilidade Masculina/virologia , Orquite/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Reprodução , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Feminino , Fertilidade , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Infertilidade Feminina/diagnóstico , Infertilidade Feminina/fisiopatologia , Infertilidade Masculina/diagnóstico , Infertilidade Masculina/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Orquite/diagnóstico , Orquite/fisiopatologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/fisiopatologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/virologia , Resultado da Gravidez , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Contagem de Espermatozoides , Motilidade Espermática
7.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234025, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32492045

RESUMO

Protecting Health Care Workers (HCWs) during routine care of suspected or confirmed COVID-19 patients is of paramount importance to halt the SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus-2) pandemic. The WHO, ECDC and CDC have issued conflicting guidelines on the use of respiratory filters (N95) by HCWs. We searched PubMed, Embase and The Cochrane Library from the inception to March 21, 2020 to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing N95 respirators versus surgical masks for prevention of COVID-19 or any other respiratory infection among HCWs. The grading of recommendations, assessment, development, and evaluation (GRADE) was used to evaluate the quality of evidence. Four RCTs involving 8736 HCWs were included. We did not find any trial specifically on prevention of COVID-19. However, wearing N95 respirators can prevent 73 more (95% CI 46-91) clinical respiratory infections per 1000 HCWs compared to surgical masks (2 RCTs; 2594 patients; low quality of evidence). A protective effect of N95 respirators in laboratory-confirmed bacterial colonization (RR = 0.41; 95%CI 0.28-0.61) was also found. A trend in favour of N95 respirators was observed in preventing laboratory-confirmed respiratory viral infections, laboratory-confirmed respiratory infection, and influenza like illness. We found no direct high quality evidence on whether N95 respirators are better than surgical masks for HCWs protection from SARS-CoV-2. However, low quality evidence suggests that N95 respirators protect HCWs from clinical respiratory infections. This finding should be contemplated to decide the best strategy to support the resilience of healthcare systems facing the potentially catastrophic SARS-CoV-2 pandemic.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pessoal de Saúde , Controle de Infecções , Máscaras , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Dispositivos de Proteção Respiratória , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
8.
Trials ; 21(1): 474, 2020 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32493459

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Objective: To undertake a pilot, feasibility RCT of umbilical cord blood derived cell therapy for treatment of adult patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 virus related moderate-to-severe pneumonia to prevent progression to severe ARDS. HYPOTHESIS: Expanded cord blood derived cell therapy will be feasible, well tolerated and show potential efficacy in the treatment of acute COVID-19 related moderate to severe pneumonia in adult patients because of their powerful anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties. TRIAL DESIGN: Pilot, parallel design randomised controlled trial. PARTICIPANTS: The trial will recruit 24 hospitalised patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection and pneumonia from July to December 2020 at Monash Medical Centre in Melbourne, Australia. INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: Intervention: Intravenous injection of expanded umbilical cord blood cells at a dose of 5 million cells/kg (maximum dose - 500 million cells). Cell infusion will occur over 30-60 minutes through a peripheral intravenous cannula. Standard supportive care will continue as needed. Comparator: Standard supportive care. MAIN OUTCOMES: Safety and tolerability of cell administration within first 24 hours of administration; clinical improvement on a seven-category clinical improvement ordinal scale. RANDOMISATION: Randomisation will be done using computer generated allocation to intervention/ control groups in a 1:1 ratio (in blocks of 6) using sealed opaque envelopes. BLINDING (MASKING): This will be an unblinded study, given that it is the first study using expanded cord blood cells in COVID-19 patients. There will be no placebo infusion. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMISED (SAMPLE SIZE): Twelve participants in each group. Total n=24. TRIAL STATUS: CBC-19 protocol v2, dated 23rd April 2020. Recruitment has not started yet. Estimated recruitment timeline is between 1st July - 31st December 2020. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, ACTRN12620000478910, registered 16th April 2020. FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest in expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Transplante de Células-Tronco de Sangue do Cordão Umbilical , Infecções por Coronavirus/cirurgia , Pneumonia Viral/cirurgia , Transplante de Células-Tronco de Sangue do Cordão Umbilical/efeitos adversos , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Progressão da Doença , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Pandemias , Projetos Piloto , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Vitória
9.
Trials ; 21(1): 469, 2020 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32493460

