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2.
West Afr J Med ; 36(2): 122-128, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31385597

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oxygen is like any other medication that can cause severe consequences if administered inappropriately. OBJECTIVE: To audit the pattern of acute oxygen therapy on regular hospital wards of a referral centre in Ilorin, Nigeria. METHODS: We reviewed 150 patients that received or had a prescription for acute oxygen therapy in three months and extracted relevant information using a proforma. RESULTS: About one-third of the patients (30%) were >65 years of age and the male to female ratio was 1:1. The commonest indication and medical condition for acute oxygen administration were hypoxemia (70.7%) and pneumonia (26.0%), respectively. Pneumonia accounted for most (41.2 %) of the oxygen therapy in childhood. The majority of patients (88.0%) had written order for oxygen prescription, 40.7% had a prescription to target oxygen saturation and only 31.3% achieved their target saturation. Oxygen prescription was adequate (documentation of delivery device, flow rate of oxygen, and target oxygen saturations) in 40.7% of patients. The assessment, monitoring and titration of oxygen therapy were adequate in 92.7%, 65.3% and 28 % of patients respectively. Overall mortality was 27.3% in patients receiving acute oxygen supplementation. Eleven patients had unstable COPD, and 63.6 %, 54.5 % and 45.6 % of them had adequate oxygen prescription, monitoring and titration respectively. The challenges to oxygen use were faulty delivery devices, emptied oxygen cylinders, inability to routinely do arterial blood gas analysis and lack of hospital oxygen protocol. CONCLUSION: The current practice of acute oxygen therapy is not satisfactory and interventions are advocated to improve the healthcare providers' administration of oxygen.


Assuntos
Hipóxia/terapia , Auditoria Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Oxigenoterapia/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia/terapia , Centros de Atenção Terciária/normas , Idoso , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nigéria , Oxigênio , Oxigenoterapia/métodos , Encaminhamento e Consulta
3.
S D Med ; 72(4): 164-167, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31436929

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Sioux Falls Family Medicine Residency serves a large non-English speaking and low socioeconomic status population. We designed a quality initiative to increase influenza and pneumonia vaccination rates in our elderly patients. METHODS: The main components of the project included improved clinic workflow, physician and staff education, and heightened patient awareness of vaccination importance. For the latter, we employed posters with key points about why patients should receive the vaccines, and personalized handouts with a photo of their provider discussing the importance of receiving these vaccines. The handouts were translated into the four most common non-English languages served by our clinics. RESULTS: Following implementation of the initiative, influenza vaccination rates increased from 35 to 53 percent, PPSV23 vaccination rates increased from 62.5 to 64 percent, and most impressively, PCV13 vaccination rates increased from 40 to 60 percent. CONCLUSION: This quality improvement project demonstrated meaningful change with minimal financial and logistical investment and should be sustainable in the long-term.


Assuntos
Programas de Imunização/organização & administração , Vacinas contra Influenza , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Medicina de Família e Comunidade , Humanos , Vacinas contra Influenza/administração & dosagem , South Dakota , Vacinação
4.
BMJ ; 366: l4563, 2019 08 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31405902

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine any changes in total hospital revisits within 30 days of discharge after a hospital stay for medical conditions targeted by the Hospital Readmissions Reduction Program (HRRP). DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Hospital stays among Medicare patients for heart failure, acute myocardial infarction, or pneumonia between 1 January 2012 and 1 October 2015. PARTICIPANTS: Medicare fee-for-service patients aged 65 or over. MAIN OUTCOMES: Total hospital revisits within 30 days of discharge after hospital stays for medical conditions targeted by the HRRP, and by type of revisit: treat-and-discharge visit to an emergency department, observation stay (not leading to inpatient readmission), and inpatient readmission. Patient subgroups (age, sex, race) were also evaluated for each type of revisit. RESULTS: Our study cohort included 3 038 740 total index hospital stays from January 2012 to September 2015: 1 357 620 for heart failure, 634 795 for acute myocardial infarction, and 1 046 325 for pneumonia. Counting all revisits after discharge, the total number of hospital revisits per 100 patient discharges for target conditions increased across the study period (monthly increase 0.023 visits per 100 patient discharges (95% confidence interval 0.010 to 0.035)). This change was due to monthly increases in treat-and-discharge visits to an emergency department (0.023 (0.015 to 0.032) and observation stays (0.022 (0.020 to 0.025)), which were only partly offset by declines in readmissions (-0.023 (-0.035 to -0.012)). Increases in observation stay use were more pronounced among non-white patients than white patients. No significant change was seen in mortality within 30 days of discharge for target conditions (-0.0034 (-0.012 to 0.0054)). CONCLUSIONS: In the United States, total hospital revisits within 30 days of discharge for conditions targeted by the HRRP increased across the study period. This increase was due to a rise in post-discharge emergency department visits and observation stays, which exceeded the decline in readmissions. Although reductions in readmissions have been attributed to improvements in discharge planning and care transitions, our findings suggest that these declines could instead be because hospitals and clinicians have intensified efforts to treat patients who return to a hospital within 30 days of discharge in emergency departments and as observation stays.