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Entertainment-education (E-E) media can improve behavioral intent toward health-related practices. In the era of COVID-19, millions of people can be reached by E-E media without requiring any physical contact. We have designed a short, wordless, animated video about COVID-19 hygiene practices-such as social distancing and frequent hand washing-that can be rapidly distributed through social media channels to a global audience. The E-E video's effectiveness, however, remains unclear. The study aims to achieve the following objectives. To: 1.Quantify people's interest in watching a short, animated video about COVID-19 hygiene (abbreviated to CoVideo).2.Establish the CoVideo's effectiveness in increasing behavioural intent toward COVID-19 hygiene.3.Establish the CoVideo's effectiveness in improving COVID-19 hygiene knowledge. TRIAL DESIGN: The present study is a multi-site, parallel group, randomized controlled trial (RCT) comparing the effectiveness of the CoVideo against an attention placebo control (APC) video or no video. The trial has an intervention arm (CoVideo), placebo arm (APC), and control arm (no video). Nested in each trial arm is a list experiment and questionnaire survey, with the following ordering. Arm 1: the CoVideo, list experiment, and questionnaire survey. Arm 2: the APC video, list experiment, questionnaire survey, and CoVideo. Arm 3: the list experiment, questionnaire survey, and CoVideo. For each list experiment, participants will be randomized to a control or treatment group. The control group will receive a list of five items and the treatment group will receive the same five items plus one item about COVID-19 hygiene. We will use the list experiment to reduce response bias associated with socially desirable answers to COVID-19 questions. The questionnaire survey will include items about the participant's age, sex, country of residence, highest education, and knowledge of COVID-19 spread. After completing the list experiment and questionnaire survey, participants in Arms 2 and 3 will receive the CoVideo to ensure post-trial access to treatment. PARTICIPANTS: This will be an online study setting. We will use Prolific Academic (ProA: https://www.prolific.co) to recruit participants and host our study on the Gorilla™ platform (www.gorilla.sc). To be eligible, participants must be between the age of 18 and 59 years (male, female, or other) and have current residence in the United States, the United Kingdom, Germany, Spain, Mexico, or France. Participants will be excluded from the study if they cannot speak English, German, French, or Spanish (since the instructions and survey questions will be available in these 4 languages only). INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: The intervention is an E-E video about COVID-19 hygiene (CoVideo). Developed by our co-author (MA) for Stanford Medicine, the CoVideo is animated with sound effects, and has no words, speech, or text. The CoVideo shows how the novel coronavirus is spread (airborne, physical contact) and summarizes the public's response to the COVID-19 outbreak. Key components of the CoVideo are the promotion of five hygiene practices: i) social distancing and avoiding group gatherings, ii) frequently washing hands with soap and water or sanitizer, iii) cleaning surfaces at home (e.g., kitchen counters), iv) not sharing eating utensils, and v) avoidance of stockpiling essential goods (such as toilet paper and face masks). The CoVideo, which was designed for universal reach and optimized for release on social media channels, can be viewed at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rAj38E7vrS8. The comparators are an APC video (Arm 2) or no video (Arm 3). The APC video is similar in style to the CoVideo; it is also animated with a duration of 2.30 minutes, has sound effects but no words, speech, or text. The video message is about how small choices become actions, which become habits, which become a way of life. It is available at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_HEnohs6yYw. Each list experiment will have a control list as the comparator. The control list is needed to measure the prevalence of behavioral intent toward COVID-19 hygiene. MAIN OUTCOMES: This study will measure primary and secondary outcomes related to COVID-19 hygiene. By hygiene, we mean the adoption of behaviors or practices that reduce the chances of being infected or spreading COVID-19. As our primary outcome, we will measure changes in behavioral intent toward five hygiene practices: social distancing, washing hands, cleaning household surfaces, not sharing eating utensils, and not stockpiling essential goods. As a secondary outcome, we will measure knowledge about behaviors that can prevent the spread of COVID-19. RANDOMIZATION: Using a web-based randomization algorithm, Gorilla will randomly allocate participants to the intervention (CoVideo), placebo (APC), or control (no video) arm (sequence generation) at a 1:1:1 ratio. Within each trial arm, Gorilla will randomly allocate participants at a 1:1 ratio to the control or treatment group. Items in the lists will be randomly ordered to avoid order effects. The presentation order of the list experiments will also be randomized. BLINDING: Because ProA handles the interaction between the study investigators and participants, the participants will be completely anonymous to the study investigators. The outcome measures will be self-reported and submitted anonymously. All persons in the study team will be blinded to the group allocation. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMIZED: The Gorilla algorithm will randomize 6,700 participants to each trial arm, giving a total sample size of 20,100. TRIAL STATUS: The protocol version number is 1.0 and the date is 18 May 2020. Recruitment is expected to end by 22 June 2020. Thus far, the study investigators have recruited 2,500 participants on ProA. Of these participants, 800 have completed the study on the Gorilla platform. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study and its outcomes were registered at the German Clinical Trials Register (www.drks.de) on May 12th, 2020, protocol number: #DRKS00021582. The study was registered before any data was collected. FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest in expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Desinfecção das Mãos , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Opinião Pública , Gravação em Vídeo , Adolescente , Adulto , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Comunicação em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
10.
Trials ; 21(1): 473, 2020 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32493468