Assuntos
Readmissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Unidades de Observação Clínica/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde/métodos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Humanos , Masculino , Medicare/estatística & dados numéricos , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/terapia , Alta do Paciente , Readmissão do Paciente/tendências , Pneumonia/epidemiologia , Pneumonia/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
5.
Neumol. pediátr. (En línea) ; 14(2): 100-104, jul. 2019. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1015017

RESUMO

Primary ciliary dyskinesia is a rare autosomal recessive disease with compromised mucociliary drainage. Among the most commonly recommended non-pharmacological therapeutic strategies are secretion drainage techniques. However, the evidence for the use and effectiveness of these techniques is low, and they are generally based on extrapolated evidence of cystic fibrosis. This article reviews the recommendations and available evidence of chest physiotherapy, mainly manual and instrumental techniques of bronchial drainage and physical exercise in children with primary ciliary dyskinesia.


La disquinesia ciliar primaria es una enfermedad autosómica recesiva rara con compromiso del drenaje mucociliar. Entre las estrategias terapéuticas no farmacológicas más comúnmente recomendadas se encuentra las técnicas de drenaje de secreciones. Sin embargo, la evidencia del uso y efectividad de estas técnicas es reducida y generalmente se basan en evidencia extrapolada de la fibrosis quística. Este artículo revisa las recomendaciones y la evidencia disponible de la kinesiología respiratoria, principalmente las técnicas manuales e instrumentales de drenaje bronquial y el ejercicio físico en niños con disquinesia ciliar primaria.


Assuntos
Humanos , Lactente , Criança , Adulto , Pneumonia/terapia , Terapia Respiratória/métodos , Síndrome de Kartagener/diagnóstico , Modalidades de Fisioterapia , Exercício/fisiologia , Drenagem/instrumentação , Secreções Corporais
6.
J Glob Health ; 9(1): 010801, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31263547

RESUMO

Background: In 2013, the World Health Organization (WHO) launched the Rapid Access Expansion (RAcE) programme in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Malawi, Mozambique, Niger, and Nigeria to increase coverage of diagnostic, treatment, and referral services for malaria, pneumonia, and diarrhea among children ages 2-59 months. In 2017, a final evaluation of the six RAcE sites was conducted to determine whether the programme goal was reached. A key evaluation objective was to estimate the reduction in childhood mortality and the number of under-five lives saved over the project period in the RAcE project areas. Methods: The Lives Saved Tool (LiST) was used to estimate reductions in all-cause child mortality due to changes in coverage of treatment for the integrated community case management (iCCM) illnesses - malaria, pneumonia, and diarrhea - while accounting for other changes in maternal and child health interventions in each RAcE project area. Data from RAcE baseline and endline household surveys, Demographic and Health Surveys, and routine health service data were used in each LiST model. The models yielded estimated change in under-five mortality rates, and estimated number of lives saved per year by malaria, pneumonia and diarrhea treatment. We adjusted the results to estimate the number of lives saved by community health worker (CHW)-provided treatment. Results: The LiST model accounts for coverage changes in iCCM intervention coverage and other health trends in each project area to estimate mortality reduction and child lives saved. Under five mortality declined in all six RAcE sites, with an average decline of 10 percent. An estimated 6200 under-five lives were saved by malaria, pneumonia, and diarrhea treatment in the DRC, Malawi, Niger, and Nigeria, of which approximately 4940 (75 percent) were saved by treatment provided by CHWs. This total excludes Mozambique, where there were no estimated under-five lives saved likely due to widespread stockouts of key medications. In all other project areas, lives saved by CHW-provided treatment contributed substantially to the estimated decline in under-five mortality. Conclusions: Our results suggest that iCCM is a strategy that can save lives and measurably decrease child mortality in settings where access to health facility services is low and adequate resources for iCCM implementation are provided for CHW services.


Assuntos
Administração de Caso/organização & administração , Mortalidade da Criança/tendências , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/organização & administração , Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Mortalidade Infantil/tendências , Pré-Escolar , República Democrática do Congo/epidemiologia , Diarreia/mortalidade , Diarreia/terapia , Humanos , Lactente , Malária/mortalidade , Malária/terapia , Malaui/epidemiologia , Moçambique/epidemiologia , Níger/epidemiologia , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Pneumonia/mortalidade , Pneumonia/terapia , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Organização Mundial da Saúde
7.
J Glob Health ; 9(1): 010805, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31263550

RESUMO

Background: Ensuring the quality of health service data is critical for data-driven decision-making. Data quality assessments (DQAs) are used to determine if data are of sufficient quality to support their intended use. However, guidance on how to conduct DQAs specifically for community-based interventions, such as integrated community case management (iCCM) programs, is limited. As part of the World Health Organization's (WHO) Rapid Access Expansion (RAcE) Programme, ICF conducted DQAs in a unique effort to characterize the quality of community health worker-generated data and to use DQA findings to strengthen reporting systems and decision-making. Methods: We present our experience implementing assessments using standardized DQA tools in the six RAcE project sites in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Malawi, Mozambique, Niger, and Nigeria. We describe the process used to create the RAcE DQA tools, adapt the tools to country contexts, and develop the iCCM DQA Toolkit, which enables countries to carry out regular and rapid DQAs. We provide examples of how we used results to generate recommendations. Results: The DQA tools were customized for each RAcE project to assess the iCCM data reporting system, trace iCCM indicators through this system, and to ensure that DQAs were efficient and generated useful recommendations. This experience led to creation of an iCCM DQA Toolkit comprised of simplified versions of RAcE DQA tools and a guidance document. It includes system assessment questions that elicit actionable responses and a simplified data tracing tool focused on one treatment indicator for each iCCM focus illness: diarrhea, malaria, and pneumonia. The toolkit is intended for use at the national or sub-national level for periodic data quality checks. Conclusions: The iCCM DQA Toolkit was designed to be easily tailored to different data reporting system structures because iCCM data reporting tools and data flow vary substantially. The toolkit enables countries to identify points in the reporting system where data quality is compromised and areas of the reporting system that require strengthening, so that countries can make informed adjustments that improve data quality, strengthen reporting systems, and inform decision-making.


Assuntos
Administração de Caso/organização & administração , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/organização & administração , Confiabilidade dos Dados , Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Pré-Escolar , República Democrática do Congo/epidemiologia , Diarreia/mortalidade , Diarreia/terapia , Humanos , Lactente , Malária/mortalidade , Malária/terapia , Malaui/epidemiologia , Moçambique/epidemiologia , Níger/epidemiologia , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Pneumonia/mortalidade , Pneumonia/terapia
8.
J Glob Health ; 9(1): 010811, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31263554

RESUMO

Background: The use of mobile health (mHealth) technology to improve quality of care (QoC) has increased over the last decade; limited evidence exists to espouse mHealth as a decision support tool, especially at the community level. This study presents evaluation findings of using a mobile application for integrated community case management (iCCM) by Malawi's health surveillance assistants (HSAs) in four pilot districts to deliver lifesaving services for children. Methods: A quasi-experimental study design compared adherence to iCCM guidelines between HSAs using mobile application (n = 137) and paper-based tools (n = 113), supplemented with 47 key informant interviews on perceptions about QoC and sustainability of iCCM mobile application. The first four sick children presenting to each HSA for an initial consultation of an illness episode were observed by a Ministry of Health iCCM trainer for assessment, classification, and treatment. Results were compared using logistic regression, controlling for child-, HSA-, and district-level characteristics, with Holm-Bonferroni-adjusted significance levels for multiple comparison. Results: HSAs using the application tended to assess sick children according to iCCM guidelines more often than HSAs using paper-based tools for cough (adjusted proportion, 98% vs 91%; P < 0.01) and five physical danger signs - chest in-drawing; alertness; palmar pallor; malnourishment; oedema (80% vs 62%; P < 0.01), but not for fever (97% vs 93%; P = 0.06), diarrhoea (94% vs 87%; P = 0.03), and three danger signs - not able to eat or drink; vomits everything; has convulsions (88% vs 79%; P = 0.01). Across illnesses and danger signs, 81% of HSAs using the application correctly classified sick children, compared to 58% of HSAs using paper-based tools (P < 0.01). No differences existed for their treatment (P = 0.27). Interview respondents corroborated these findings that using iCCM mobile application ensures protocol adherence. Respondents noted barriers to its consistent and wide use including hardware problems and limited resources. Conclusion: Generally, the mobile application is a promising tool for improving adherence to the iCCM protocol for assessing sick children and classifying illness by HSAs. Limited effects on treatments and inconsistent use suggest the need for more studies on mHealth to improve QoC at community level.