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We will investigate the effectiveness of Interferon Beta 1a, compared to Interferon Beta 1b and the usual therapeutic regimen in COVID-19 in patients that have tested positive and are moderately to severely ill. TRIAL DESIGN: This is a single center, open label, randomized, controlled, parallel group, clinical trial that will be conducted at Loghman Hakim Medical Education Center in conjunction with Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences. PARTICIPANTS: Sixty COVID-19 confirmed cases (using the RT-PCR test) will be enrolled in the trial between April 9th to April 14th 2020. Patients will be randomly assigned to the intervention groups or the control group with the following eligibility criteria: ≥ 18 years of age AND (oxygen saturation (SPO2) ≤ 93% OR respiratory rate ≥ 24) AND at least one of the following: Contactless infrared forehead thermometer temperature of ≥37.8, cough, sputum production, nasal discharge, myalgia, headache or fatigue on admission, and time of onset of the symptoms should be acute (Days ≤ 14). Although Hydroxychloroquine will be administered in a single dose, patients with heart problems (prolonged QT or PR intervals, second- or third-degree heart block, and arrhythmias including torsade de pointes) will be excluded. Other exclusion criteria include using drugs with potential interaction with Hydroxychloroquine + Lopinavir/Ritonavir, Interferon-ß 1a, Interferon-ß 1b, pregnant or lactating women, history of alcohol or drug addiction in the past 5 years, blood ALT/AST levels > 5 times the upper limit of normal on laboratory results and refusal to participate. This study will be undertaken at the Loghman Hakim Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences and Health Services. INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: COVID-19 confirmed patients will be randomly assigned to one of three groups, with 20 patients in each. The first group (Arm 1) will receive Hydroxychloroquine + Lopinavir / Ritonavir (Kaletra) + Interferon-ß 1a (Recigen), the second group (Arm 2) will be administered Hydroxychloroquine + Lopinavir / Ritonavir (Kaletra) + Interferon-ß 1b (Ziferon), and the control group (Arm 3) will be treated by Hydroxychloroquine + Lopinavir / Ritonavir (Kaletra). MAIN OUTCOMES: Time to clinical improvement is our primary outcome measure. This is an improvement of two points on a seven-category ordinal scale (recommended by the World Health Organization: Coronavirus disease (COVID-2019) R&D. Geneva: World Health Organization) or discharge from the hospital, whichever comes first. Secondary outcomes include mortality from the date of randomization until the last day of the study which will be the day all of the patients have had at least one of the following outcomes: 1) Improvement of two points on a seven-category ordinal scale. 2) Discharge from the hospital 3) Death. If any patient dies, we have reached an important secondary outcome. SpO2 Improvement between the last and first day of hospitalization, using pulse-oximetry. Duration of hospitalization from date of randomization until the date of hospital discharge or date of death from any cause, whichever comes first. Incidence of new mechanical ventilation uses from date of randomization until the last day of the study. Please note that we are trying to add further secondary outcomes and this section of the protocol is still evolving. Statistical analysis will be performed by R version 3.6.1 software. We will use Kaplan-Meier to analyze the time to clinical improvement (compared with a log-rank test). Hazard ratios with 95% confidence intervals will be calculated using the Cox proportional-hazards model in crude and adjusted analysis. RANDOMIZATION: Eligible patients will be randomly assigned in a 1:1:1 ratio to receive either Interferon Beta 1a, Interferon Beta 1b or standard care only. Patients will be randomly allocated to three therapeutic arms using permuted, block-randomization to balance the number of patients allocated to each group. The permuted block (three or six patients per block) randomization sequence will be generated, using Package 'randomizeR' in R software version 3.6.1. and placed in individual sealed and opaque envelopes by the statistician. The investigator will enroll the patients and only then open envelopes to assign patients to the different treatment groups. This method of allocation concealment will result in minimum selection and confounding biases. BLINDING (MASKING): The present research is open-label (no masking) of patients and health care professionals who are undertaking outcome assessment of the primary outcome - time to clinical improvement. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMIZED (SAMPLE SIZE): Of the 60 patients who underwent randomization, 20 patients were assigned to receive Interferon beta-1a, 20 patients were assigned to receive Interferon beta 1b plus standard care and the rest of patients were assigned to receive the standard care alone. TRIAL STATUS: Protocol version 1.2.1. Recruitment is finished, the start date of recruitment was on 9th April 2020 and the end date was on 14th April 2020. Last point of data collection will be the last day on which all of the 60 participants have had an outcome of clinical improvement or death, completing the study's follow-up time window. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study was registered with National Institutes of Health Clinical trials (www.clinicaltrials.gov; identification number NCT04343768, registered April 8, 2020 and first available online April 13, 2020). FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest in expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Interferon beta-1a/uso terapêutico , Interferon beta-1b/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Antivirais/efeitos adversos , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Combinação de Medicamentos , Quimioterapia Combinada , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Interferon beta-1a/efeitos adversos , Interferon beta-1b/efeitos adversos , Irã (Geográfico) , Lopinavir/uso terapêutico , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Ritonavir/uso terapêutico , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Trials ; 21(1): 466, 2020 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32493475

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Primary objective: to evaluate the efficacy of melatonin as a prophylactic treatment on prevention of symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection among healthcare workers at high risk of SARS-CoV-2 exposure. Secondary objectives: To evaluate the efficacy of melatonin as a prophylactic treatment on prevention of asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection.To evaluate the efficacy of melatonin to prevent the development of severe COVID-19 in the participants enrolled in this study who develop SARS-CoV-2 infection along the trial.To evaluate the duration of COVID-19 symptoms in participants receiving melatonin before the infection.To evaluate seroconversion timing post-symptom onset. Exploratory objectives:To compare severity of COVID-19 between men and women.To evaluate the influence of sleep and diet on prevention from SARS-CoV-2 infection.To evaluate the effect of melatonin on the incidence and characteristics of lymphopenia and increase of inflammatory cytokines related to COVID-19. TRIAL DESIGN: This is a two-arm parallel randomised double-blind controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy of melatonin versus placebo in the prophylaxis of coronavirus disease 2019 among healthcare workers. PARTICIPANTS: Inclusion Criteria: Male or female participants ≥ 18 and ≤ 80 years of age.Healthcare workers from the public and private Spanish hospital network at risk of SARS-CoV 2 infection.Not having a previous COVID19 diagnosis.Understanding the purpose of the trial and not having taken any pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) including HIV PrEP from March 1st 2020 until study enrolment.Having a negative SARS-CoV 2 reverse-transcription PCR (RT-PCR) result or a negative serologic rapid test (IgM/IgG) result before randomization.Premenopausal women must have a negative urinary pregnancy test in the 7 days before starting the trial treatment.Premenopausal women and males with premenopausal couples must commit to using a high efficiency anticonceptive method. EXCLUSION CRITERIA: HIV infection.Active hepatitis B infection.Renal failure (CrCl < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2) or need for hemodialysis.Osteoporosis.Myasthenia gravis.Pre-existent maculopathy.Retinitis pigmentosa.Bradycardia (less than 50 bpm).Weight less than 40 Kg.Participant with any immunosuppressive condition or hematological disease.Treatment with drugs that may prolong QT in the last month before randomization for more than 7 days including: azithromycin, chlorpromazine, cisapride, clarithromycin, domperidone, droperidol, erythromycin, halofantrine, haloperidol, lumefantrine, mefloquine, methadone, pentamidine, procainamide, quinidine, quinine, sotalol, sparfloxacin, thioridazine, amiodarone.Hereditary intolerance to galactose, Lapp lactase deficiency or glucose or galactose malabsorption.Treatment with fluvoxamine.Treatment with benzodiazepines or benzodiazepine analogues such as zolpidem, zopiclone or zaleplon.Pregnancy.Breastfeeding.History of potentially immune derived diseases such as: lupus, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, vasculitis or rheumatoid arthritis.Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.Known history of hypersensitivity to the study drug or any of its components.Patients that should not be included in the study at the judgment of the research team. Participants will be recruited from the following eight hospitals in Madrid, Spain: Hospital Universitario La Paz, Hospital Ramón y Cajal, Hospital Infanta Sofía, Hospital 12 de Octubre, Hospital Clínico San Carlos, Hospital Central de la defensa Gómez Ulla,Hospital de La Princesa and Hospital Infanta Leonor. INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: Experimental: Melatonin (Circadin®, Exeltis Healthcare, Spain): 2 mg of melatonin orally before bedtime for 12 weeks. Comparator: Identical looking placebo (Laboratorios Liconsa, Spain) orally before bedtime for 12 weeks. MAIN OUTCOMES: Number of SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) symptomatic infections confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test or serologic test or according to each centre diagnosis protocol. Primary outcome will be measured until the end of treatment for each participant (until the date of the last dose taken by each patient). RANDOMISATION: Patients who meet all inclusion and no exclusion criteria will be randomised, stratified by centres, sex and age (<50 and ≥ 50 years old). The randomisation sequence was created using SAS version 9.4 statistical software (procedure 'PROC PLAN') with a 1:1 allocation. No randomisation seed was specified. The randomisation seed was generated taking the hour of the computer where the program was executed. Randomization will be done centrally through the electronic system RedCAP® in order to conceal the sequence until interventions are assigned BLINDING (MASKING): Participants, caregivers, and those assessing the outcomes are blinded to group assignment. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMISED (SAMPLE SIZE): A total of 450 participants are planned to be enrolled in this clinical trial, 225 in the experimental arm and 225 in the placebo arm. TRIAL STATUS: Protocol version 3.0, 17th of April 2020. Recruitment ongoing. First participant was recruited on the 21st of April 2020. The final participant is anticipated to be recruited on the 31st of May 2020. As of May 18th, 2020, a total of 312 participants have been enrolled (154 at Hospital La Paz, 85 at Hospital Infanta Sofía and 73 at Hospital 12 de Octubre). TRIAL REGISTRATION: EU Clinical Trials Register: 2020-001530-35; Date of trial registration: 13th of April 2020; https://www.clinicaltrialsregister.eu/ctr-search/trial/2020-001530-35/ES FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest in expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol.