Assuntos
Administração de Caso/organização & administração , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/organização & administração , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde/psicologia , Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/estatística & dados numéricos , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Telemedicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Diarreia/mortalidade , Diarreia/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Malária/mortalidade , Malária/terapia , Malaui/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pneumonia/mortalidade , Pneumonia/terapia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Pesquisa Qualitativa
9.
J Glob Health ; 9(1): 010812, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31263555

RESUMO

Background: Under the World Health Organization's (WHO) integrated community case management (iCCM) Rapid Access Expansion Program (RAcE), World Vision Niger and Canada supported the Niger Ministry of Public Health to implement iCCM in four health districts in Niger in 2013. Community health workers (CHWs), known as Relais Communautaire (RCom), were deployed in their communities to diagnose and treat children under five years of age presenting with diarrhea, malaria and pneumonia and refer children with severe illness to the higher-level facilities. Two of the districts in southwest Niger piloted RCom using smartphones equipped with an application to support quality case management and provide good timely clinical data. A two-arm cluster randomized trial assessed the impact of use of the mHealth application mainly on quality of care (QoC), but also on motivation, retention and supervision. Methods: A two-arm cluster randomized trial was conducted from March to October 2016 in Dosso and Doutchi districts. The intervention arm comprised 66 RCom equipped with a smartphone and 64 in the paper-based control arm. Trained expert clinicians observed each RCom assessing sick children presenting to them (264 in intervention group; 256 in control group), re-assessed each child on the same set of parameters, and made further observations regarding perceptions of motivation, retention, supervision, drug management and caregiver satisfaction. The primary outcome was a QoC score composed of diagnostic and treatment variables. Other factors were assessed by questionnaires. Results: On average, the mHealth equipped RCom showed a 3.4% higher QoC score (mean difference of 0.83 points). They were more likely to ask about the main danger signs: convulsions (69.7% vs 50.4%, P < 0.001); incapacity to drink or eat (79.2% vs 59.4%, P < 0.001); vomiting (81.4% vs 69.9%, P < 0.01); and lethargy or unconsciousness (92.4% vs 84.8%, P < 0.01). Specifically, they consistently asked one more screening question. They were also significantly better at examining for swelling feet (40.2% vs 13.3%, P < 0.01) and advising caretakers on diarrhea, drug dosage and administration, and performed (though non-significantly) better when examining cough and breathing rates, referring all conditions, getting children to take prescribed treatments immediately and having caregivers understand treatment continuation. The control group was significantly better at diagnosing fast breathing, bloody diarrhea and severe acute malnutrition; and was somewhat better (non-significant) at treating fever and malaria. With treatment in general of the three diseases, there was no significant difference between the groups. On further inspection, 83% of the intervention group had a QoC score greater than 80% (25 out of 31), whereas only 67% of the control group had comparable performance. With respect to referrals, the intervention group performed better, mostly based on their better assessment of danger signs, with more correct (85% vs 29%) and fewer missed, plus a lower proportion of incorrect referrals, with the reverse being true for the controls (P = 0.012). There were no statistically significant differences in motivation, retention and supervision between the two groups, yet intervention RCom reported double the rate of no supervision in the last three months (31.8% vs 15.6%). Conclusions: Results suggest that use of the mHealth application led to modestly improved QoC through better assessment of the sick children and better referral decisions by RCom, but not to improvement in the actual treatment of malaria, pneumonia and diarrhea. Considering mHealth's additional costs and logistics, questions around its viability remain. Further implementation could be improved by investing in RCom capacity building, building organization culture and strengthened supervision, all essential areas for improving any CHW program. In this real-world setting, in poor and remote communities in rural Niger, this study did not support the overall value of the mHealth intervention. Much was learned for any future mHealth interventions and scale-up.


Assuntos
Agentes Comunitários de Saúde , Diarreia/terapia , Malária/terapia , Pneumonia/terapia , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Telemedicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Administração de Caso/organização & administração , Pré-Escolar , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/organização & administração , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Níger , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Adulto Jovem
10.
Kyobu Geka ; 72(5): 367-370, 2019 May.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31268035

RESUMO

A 67-year-old man visited hospital because of prolonged cough. Chest computed tomography (CT) revealed multiple tumors in bilateral lungs. Transbronchial lung biopsy did not reveal malignancy. Because antibiotic treatment was ineffective, partial resection of the right lung was performed for establishing the diagnosis. The pathological diagnosis was inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor. The postoperative course was uneventful. After 6 months postsurgery, he complained of breathing difficulty and exacerbation of the lesions was found by chest CT. By methylprednisolone pulse therapy, the symptom was improved, and the size of lesions reduced. Since this event, he has been administered oral prednisolone (PSL) 10 mg/day, and the exacerbation of the disease has not been noted.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares , Pulmão , Idoso , Dispneia , Humanos , Masculino , Pneumonia , Tórax , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
11.
Psychiatr Prax ; 46(5): 287-289, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31269521

RESUMO

Systemic infections are known to alter the metabolism of various drugs via inhibition of the cytochrome P450 family. Here, we report the cases of two patients with schizophrenic psychosis and highly elevated clozapine levels during pulmonary systemic infection, however without experiencing side effects. After antibiotic treatment and temporary reduction of clozapine dosage blood levels of clozapine normalized within a few days. These cases show that clozapine levels may be highly elevated without necessarily causing side effects and that intensified pharmacovigilance should be considered by the clinician in patients with systemic infections.


Assuntos
Clozapina , Pneumonia/metabolismo , Antipsicóticos/farmacocinética , Clozapina/farmacocinética , Alemanha , Humanos , Transtornos Psicóticos/tratamento farmacológico
12.
J Assoc Physicians India ; 67(4): 76-78, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31299847

RESUMO

A 21-year old female, recently diagnosed with osteosarcoma of right humerus, presented to the emergency with history of fever, productive cough, chest pain and progressive respiratory distress for six days. Initial investigations suggested pneumonia but she did not respond to parenteral antibiotics. CT pulmonary angiogram revealed bilateral pulmonary artery embolism. Thrombolysis was performed using alteplase, which failed to improve the clinical condition. In view of underlying malignancy, a possibility of tumour-embolism was considered and she was started on chemotherapy for osteosarcoma. There was dramatic improvement in her respiratory symptoms after the first chemotherapy cycle, along with radiological resolution of the embolism. This case highlights the importance of suspecting tumour embolism in a known case of malignancy with respiratory distress.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Ósseas/diagnóstico , Osteossarcoma/diagnóstico , Embolia Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Adulto , Angiografia , Neoplasias Ósseas/complicações , Neoplasias Ósseas/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Osteossarcoma/complicações , Osteossarcoma/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia , Embolia Pulmonar/complicações , Embolia Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto Jovem
13.
J Assoc Physicians India ; 67(3): 38-41, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31304704