Assuntos
Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Paciente para o Profissional/prevenção & controle , Melatonina/administração & dosagem , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Saúde do Trabalhador , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Antivirais/efeitos adversos , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Quimioprevenção , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Melatonina/efeitos adversos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Soroconversão , Espanha , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
12.
Trials ; 21(1): 475, 2020 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32493478

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Primary Objective • To test the efficacy of Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) (400 mg orally daily for 3 days then 200 mg orally daily for an additional 11 days, to complete 14 days) to prevent incident SARS-CoV-2 infection, compared to ascorbic acid among contacts of persons with SARS-CoV-2 infection Secondary objectives • To determine the safety and tolerability of HCQ as SARS-CoV-2 Post-exposure Prophylaxis (PEP) in adults • To test the efficacy of HCQ (400 mg orally daily for 3 days then 200 mg orally daily for an additional 11 days, to complete 14 days) to prevent incident SARS-CoV-2 infection 2 weeks after completing therapy, compared to ascorbic acid among contacts of persons with SARS-CoV-2 infection • To test the efficacy of HCQ to shorten the duration of SARS-CoV-2 shedding among those with SARS-CoV-2 infection in the HCQ PEP group • To test the efficacy of HCQ to prevent incident COVID-19 TRIAL DESIGN: This is a randomized, multi-center, placebo-equivalent (ascorbic acid) controlled, blinded study of HCQ PEP for the prevention of SARS-CoV-2 infection in adults exposed to the virus. PARTICIPANTS: This study will enroll up to 2000 asymptomatic adults 18 to 80 years of age (inclusive) at baseline who are close contacts of persons with polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 or clinically suspected COVID-19 and a pending SARS-CoV-2 PCR test. This multisite trial will be conducted at seven sites in Seattle (UW), Los Angeles (UCLA), New Orleans (Tulane), Baltimore (UMB), New York City (NYU), Syracuse (SUNY-Upstate), and Boston (BMC). Inclusion criteria Participants are eligible to be included in the study only if all of the following criteria apply: 1.Men or women 18 to 80 years of age inclusive, at the time of signing the informed consent2.Willing and able to provide informed consent3.Had a close contact of a person (index) with known PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection or index who is currently being assessed for COVID-19 Close contact is defined as: a.Household contact (i.e., residing with the index case in the 14 days prior to index diagnosis or prolonged exposure within a residence/vehicle/enclosed space without maintaining social distance)b.Medical staff, first responders, or other care persons who cared for the index case without personal protection (mask and gloves)4.Less than 4 days since last exposure (close contact with a person with SARS-CoV-2 infection) to the index case5.Access to device and internet for Telehealth visits6.Not planning to take HCQ in addition to the study medication Exclusion criteria Participants are excluded from the study if any of the following criteria apply: 1.Known hypersensitivity to HCQ or other 4-aminoquinoline compounds2.Currently hospitalized3.Symptomatic with subjective fever, cough, or shortness of breath4.Current medications exclude concomitant use of HCQ5.Concomitant use of other anti-malarial treatment or chemoprophylaxis, including chloroquine, mefloquine, artemether, or lumefantrine.6.History of retinopathy of any etiology7.Psoriasis8.Porphyria9.Known bone marrow disorders with significant neutropenia (polymorphonuclear leukocytes <1500) or thrombocytopenia (<100 K)10.Concomitant use of digoxin, cyclosporin, cimetidine, amiodarone, or tamoxifen11.Known moderate or severe liver disease12.Known long QT syndrome13.Severe renal impairment14.Use of any investigational or non-registered drug or vaccine within 30 days preceding the first dose of the study drugs or planned use during the study period INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: Households will be randomized 1:1 (at the level of household), with close contact participants receiving one of the following therapies: •HCQ 400 mg orally daily for 3 days then 200 mg orally daily for an additional 11 days •Placebo-like control (ascorbic acid) 500 mg orally daily for 3 days then 250 mg orally daily for 11 days MAIN OUTCOMES: The primary outcome of the study is the incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection through day 14 among participants who are SARS-CoV-2 negative at baseline by randomization group. RANDOMISATION: Participants will be randomized in a 1:1 ratio to HCQ or ascorbic acid at the level of the household (all eligible participants in 1 household will receive the same intervention). The randomization code and resulting allocation list will be generated and maintained by the Study Statistician. The list will be blocked and stratified by site and contact type (household versus healthcare worker). BLINDING (MASKING): This is a blinded study. HCQ and ascorbic acid will appear similar, and taste will be partially masked as HCQ can be bitter and ascorbic acid will be sour. The participants will be blinded to their randomization group once assigned. Study team members, apart from the Study Pharmacist and the unblinded statistical staff, will be blinded. Laboratory staff are blinded to the group allocation. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMISED (SAMPLE SIZE): The sample size for the study is N=2 000 participants randomized 1:1 to either HCZ (n=1 000) and ascorbic acid (n=1 000). TRIAL STATUS: Protocol version: 1.2 05 April 2020 Recruitment is ongoing, started March 31 and anticipated end date is September 30, 2020. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, Protocol Registry Number: NCT04328961 Date of registration: April 1, 2020, retrospectively registered FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest in expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol.