RESUMO

Introduction: The resurgence of epidemic of Influenza A (H1N1) pdm 09 was phenomenal in 2015 and has become an annual phenomenon. Antigenic drift and reassortment is the rule rather than exception, conferring survival benefit to the virus. As this disease has high mortality, we compared the clinico-epidemiological profile of patients expired in the year 2015 due to "A/California/7/2009" strain with those of expired in the year 2018 due to "A/Michigan/45/2015" strain. Material and Method: We collected data of all expired patients in our institute in the year 2015 from 1st January to 30th may as well as 2018 in the same time period. The data of 116 patients who expired in 2015 due to "A/California/7/2009" H1N1 strain were compared with similar data of 30 patients expired in 2018 due to "A/Michigan/45/2015" strain of H1N1. Patients of pneumonia, having age >18 years, positive for H1N1by real-time reverse-transcriptase-polymerase- chain-reaction (RT-PCR) and died in our hospital were included in this study. Clinical features and laboratory data were obtained from the hospital records of the patients. Data analysis was done using SPSS software. Result: In 2015 total number of hospitalized patients due to "A/California/7/2009" strain were 571 and 116(20.31%) out of them died, in 2018 those due to "A/Michigan/45/2015" total admission were 177 and 30(16.94%) out of them died (p-0.032). Though it was not statistically significant but it is lesser than in 2015 despite the fact that more patients with co morbidities were affected in 2018. Duration in ICU was significantly longer in 2018(MS) group [5(1-7)] compared to 2015 (CS) group [3(1-17)] with p value of 0.017 (i.e. < 0.05). But both groups were not different in terms of duration on mechanical ventilator. (p-0.257).The 2015 (CS) group had 74.1% with other co-morbidities versus 96.7% of those in 2018 (MS) group (p- 0.015). This implies that the mortality with "A/Michigan/45/2015" infection was mainly seen in the patients who already had one or more co-morbidities unlike "A/California/7/2009" infection.The 2018 (MS) group had significantly higher proportion (60%) of patients with acute kidney injury compared to 34.5% in 2015(CS) (p-0.019). 50% of dead patients in 2018(MS) had anemia compared to 11.2% in 2015(CS) (p<0.001). Deranged liver function test was seen in 46.7% patients in 2018(MS) compared to only 15.5% patients in 2014(CS) (p<0.001).The only reverse trend was shown in case of diabetes, A/California/7/2009 strain affected 27% diabetics compared with 6.7% affected by A/Michigan/45/2015 strain (p=0.030) (Table 5). Conclusion: The study showed that though "A/Michigan/45/2015" affected higher number of patients with co morbidities compared to "A/California/7/2009" but had slightly lesser mortality.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1 , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Pneumonia , Surtos de Doenças , Hospitalização , Humanos
14.
J Glob Health ; 9(2): 020101, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31360441

RESUMO

In 2012, the Government of Canada awarded a grant to the World Health Organization's Global Malaria Programme (GMP) to support the scale-up of integrated community case management (iCCM) of pneumonia, diarrhoea and malaria among children under 5 in sub-Saharan Africa under the Rapid Access Expansion Programme (RAcE). The two main objectives of the programme were to: (1) Contribute to the reduction of child mortality due to malaria, pneumonia and diarrhoea by increasing access to diagnostics, treatment and referral services, and (1) Stimulate policy updates in participating countries and catalyze scale-up of integrated community case management (iCCM) through documentation and dissemination of best practices. Based on the results of the implementation research and programmatic lessons, this collection provides evidence on impact and improving coverage of iCCM in routine health systems, and opportunities and challenges of implementing and sustaining delivery of iCCM at scale.


Assuntos
Administração de Caso/organização & administração , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/organização & administração , Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde/organização & administração , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Canadá , Mortalidade da Criança/tendências , Pré-Escolar , Diarreia/mortalidade , Diarreia/terapia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Cooperação Internacional , Malária/mortalidade , Malária/terapia , Pneumonia/mortalidade , Pneumonia/terapia , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde
15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(26): e16239, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31261585

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent clinical trials have shown that adjunctive glucocorticoids is associated with inhibiting excessive inflammatory response and modulating cytokines release offering several advantages over conventional therapy on relieving clinical symptoms, reducing mortality, and improving prognosis. However, given the severe complications triggered by glucocorticosteroid, whether similar benefits may be achieved by patients undergoing glucocorticosteroid intervention remains controversial. Our meta-analysis aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of adjunctive glucocorticoids in the treatment of severe community acquired pneumonia. METHODS: A search of PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, EBASO, Medline, Google Scholar, Science Dicet, CBM, and CNKI databases was performed to analyze all relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of corticosteroids in patients with severe community acquired pneumonia (CAP) up to January 2018. All-cause mortality, C-reactive protein (CRP) level, incidence of septic shock, and requirement of mechanical ventilation were selected as efficacy outcomes. Major adverse events involving super infection, upper gastrointestinal bleeding, and hyperglycemia were safety outcomes. Meta-analysis was conducted with RevMan 5.3 software. RESULTS: A total of 10 RCTs comprising 665 patients were included for analysis. Regarding efficacy outcomes, adjunctive corticosteroid seemed to be superior compared with conventional treatment in terms of all-cause mortality (relative risk [RR]: 0.47, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.3-0.74, P = .001), CRP level on day 8 after administration (standard mean difference [SMD]: -0.8, 95% CI, -1.11 to -0.5, P < .001), incidence of septic shock (odds ratio [OR] 0.15, 95% CI, 0.07-0.29, P < .001) and requirement for mechanical ventilation (OR: 0.32, 95% CI, 0.20-0.52, P < .001). Meanwhile, we found that low dose (≤86 mg) (RR: 0.41, 95% CI, 0.21-0.82, P = .01) and prolonged (>5 days) (RR: 0.35, 95% CI, 0.15-0.81, P = .01) use of corticosteroids in dosage modus of a maintenance dose after a bolus (RR: 0.28, 95% CI, 0.14-0.55, P = .002) obtained better results in death through subgroup analysis. Regarding safety outcomes, no difference was observed between 2 groups in terms of upper gastrointestinal bleeding (OR: 0.83, 95% CI, 0.27-2.52, P = .74), hyperglycemia (OR: 1.3, 95% CI, 0.68-2.49, P = .42), and super infection (OR: 1.11, 95% CI, 0.14-9.13, P = .92). CONCLUSION: Adjunctive corticosteroid yielded favorable outcomes in the treatment of severe community acquired pneumonia (SCAP) as evidenced by decreased all-cause mortality, incidence of septic shock, and requirement for mechanical ventilation without increasing risk of adverse events. Low dose (≤86 mg/d), prolonged use (>5 days) of corticosteroid in dosage modus of a maintenance dose after a bolus can be recommended as preferred regimen to guard against SCAP.