Assuntos
Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Hidroxicloroquina/administração & dosagem , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Profilaxia Pós-Exposição , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antivirais/efeitos adversos , Ácido Ascórbico/administração & dosagem , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Busca de Comunicante , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/efeitos adversos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Saúde do Trabalhador , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Eliminação de Partículas Virais/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto Jovem
13.
J Biosci ; 452020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32515358

RESUMO

Direct massively parallel sequencing of SARS-CoV-2 genome was undertaken from nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swab samples of infected individuals in Eastern India. Seven of the isolates belonged to the A2a clade, while one belonged to the B4 clade. Specific mutations, characteristic of the A2a clade, were also detected, which included the P323L in RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and D614G in the Spike glycoprotein. Further, our data revealed emergence of novel subclones harbouring nonsynonymous mutations, viz. G1124V in Spike (S) protein, R203K, and G204R in the nucleocapsid (N) protein. The N protein mutations reside in the SR-rich region involved in viral capsid formation and the S protein mutation is in the S2 domain, which is involved in triggering viral fusion with the host cell membrane. Interesting correlation was observed between these mutations and travel or contact history of COVID-19 positive cases. Consequent alterations of miRNA binding and structure were also predicted for these mutations. More importantly, the possible implications of mutation D614G (in SD domain) and G1124V (in S2 subunit) on the structural stability of S protein have also been discussed. Results report for the first time a bird's eye view on the accumulation of mutations in SARS-CoV-2 genome in Eastern India.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Surtos de Doenças , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos , Mutação , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , RNA Viral , Betacoronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos/genética , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , RNA Viral/genética
15.
Trials ; 21(1): 488, 2020 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32503657

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: A variety of possible mechanisms can make the nucleic acid test of patients who meet the discharge conditions positive again, including reinfection, reactivation of the original virus, lack of strict discharge criteria, new infection, and so on. Different reasons will correspond to different prevention and control measures. We will enroll patients who are discharged after treatment, whose nucleic acid test has changed from negative to positive during the screening visit, regardless of the severity of the symptoms, to investigate the mechanism, clinical outcome and therapeutic efficacy with Favipiravir patients with Corona virus Disease 2019. Favipiravir is an anti-viral agent that selectively and potently inhibits the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, it has been used for treatment of some life-threatening infections such as Ebola virus, Lassa virus and rabies. Its therapeutic efficacy has been proven in these diseases. TRIAL DESIGN: This is a multi-center, two arm, open label, parallel group, randomized controlled trial. PARTICIPANTS: Eligibility criteria: Inclusion criteria: 1.Adults 18 to 80 years, male or female.2.After the first diagnosis and treatment of COVID-19, the nucleic acid test of respiratory specimens such as sputum or nasopharyngeal swabs, has been negative for two consecutive times (sampling time interval of at least 24 hours), in accordance with the COVID-19's diagnosis and treatment Plan (7th Edition), discharged.3.During screening visit (follow-up after discharge), The nucleic acid test of COVID-19 is positive in any one of the following samples: sputum, throat swabs, blood, feces or other specimens. Regardless of whether or not they had symptoms and the severity of symptoms.4.Volunteer to participate in the research and sign the Informed Consent Form. EXCLUSION CRITERIA: 1.Allergic to Favipiravjr;2.Pregnant or lactating women3.Uncontrolled diseases of the blood and cardiovascular system, liver or kidney.4.History of mental disorders, drug abuse or dependence;5.Researchers consider it inappropriate for adults to participate;6.Participating in other clinical studies. Loss to Follow up: Cases that do not complete the clinical trial program will be regarded as lost to follow up. Including the withdrawal of patients by themselves (such as poor compliance, etc.), or the withdrawal of patients ordered by the researcher (those who need other drugs which affect the judgment of the curative effect, and those who need to stop taking drugs for severe adverse events) Study setting: The participating hospitals are some of the designated hospitals that have been or may be admitting patients who meet the eligibility criteria, mainly in Hubei, Shenzhen, Anhui and Beijing. Participants will be recruited from these 15 hospitals: Wuhan Pulmonary Hospital, Hubei; Jinyintan Hospital of Wuhan, Hubei; Ezhou Central Hospital, Hubei; The Second People's Hospital of Fuyang, Anhui; The First Affiliated Hospital of USTC, Anhui; Beijing Youan Hospital, Beijing; Capital Medical University Beijing Institute of Hepatology, Beijing; Ezhou Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Hubei; Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Hubei; The Fifth Hospital of ShiJiazhuang, Hebei; Jinan Infectious Diseases Hospital, Shandong; Public Health Clinical Center of Chengdu, Sichuan; Wuxi No.5 People's Hospital, Jiangsu; The Third People's Hospital of Shenzhen, Guangdong; The First Affiliated Hospital of Bengfu Medical College, AnHui. INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: Favipiravir group (experimental): Favipiravir 1600mg each dose, twice a day on the 1st day; 600mg each dose, twice a day from the 2nd to the 7th day, Oral administration, the maximum number of days taken will be no more than 14 days plus routine treatment for COVID-19. Regular treatment group (control): Treatments other than Antiviral drugs can be given. Routine treatment for patients with the corona virus will be administered, this includes oxygen therapy, drugs that reduced phlegm and relieve cough, including thymosin, proprietary Chinese medicine, etc. MAIN OUTCOMES: Primary Outcome Measures: Viral nucleic acid test negative [Time Frame: 5 months]: Subjects who tested negative for nucleic acid from sputum or nasopharyngeal swabs for two consecutive times (sampling time interval of at least 24 hours). SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Clinical cure [Time Frame: 5 months]: 1.Body temperature returned to normal for more than 3 days;2.Lung image improved.3.Clinical manifestation improved;4.The viral nucleic acid test of respiratory specimens was negative for two consecutive times (sampling time interval of at least 24 hours). RANDOMIZATION: The central randomization system (Interactive Web Response Management System), will be used to randomly divide the subjects into the experimental group and the control group according to the ratio of 2:1. In this study, block randomization will be used, in blocks of 6. BLINDING (MASKING): This is an open label trial. Trial participants, investigators, care givers, outcome assessors, and date analysts are not blinded to group assignment. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMISED: 210 patients are expected to be enrolled and allocated according to the ratio of 2 (Favipiravir group, n=140): 1(regular treatment group, n=70). TRIAL STATUS: Protocol version number 3.0, 10th April 2020 First Patient, first visit 17th March 2020; recruitment end date anticipated June 1, 2020. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04333589, April 3, 2020. Registered April 3, 2020. FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest in expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol.