Assuntos
Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/tratamento farmacológico , Glucocorticoides/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Toxicol Lett ; 313: 178-187, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31284023

RESUMO

Long-term inhalation of crystalline silica particles leads to silicosis characterized by pulmonary inflammation and interstitial fibrosis. The growth arrest-specific protein 6 (Gas6) and its tyrosine receptor Mer have been implicated to involve in the regulation of inflammation, innate immunity and tissue repair. However, the role of Gas6 or Mer in silica-induced lung inflammation and fibrosis has not been investigated previously. In this study, we observed a remarkable increase of Gas6 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from wild-type C57BL/6 mice after silica intratracheal administration. Then, we investigated whether genetic loss of Gas6 or Mer could attenuate silica-induced lung inflammation and fibrosis. Our results showed that Gas6-/- and Mer-/- mice exhibited reduced lung inflammation response from days 7 to 84 after silica exposure. We also uncovered an overexpression of the suppressor of cytokine signaling protein 1 in silica-treated deficient mice. Moreover, Gas6 or Mer deficiency attenuated silica-induced collagen deposition by inhibiting the expression of transforming growth factor-ß. We conclude that gene absence of Gas6 or Mer is protective against silica-induced lung inflammation and fibrosis in mice. Targeting Gas6/Mer pathway may be a potential therapeutic approach to treat pulmonary fibrosis in patients with silicosis.


Assuntos
Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/deficiência , Pulmão/enzimologia , Pneumonia/prevenção & controle , Fibrose Pulmonar/prevenção & controle , Silicose/prevenção & controle , c-Mer Tirosina Quinase/deficiência , Animais , Colágeno Tipo I/genética , Colágeno Tipo I/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/genética , Pulmão/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Pneumonia/enzimologia , Pneumonia/genética , Pneumonia/patologia , Fibrose Pulmonar/enzimologia , Fibrose Pulmonar/genética , Fibrose Pulmonar/patologia , Transdução de Sinais , Silicose/enzimologia , Silicose/genética , Silicose/patologia , Proteína 1 Supressora da Sinalização de Citocina/genética , Proteína 1 Supressora da Sinalização de Citocina/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/genética , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , c-Mer Tirosina Quinase/genética
17.
Clin Nucl Med ; 44(8): 653-654, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31274614

RESUMO

Alveolar sarcoidosis is an uncommon radiologic manifestation of pulmonary sarcoidosis which appears as infiltrative or mass-like opacities mimicking multifocal pneumonia or infiltrative lung malignancies such as multi-focal adenocarcinoma or pulmonary lymphoma. It has correlation with a more acute and symptomatic phase of thoracic sarcoidosis and therefore expected to show a more severely increased metabolic activity on FDG PET. Alveolar sarcoidosis shows a relatively rapid radiological improvement after initiation of corticosteroid therapy. Tissue diagnosis might be needed in some cases to exclude malignancy.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumonia/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Sarcoidose Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Fluordesoxiglucose F18 , Humanos , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos
18.
19.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 603, 2019 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31291896

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aims to investigate the pathogen distribution and drug resistance in patients with acute cerebral infarction complicated with diabetes mellitus and nosocomial pulmonary infection. METHODS: From August 2015 to December 2017, 172 pathogenic bacterial strains from patients with acute cerebral infarction complicated with diabetes mellitus and nosocomial pulmonary infection in our hospital were identified, and the drug sensitivity was analyzed. RESULTS: Among these 172 strains of pathogenic bacteria, gram negative bacteria was the main cause of pulmonary infection in hospitalized patients with acute cerebral infarction, accounting for 75.6% of all pathogens. Furthermore, 80% of diabetic patients with cerebral infarction had lung infection induced by gram negative bacteria, which was significantly higher than that in non-diabetic patients (72.2%). Moreover, the drug resistance rate in the diabetic group (68.3%) was significantly higher than that in the non-diabetic group (54.3%). Gram positive bacteria accounted for 19.1% of all pathogenic bacteria. The infection rate of gram-positive bacteria in diabetic patients with cerebral infarction was 14.7%, which was lower than that in the non-diabetic group (22.6%). The drug-resistance rate was higher in the diabetic group (45.5%) than in the non-diabetic group (28.2%). Furthermore, the fungal infection rate in patients with lung infection in these two groups was 5.3 and 5.2%, respectively, and fungi presented with high sensitivity to commonly used antifungal agents. CONCLUSION: In patients with acute cerebral infarction complicated with diabetes mellitus and nosocomial pulmonary infection, the majority of pathogens are multidrug-resistant gram negative bacilli. Pathogen culture should be conducted as soon as possible before using antibiotics, and antimicrobial agents should be reasonably used according to drug sensitivity test results.


Assuntos
Infarto Cerebral/complicações , Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Complicações do Diabetes/microbiologia , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Pneumonia/microbiologia , Doença Aguda , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Infarto Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Infarto Cerebral/microbiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/tratamento farmacológico , Complicações do Diabetes/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pneumonia/tratamento farmacológico
20.
J Glob Health ; 9(1): 010803, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31263548

RESUMO

Background: Access to prompt and appropriate treatment is key to survival for children with malaria, pneumonia and diarrhoea. Community-based services are vital to extending care to remote populations. Malaria Consortium supported Niger state Ministry of Health, Nigeria, to introduce and implement an integrated community case management (iCCM) programme for four years in six local government areas (LGAs). The objective was to increase coverage of effective treatment for malaria, pneumonia and diarrhoea among children aged 2-59 months. Methods: The programme involved training, equipping, ongoing support and supervision of 1320 community volunteers (CORPs) to provide iCCM services to their communities in all six LGAs. Demand creation activities were also conducted; these included community dialogues, household mobilization, sensitization and mass media campaigns targeted at programme communities. To assess the level of changes in care seeking and treatment, baseline and endline household surveys were conducted in 2014 and 2017 respectively. For both surveys, a 30×30 multi-stage cluster sampling method was used, the sampling frame being RAcE programme communities. Results: Care-seeking from an appropriate provider increased overall and for each iCCM illness from 78% to 94% for children presenting with fever (P < 0.01), from 72% to 91% for diarrhoea cases (P < 0.01), and from 76% to 89% for cases of cough with difficult or fast breathing (P < 0.05). For diagnosis and treatment, the coverage of fevers tested for malaria increased from 34% to 77% (P < 0.001) and ACT treatments from 57% to 73% (<0.005); 56% of cases of cough or fast breathing who sought care from a CORP, had their respiratory rate counted and 61% with cough or fast breathing received amoxicillin. At endline caregivers sought care from CORPs in their communities for most cases of childhood illnesses (84%) compared to other providers at hospitals (1%) or health centres (9%).This aligns with caregivers' belief that CORPs are trusted providers (94%) who provide quality services (96%). Conclusion: Implementation of iCCM with focused demand creation activities can improve access to quality lifesaving interventions from frontline community providers in Nigeria. This can contribute towards achieving SDGs if iCCM is scaled up to hard-to-reach areas of all states in the country.


Assuntos
Administração de Caso/organização & administração , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/organização & administração , Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde , Diarreia/terapia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Malária/terapia , Pneumonia/terapia , Pré-Escolar , Diarreia/mortalidade , Humanos , Lactente , Malária/mortalidade , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Pneumonia/mortalidade , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde
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