Assuntos
Amidas/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pirazinas/uso terapêutico , RNA Viral/análise , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Betacoronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
16.
Trials ; 21(1): 485, 2020 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32503662

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The hypothesis of the study is that treatment with hydroxychloroquine sulphate in hospitalised patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) is safe and will accelerate the virological clearance rate for patients with moderately severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) when compared to standard care. Furthermore, we hypothesize that early treatment with hydroxychloroquine sulphate is associated with more rapid resolve of clinical symptoms as assessed by the National Early Warning Score 2 (NEWS2), decreased admission rate to intensive care units and mortality, and improvement in protein biomarker profiles (C-reactive protein, markers of renal and hepatic injury, and established cardiac biomarkers like cardiac troponin and B-type natriuretic peptide). TRIAL DESIGN: The study is a two-arm, open label, pragmatic randomised controlled group sequential adaptive trial designed to assess the effect on viral loads and clinical outcome of hydroxychloroquine sulphate therapy in addition to standard care compared to standard care alone in patients with established Covid-19. By utilizing resources already paid for by the hospitals (physicians and nurses in daily clinical practice), this pragmatic trial can include a larger number of patients over a short period of time and at a lower cost than studies utilizing traditional randomized controlled trial designs with an external study organization. The pragmatic approach will enable swift initiation of randomisation and allocation to treatment. PARTICIPANTS: Patients will be recruited from all inpatients at Akershus University Hospital, Lørenskog, Norway. Electronic real-time surveillance of laboratory reports from the Department of Microbiology will be examined regularly for SARS-CoV-2 positive subjects. All of the following conditions must apply to the prospective patient at screening prior to inclusion: (1) Hospitalisation; (2) Adults 18 years or older; (3) Moderately severe Covid-19 disease (NEWS2 of 6 or less); (4) SARS-CoV-2 positive nasopharyngeal swab; (5) Expected time of hospitalisation > 48 hours; and (6) Signed informed consent must be obtained and documented according to Good Clinical Practice guidelines of the International Conference on Harmonization, and national/local regulations. Patients will be excluded from participation in the study if they meet any of the following criteria: (1) Requiring intensive care unit admission at screening; (2) History of psoriasis; (3) Known adverse reaction to hydroxychloroquine sulphate; (4) Pregnancy; or (5) Prolonged corrected QT interval (>450 ms). Clinical data, including standard hospital biochemistry, medical therapy, vital signs, NEWS2, and microbiology results (including blood culture results and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction [RT-PCR] for other upper airway viruses), will be automatically extracted from the hospital electronic records and merged with the study specific database. INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: Included patients will be randomised in a 1:1 ratio to (1) standard care with the addition of 400 mg hydroxychloroquine sulphate (PlaquenilTM) twice daily for seven days or (2) standard care alone. MAIN OUTCOMES: The primary endpoint of the study is the rate of decline in SARS-CoV-2 viral load in oropharyngeal samples as assessed by RT-PCR in samples collected at baseline, 48 and 96 hours after randomization and administration of drug for the intervention arm. Secondary endpoints include change in NEWS2 at 96 hours after randomisation, admission to intensive care unit, mortality (in-hospital, and at 30 and 90 days), duration of hospital admission, clinical status on a 7-point ordinal scale 14 days after randomization ([1] Death [2] Hospitalised, on invasive mechanical ventilation or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation [3] Hospitalised, on non-invasive ventilation or high flow oxygen devices [4] Hospitalized, requiring supplemental oxygen [5] Hospitalised, not requiring supplemental oxygen [6] Not hospitalized, but unable to resume normal activities [7] Not hospitalised, with resumption of normal activities), and improvement in protein biomarker profiles (C-reactive protein, markers of renal and hepatic injury, and established cardiac biomarkers like cardiac troponin and B-type natriuretic peptide) at 96 hours after randomization. RANDOMISATION: Eligible patients will be allocated in a 1:1 ratio, using a computer randomisation procedure. The allocation sequence has been prepared by an independent statistician. BLINDING (MASKING): Open label randomised controlled pragmatic trial without blinding, no active or placebo control. The virologist assessing viral load in the oropharyngeal samples and the statistician responsible for analysis of the data will be blinded to the treatment allocation for the statistical analyses. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMIZED (SAMPLE SIZE): This is a group sequential adaptive trial where analyses are planned after 51, 101, 151 and 202 completed patients, with a maximum sample size of 202 patients (101 patients allocated to intervention and standard care and 101 patients allocated to standard care alone). TRIAL STATUS: Protocol version 1.3 (March 26, 2020). Recruitment of first patient on March 26, 2020, and 51 patients were included as per April 28, 2020. Study recruitment is anticipated to be completed by July 2020. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04316377. Trial registered March 20, 2020. FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest in expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Ensaios Clínicos Pragmáticos como Assunto , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Noruega , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Projetos de Pesquisa , Carga Viral
17.
Urol Oncol ; 38(7): 609-614, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32507546

RESUMO

The Coronavirus Disease 2019 pandemic placed urologic surgeons, and especially urologic oncologists, in an unprecedented situation. Providers and healthcare systems were forced to rapidly create triage schemas in order to preserve resources and reduce potential viral transmission while continuing to provide care for patients. We reviewed United States and international triage proposals from professional societies, peer-reviewed publications, and publicly available institutional guidelines to identify common themes and critical differences. To date, there are varying levels of agreement on the optimal triaging of urologic oncology cases. As the need to preserve resources and prevent viral transmission grows, prioritizing only high priority surgical cases is paramount. A similar approach to prioritization will also be needed as nonemergent cases are allowed to proceed in the coming weeks. While these decisions will often be made on a case-by-case basis, more nuanced surgeon-driven consensus guidelines are needed for the near future.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Triagem/normas , Doenças Urológicas/diagnóstico , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Urológicos/normas , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Consenso , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Humanos , Oncologia/normas , Seleção de Pacientes , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Sociedades Médicas/normas , Doenças Urológicas/cirurgia , Urologia/normas
18.
Trials ; 21(1): 498, 2020 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32513289

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The primary objective is to determine the efficacy of a single dose of ivermectin, administered to low risk, non-severe COVID-19 patients in the first 48 hours after symptom onset to reduce the proportion of patients with detectable SARS-CoV-2 RNA by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) test from nasopharyngeal swab at day 7 post-treatment. The secondary objectives are: 1.To assess the efficacy of ivermectin to reduce the SARS-CoV-2 viral load in the nasopharyngeal swab at day 7 post treatment.2.To assess the efficacy of ivermectin to improve symptom progression in treated patients.3.To assess the proportion of seroconversions in treated patients at day 21.4.To assess the safety of ivermectin at the proposed dose.5.To determine the magnitude of immune response against SARS-CoV-2.6.To assess the early kinetics of immunity against SARS-CoV-2. TRIAL DESIGN: SAINT is a single centre, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, superiority trial with two parallel arms. Participants will be randomized to receive a single dose of 400 µg/kg ivermectin or placebo, and the number of patients in the treatment and placebo groups will be the same (1:1 ratio). PARTICIPANTS: The population for the study will be patients with a positive nasopharyngeal swab PCR test for SARS-CoV-2, with non-severe COVID-19 disease, and no risk factors for progression to severity. Vulnerable populations such as pregnant women, minors (i.e.; under 18 years old), and seniors (i.e.; over 60 years old) will be excluded. Inclusion criteria 1. Patients diagnosed with COVID-19 in the emergency room of the Clínica Universidad de Navarra (CUN) with a positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR. 2. Residents of the Pamplona basin ("Cuenca de Pamplona"). 3. The patient must be between the ages of 18 and 60 years of age. 4. Negative pregnancy test for women of child bearing age*. 5. The patient or his/her representative, has given informed consent to participate in the study. 6. The patient should, in the PI's opinion, be able to comply with all the requirements of the clinical trial (including home follow up during isolation). Exclusion criteria 1. Known history of ivermectin allergy. 2. Hypersensitivity to any component of ivermectin. 3. COVID-19 pneumonia. Diagnosed by the attending physician.Identified in a chest X-ray. 4. Fever or cough present for more than 48 hours. 5. Positive IgG against SARS-CoV-2 by rapid diagnostic test. 6. Age under 18 or over 60 years. 7. The following co-morbidities (or any other disease that might interfere with the study in the eyes of the PI): Immunosuppression.Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.Diabetes.Hypertension.Obesity.Acute or chronic renal failure.History of coronary disease.History of cerebrovascular disease.Current neoplasm. 8. Recent travel history to countries that are endemic for Loa loa (Angola, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia, Equatorial, Guinea, Gabon, Republic of Congo, Nigeria and Sudan). 9. Current use of CYP 3A4 or P-gp inhibitor drugs such as quinidine, amiodarone, diltiazem, spironolactone, verapamil, clarithromycin, erythromycin, itraconazole, ketoconazole, cyclosporine, tacrolimus, indinavir, ritonavir or cobicistat. Use of critical CYP3A4 substrate drugs such as warfarin. *Women of child bearing age may participate if they use a safe contraceptive method for the entire period of the study and at least one month afterwards. A woman is considered to not have childbearing capacity if she is post-menopausal (minimum of 2 years without menstruation) or has undergone surgical sterilization (at least one month before the study). The trial is currently planned at a single center, Clínica Universidad de Navarra, in Navarra (Spain), and the immunology samples will be analyzed at the Barcelona Institute for Global Health (ISGlobal), in Barcelona (Spain). Participants will be recruited by the investigators at the emergency room and/or COVID-19 area of the CUN. They will remain in the trial for a period of 28 days at their homes since they will be patients with mild disease. In the interest of public health and to contain transmission of infection, follow-up visits will be conducted in the participant's home by a clinical trial team comprising nursing and medical members. Home visits will assess clinical and laboratory parameters of the patients. INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: Ivermectin will be administered to the treatment group at a 400µg/Kg dose (included in the EU approved label of Stromectol and Scabioral). The control group will receive placebo. There is no current data on the efficacy of ivermectin against the virus in vivo, therefore the use of placebo in the control group is ethically justified. MAIN OUTCOMES: Primary Proportion of patients with a positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR from a nasopharyngeal swab at day 7 post-treatment. Secondary 1.Mean viral load as determined by PCR cycle threshold (Ct) at baseline and on days 4, 7, 14, and 21.2.Proportion of patients with fever and cough at days 4, 7, 14, and 21 as well as proportion of patients progressing to severe disease or death during the trial.3.Proportion of patients with seroconversion at day 21.4.Proportion of drug-related adverse events during the trial.5.Median levels of IgG, IgM, IgA measured by Luminex, frequencies of innate and SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells assessed by flow cytometry, median levels of inflammatory and activation markers measured by Luminex and transcriptomics.6.Median kinetics of IgG, IgM, IgA levels during the trial, until day 28. RANDOMISATION: Eligible patients will be allocated in a 1:1 ratio using a randomization list generated by the trial statistician using blocks of four to ensure balance between the groups. A study identification code with the format "SAINT-##" (##: from 01 to 24) will be generated using a sequence of random numbers so that the randomization number does not match the subject identifier. The sequence and code used will be kept in an encrypted file accessible only to the trial statistician. A physical copy will be kept in a locked cabinet at the CUN, accessible only to the person administering the drug who will not enrol or attend to patient care. A separate set of 24 envelopes for emergency unblinding will be kept in the study file. BLINDING (MASKING): The clinical trial team and the patients will be blinded. The placebo will not be visibly identical, but it will be administered by staff not involved in the clinical care or participant follow up. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMISED (SAMPLE SIZE): The sample size is 24 patients: 12 participants will be randomised to the treatment group and 12 participants to the control group. TRIAL STATUS: Current protocol version: 1.0 dated 16 of April 2020. Recruitment is envisioned to begin by May 14th and end by June 14th. TRIAL REGISTRATION: EudraCT number: 2020-001474-29, registered April 1st. Clinicaltrials.gov: submitted, pending number FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest in expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Ivermectina/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Adolescente , Adulto , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Estudos de Avaliação como Assunto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Projetos Piloto , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Carga Viral , Adulto Jovem
19.
Viruses ; 12(6)2020 06 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32517266

RESUMO

In late 2019, a novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in Wuhan, the capital of the Chinese province Hubei. Since then, SARS-CoV-2 has been responsible for a worldwide pandemic resulting in over 4 million infections and over 250,000 deaths. The pandemic has instigated widespread research related to SARS-CoV-2 and the disease that it causes, COVID-19. Research into this new virus will be facilitated by the availability of clearly described and effective procedures that enable the propagation and quantification of infectious virus. As work with the virus is recommended to be performed at biosafety level 3, validated methods to effectively inactivate the virus to enable the safe study of RNA, DNA, and protein from infected cells are also needed. Here, we report methods used to grow SARS-CoV-2 in multiple cell lines and to measure virus infectivity by plaque assay using either agarose or microcrystalline cellulose as an overlay as well as a SARS-CoV-2 specific focus forming assay. We also demonstrate effective inactivation by TRIzol, 10% neutral buffered formalin, beta propiolactone, and heat.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Ensaio de Placa Viral/métodos , Inativação de Vírus , Animais , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Betacoronavirus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Celulose , Chlorocebus aethiops , Meios de Cultura/química , Formaldeído , Guanidinas/farmacologia , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Pandemias , Fenóis/farmacologia , Propiolactona/farmacologia , Sefarose , Células Vero
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32517645

RESUMO

Confirmed cases in Australia notified up to 24 May 2020: notifications = 7,135; deaths = 102. The incidence of COVID-19 has markedly reduced since a peak in mid-March. There have been no cases reported in SA, the NT or the ACT in the last four weeks. The numbers of new cases reported from other jurisdictions continue to be very low. Testing rates have been higher across all jurisdictions, with Victoria reporting an 85% testing rate increase and NSW a 40% increase over this period. The positivity rate nationally continues to remain very low at less than 0.1% over the reporting period. Continued high rates of testing are necessary to detect and mitigate the spread of COVID-19 in the community. Over the past fortnight, 45% of cases acquired their infection overseas. Of cases considered to be locally acquired over this period, most were associated with contacts of confirmed cases or were associated with known outbreaks. The highest rate of COVID-19 continues to be among people aged 65-79 years. Three-quarters of all cases in this age group have been associated with overseas travel, including several outbreaks linked to cruise ships. The lowest rate of disease is in children under 18, a pattern reflected in international reports. A small proportion of cases overall have experienced severe disease, requiring hospitalisation or intensive care with some fatalities. The crude case fatality rate amongst Australian cases is 1.4%. People who are older and have one or more comorbidities are more likely to experience severe disease. A combination of early case identification, physical distancing, public health measures and a reduction in international travel have likely been effective in slowing the spread of the disease in Australia. In addition, the median number of days between symptom onset and diagnostic testing has improved considerably from 7 days in the early phase of the outbreak to 1 day in the latest phase of the epidemic. Internationally, as at 24 May 2020, there have been recent increases in the number of daily cases reported globally. The largest numbers of both cases and deaths have been reported in the United States. Of the confirmed cases reported globally, the case fatality rate is approximately 6.5%. Countries in South America are starting to see rapid acceleration, while the United States is seeing a very slow decline in its daily new case numbers. In the South East Asia region, India and Bangladesh are seeing accelerating epidemics, compounded by the recovery from Cyclone Amphan. Increasing numbers of cases are also being reported in Africa, although the numbers are much smaller. In the Pacific there are very few daily new cases reported.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Surtos de Doenças , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Austrália/epidemiologia , Austrália/etnologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/história , Notificação de Doenças , Feminino , Geografia Médica , Saúde Global , História do Século XXI , Hospitalização , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Pandemias/história , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/história , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Fatores de Risco , Estações do Ano , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto Jovem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA