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1.
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis ; 17: 1975-1986, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36065315

RESUMO

Purpose: Randomized trials report that single-inhaler triple therapy is more effective than dual bronchodilators at reducing exacerbations in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, this effect may have been influenced by the forced withdrawal of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) at randomization. We used an adaptive selection new-user design to compare single-inhaler triple therapy with dual bronchodilators in real-world clinical practice. Patients and Methods: We identified a cohort of COPD patients, 40 years or older, treated during 2017-2020, from the United Kingdom's Clinical Practice Research Datalink, a real-world practice setting. ICS-naïve patients initiating single-inhaler triple therapy or dual bronchodilators were compared on the incidence of COPD exacerbation and pneumonia over one year, after adjustment by propensity score weighting. Results: The cohort included 4106 new users of single-inhaler triple therapy and 29,702 of dual bronchodilators. Single-inhaler triple therapy was the first maintenance treatment in 44% of the users and 43% had no COPD exacerbations in the prior year. The adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of a first moderate or severe exacerbation with triple therapy relative to dual bronchodilators was 1.08 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.00-1.16). Among patients with two or more prior exacerbations the HR was 0.83 (95% CI: 0.74-0.92), while for those with prior asthma diagnosis it was 0.86 (95% CI: 0.70-1.06) and with blood eosinophil count >300 cells/µL it was 0.89 (95% CI: 0.76-1.05). The incidence of severe pneumonia was increased with triple therapy (HR 1.50; 95% CI: 1.29-1.75). Conclusion: In a real-world setting of COPD treatment among ICS-naïve patients, thus unaffected by ICS withdrawal, single-inhaler triple therapy was not more effective than dual bronchodilators at reducing the incidence of exacerbation, except among patients with multiple exacerbations. Single-inhaler triple therapy should be initiated mainly in patients with multiple exacerbations while, for most others, dual bronchodilators are just as effective whilst avoiding the excess risk of severe pneumonias.


Assuntos
Pneumonia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Administração por Inalação , Corticosteroides , Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2 , Broncodilatadores , Quimioterapia Combinada , Humanos , Antagonistas Muscarínicos , Nebulizadores e Vaporizadores , Pneumonia/induzido quimicamente , Pneumonia/diagnóstico , Pneumonia/epidemiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(17)2022 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36077293

RESUMO

Pneumonia is an acute infectious disease with high morbidity and mortality rates. Pneumonia's development, severity and outcome depend on age, comorbidities and the host immune response. In this study, we combined theoretical and experimental investigations to characterize pneumonia and its comorbidities as well as to assess the host immune response measured by TREC/KREC levels in patients with pneumonia. The theoretical study was carried out using the Columbia Open Health Data (COHD) resource, which provides access to clinical concept prevalence and co-occurrence from electronic health records. The experimental study included TREC/KREC assays in young adults (18-40 years) with community-acquired (CAP) (n = 164) or nosocomial (NP) (n = 99) pneumonia and healthy controls (n = 170). Co-occurring rates between pneumonia, sepsis, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and some other related conditions common in intensive care units were the top among 4170, 3382 and 963 comorbidities in pneumonia, sepsis and ARDS, respectively. CAP patients had higher TREC levels, while NP patients had lower TREC/KREC levels compared to controls. Low TREC and KREC levels were predictive for the development of NP, ARDS, sepsis and lethal outcome (AUCTREC in the range 0.71-0.82, AUCKREC in the range 0.67-0.74). TREC/KREC analysis can be considered as a potential prognostic test in patients with pneumonia.


Assuntos
Pneumonia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório , Sepse , Estado Terminal , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Pneumonia/epidemiologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/epidemiologia , Sepse/complicações , Sepse/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
3.
BMC Anesthesiol ; 22(1): 296, 2022 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36114451

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study was designed to examine extubation time and to determine its association with postoperative pneumonia (POP) after meningioma resection. METHODS: We studied extubation time for 598 patients undergoing meningioma resection from January 2016 to December 2020. Extubation time was analysed as a categorical variable and patients were grouped into extubation within 21 minutes, 21-35 minutes and ≥ 35 minutes. Our primary outcome represented the incidence of POP. The association between extubation time and POP was assessed using multivariable logistic regression mixed-effects models which adjusted for confounders previously reported. Propensity score matching (PSM) was also performed at a ratio of 1:1 to minimize potential bias. RESULTS: Among 598 patients (mean age 56.1 ± 10.7 years, 75.8% female), the mean extubation time was 32.4 minutes. Extubation was performed within 21 minutes (32.4%), 21-35 minutes (31.2%) and ≥ 35 minutes (36.4%), respectively, after surgery. Older patients (mean age 57.8 years) were prone to delayed extubation (≥ 35 min) in the operating room, and more inclined to perioperative fluid infusion. When extubation time was analysed as a continuous variable, there was a U-shaped relation of extubation time with POP (P for nonlinearity = 0.044). After adjustment for confounders, extubation ≥35 minutes was associated with POP (odds ratio [OR], 2.73 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.36 ~ 5.47). Additionally, the results after PSM were consistent with those before matching. CONCLUSIONS: Delayed extubation after meningioma resection is associated with increased pneumonia incidence. Therefore, extubation should be performed as early as safely possible in the operation room.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Meníngeas , Meningioma , Pneumonia , Idoso , Extubação/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias Meníngeas/complicações , Neoplasias Meníngeas/cirurgia , Meningioma/complicações , Meningioma/cirurgia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia/epidemiologia , Pneumonia/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
4.
Respir Res ; 23(1): 239, 2022 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36088316

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Despite improvements in medical science and public health, mortality of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) has barely changed throughout the last 15 years. The current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has once again highlighted the central importance of acute respiratory infections to human health. The "network of excellence on Community Acquired Pneumonia" (CAPNETZ) hosts the most comprehensive CAP database worldwide including more than 12,000 patients. CAPNETZ connects physicians, microbiologists, virologists, epidemiologists, and computer scientists throughout Europe. Our aim was to summarize the current situation in CAP research and identify the most pressing unmet needs in CAP research. METHODS: To identify areas of future CAP research, CAPNETZ followed a multiple-step procedure. First, research members of CAPNETZ were individually asked to identify unmet needs. Second, the top 100 experts in the field of CAP research were asked for their insights about the unmet needs in CAP (Delphi approach). Third, internal and external experts discussed unmet needs in CAP at a scientific retreat. RESULTS: Eleven topics for future CAP research were identified: detection of causative pathogens, next generation sequencing for antimicrobial treatment guidance, imaging diagnostics, biomarkers, risk stratification, antiviral and antibiotic treatment, adjunctive therapy, vaccines and prevention, systemic and local immune response, comorbidities, and long-term cardio-vascular complications. CONCLUSION: Pneumonia is a complex disease where the interplay between pathogens, immune system and comorbidities not only impose an immediate risk of mortality but also affect the patients' risk of developing comorbidities as well as mortality for up to a decade after pneumonia has resolved. Our review of unmet needs in CAP research has shown that there are still major shortcomings in our knowledge of CAP.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas , Pneumonia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/diagnóstico , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/epidemiologia , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/terapia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pneumonia/diagnóstico , Pneumonia/epidemiologia , Pneumonia/terapia , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 58(8)2022 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36013594

RESUMO

Background and Objectives: A nationwide retrospective cohort study was conducted to evaluate the factors associated with the risk of laboratory-confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-related pneumonia in fully vaccinated adults during the dominance of the Omicron sublineages in Mexico. Materials and Methods: Fully COVID-19-vaccinated adults with laboratory-positive illness and symptom onset from April to mid-June 2022 were eligible. We computed the eta-squared (η2) to evaluate the effect size of the study sample. The characteristics predicting pneumonia were evaluated through risk ratios (RRs), and the 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed through generalized linear models. Results: The data from 35,561 participants were evaluated, and the overall risk of pneumonia was 0.5%. In multiple analyses, patients aged ≥ 60 years old were at increased risk of developing pneumonia (vs. 20-39 years old: RR = 1.031, 95% CI = 1.027-1.034). Chronic pulmonary obstructive disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension, chronic kidney disease (any stage), and immunosuppression (any cause) were also associated with a higher pneumonia risk. The η2 of all the variables included in the multiple models was <0.06. Conclusions: Our study suggests that, even when fully COVID-19-vaccinated, older adults and those with chronic conditions were at increased risk of pneumonia during the dominance of the Omicron sublineages BA.1.1 and BA.2.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Pneumonia , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Humanos , México/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
6.
Malar J ; 21(1): 239, 2022 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35987625

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Globally, nearly half of all deaths among children under the age of 5 years can be attributed to malaria, diarrhoea, and pneumonia. A significant proportion of these deaths occur in sub-Saharan Africa. Despite several programmes implemented in sub-Saharan Africa, the burden of these illnesses remains persistently high. To mobilise resources for such programmes it is necessary to evaluate their costs, costs-effectiveness, and affordability. This study aimed to estimate the provider costs of treating malaria, diarrhoea, and pneumonia among children under the age of 5 years in routine settings at the health facility level in rural Uganda and Mozambique. METHODS: Service and cost data was collected from health facilities in midwestern Uganda and Inhambane province, Mozambique from private and public health facilities. Financial and economic costs of providing care for childhood illnesses were investigated from the provider perspective by combining a top-down and bottom-up approach to estimate unit costs and annual total costs for different types of visits for these illnesses. All costs were collected in Ugandan shillings and Mozambican meticais. Costs are presented in 2021 US dollars. RESULTS: In Uganda, the highest number of outpatient visits were for children with uncomplicated malaria and of inpatient admissions were for respiratory infections, including pneumonia. The highest unit cost for outpatient visits was for pneumonia (and other respiratory infections) and ranged from $0.5 to 2.3, while the highest unit cost for inpatient admissions was for malaria ($19.6). In Mozambique, the highest numbers of outpatient and inpatient admissions visits were for malaria. The highest unit costs were for malaria too, ranging from $2.5 to 4.2 for outpatient visits and $3.8 for inpatient admissions. The greatest contributors to costs in both countries were drugs and diagnostics, followed by staff. CONCLUSIONS: The findings highlighted the intensive resource use in the treatment of malaria and pneumonia for outpatient and inpatient cases, particularly at higher level health facilities. Timely treatment to prevent severe complications associated with these illnesses can also avoid high costs to health providers, and households. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier: NCT01972321.


Assuntos
Diarreia , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Malária , Pneumonia , Pré-Escolar , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/terapia , Humanos , Lactente , Malária/epidemiologia , Malária/terapia , Moçambique/epidemiologia , Pneumonia/epidemiologia , Pneumonia/terapia , Serviços de Saúde Rural/economia , Uganda/epidemiologia
7.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 13934, 2022 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35978016

RESUMO

We aimed to estimate the socioeconomic burden of pneumonia due to multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MRAB) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MRPA). We prospectively searched for MRAB and MRPA pneumonia cases and matched them with susceptible-organism pneumonia and non-infected patients from 10 hospitals. The matching criteria were: same principal diagnosis, same surgery or intervention during hospitalisation, age, sex, and admission date within 60 days. We calculated the economic burden by using the difference in hospital costs, the difference in caregiver costs, and the sum of productivity loss from an unexpected death. We identified 108 MRAB pneumonia [MRAB-P] and 28 MRPA pneumonia [MRPA-P] cases. The estimated number of annual MRAB-P and MRPA-P cases in South Korea were 1309-2483 and 339-644, with 485-920 and 133-253 deaths, respectively. The annual socioeconomic burden of MRAB-P and MRPA-P in South Korea was $64,549,723-122,533,585 and $15,241,883-28,994,008, respectively. The results revealed that MRAB-P and MRPA-P occurred in 1648-3127 patients, resulted in 618-1173 deaths, and caused a nationwide socioeconomic burden of $79,791,606-151,527,593. Multidrug-resistant organisms (MDRO) impose a great clinical and economic burden at a national level. Therefore, controlling the spread of MDRO will be an effective measure to reduce this burden.


Assuntos
Infecções por Acinetobacter , Acinetobacter baumannii , Pneumonia , Infecções por Acinetobacter/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Acinetobacter/epidemiologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pneumonia/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia/epidemiologia , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Fatores Socioeconômicos
8.
Hosp Pediatr ; 12(9): 798-805, 2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35922590

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: No standardized risk assessment tool exists for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in children. This study aims to investigate the association between red blood cell distribution width (RDW) and pediatric CAP. METHODS: Data prospectively collected by the Etiology of Pneumonia in the Community study (2010-2012) was used. Study population was pediatric patients admitted to tertiary care hospitals in Nashville and Memphis, Tennessee with clinically and radiographically confirmed CAP. The earliest measured RDW value on admission was used, in quintiles and also as a continuous variable. Outcomes analyzed were: severe CAP (requiring ICU, mechanical ventilation, vasopressor support, or death) or moderate CAP (hospital admission only). Analysis used multivariable logistic regression and restricted cubic splines modeling. RESULTS: In 1459 eligible children, the median age was 29 months (interquartile range: 12-73), median RDW was 13.3% (interquartile range: 12.5-14.3), and 289 patients (19.8%) developed severe disease. In comparison with the lowest RDW quintile (Q1), the adjusted odds ratio (95% CI) for severe CAP in subsequent quintiles were, Q2: 1.20 (0.72-1.99); Q3: 1.28 (0.76-2.14); Q4: 1.69 (1.01-2.82); Q5: 1.25 (0.73-2.13). Consistently, RDW restricted cubic splines demonstrated an independent, nonlinear, positive association with CAP severity (P = .027), with rapid increases in the risk of severe CAP with RDW values up to 15%. CONCLUSIONS: Higher presenting RDW was associated with an increased risk of severe CAP in hospitalized children. Widely available and inexpensive, RDW can serve as an objective data point to help with clinical assessments.


Assuntos
Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas , Pneumonia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/epidemiologia , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/terapia , Índices de Eritrócitos , Eritrócitos , Humanos , Pneumonia/epidemiologia , Pneumonia/terapia , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
9.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 14404, 2022 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36002582

RESUMO

We aimed to analyze the influence of atrial fibrillation (AF) prior to hospital admission ("prevalent") and AF diagnosed during hospital admission ("incident") on in-hospital mortality (IHM) in women and men admitted for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in Spain (2016-2019). We used the Spanish Register of Specialized Care-Basic Minimum Database. We analyzed 519,750 cases of CAP in people ≥ 18 years (213,631 women (41.1%)), out of which people with prevalent AF represented 23.75% (N = 123,440), whereas people with incident AF constituted 0.60% (N = 3154). Versus no AF, crude IHM was significantly higher for prevalent AF (15.24% vs. 11.40%, p < 0.001) and for incident AF (23.84% vs. 12.24%, p < 0.001). After propensity score marching, IHM in women and men with prevalent AF neared IHM in women and men with no AF (15.72% vs. 15.52%, p = 0.425; and 14.90% vs. 14.99%, p = 0.631, respectively), but IHM in women and men with incident AF was higher than IHM in women and men with no AF (24.37% vs. 13.36%, p < 0.001; and 23.94% vs. 14.04%, p < 0.001, respectively). Male sex was associated with a higher IHM in people with prevalent AF (OR 1.06; 95% CI 1.02-1-10), but not in people with incident AF (OR 0.93; 95% CI 0.77-1-13). AF diagnosed during hospital admission was associated with a higher IHM, irrespectively of sex.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas , Pneumonia , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/epidemiologia , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Hospitalização , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pneumonia/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Espanha/epidemiologia
10.
J Glob Health ; 12: 10010, 2022 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35939347

RESUMO

Background: Tuberculosis (TB) can present as acute, severe pneumonia in children, but features which distinguish TB from other causes of pneumonia are not well understood. We conducted a systematic review to determine the prevalence and to explore clinical and demographic predictors of TB in children presenting with pneumonia over three decades. Methods: We searched for peer-reviewed, English language studies published between 1990 and 2020 that included children aged between 1 month and 17 years with pneumonia and prospectively evaluated for TB. There were 895 abstracts and titles screened, and 72 full text articles assessed for eligibility. Results: Thirteen clinical studies, two autopsy studies and one systematic review were included in analyses. Majority of studies were from Africa (12/15) and included children less than five years age. Prevalence of bacteriologically confirmed TB in children with pneumonia ranged from 0.2% to 14.8% (median = 3.7%, interquartile range (IQR) = 5.95) and remained stable over the three decades. TB may be more likely in children with pneumonia if they have a history of close TB contact, HIV infection, malnutrition, age less than one year or failure to respond to empirical antibiotics. However, these features have limited discriminatory value as TB commonly presents as acute severe pneumonia - with a short duration of cough, and clinical and radiographic features indistinguishable from other causes of pneumonia. Approximately half of patients with TB respond to initial empirical antibiotics, presumably due to bacterial co-infection, and follow-up may be critical to detect and treat TB. Conclusion: TB should be considered as a potential cause or comorbidity in all children presenting with pneumonia in high burden settings. Clinicians should be alert to the presence of known risk factors for TB and bacteriological confirmation sought whenever possible. Quality data regarding clinical predictors of TB in childhood pneumonia are lacking. Further, prospective research is needed to better understand predictors and prevalence of TB in childhood pneumonia, particularly in TB endemic settings outside of Africa and in older children. Children of all ages with pneumonia should be included in research on improved, point-of-care TB diagnostics to support early case detection and treatment.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Pneumonia , Tuberculose , Antibacterianos , Criança , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Pneumonia/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Tuberculose/epidemiologia
11.
BMC Neurol ; 22(1): 297, 2022 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35953801

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pulmonary infection is a frequent complication among stroke patients and adversely affects clinical outcomes, increases the length of hospitalization stay and costs, and aggravates the financial burden of the national medical health system. Early identification and management of high-risk patients are necessary and imperative to reduce the incidence of stroke-associated pneumonia (SAP). AIM: The evidence-based practice project evaluated the effectiveness of a standard care bundle intervention in preventing the occurrence of SAP. METHODS: The project was conducted in a neurology department of a teaching hospital. Given the variation in assessment and management standards, evidence-based practice (EBP) methodology was used to establish a process for quality improvement. A thorough literature search was conducted to identify evidence-based interventions to manage and prevent SAP. Thorough critiques of the literature and synthesis of the evidence were completed. A systematic management flow and care bundle interventions were established. The care bundle included interventions, such as the utilization of tools for SAP risk screening; dysphagia screening and rehabilitation; feeding modification, oral care, airway management, position management, and the nursing techniques of traditional Chinese medicine. RESULTS: A significant improvement was observed in preventing SAP in patients in the postimplementation group compared with those in the preimplementation group (14.0% vs. 37.2%, p = 0.025). In addition, significantly lower duration of hospitalization, lower rate of aspiration, and improvements in albumin and oral hygiene were found after the implementation of the care bundle. CONCLUSIONS: Evidence-based care bundles successfully empower nurses to reduce the incidence of SAP. The management flow of SAP prevention could be promoted to other units of the neurology department in the future. The results of the project reflect positively on the capacity to implement EBP in an acute care setting for stroke. The EBP methodology can be utilized to solve other clinical problems.


Assuntos
Pacotes de Assistência ao Paciente , Pneumonia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências , Humanos , Incidência , Pneumonia/complicações , Pneumonia/epidemiologia , Pneumonia/prevenção & controle , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia
12.
Fukushima J Med Sci ; 68(2): 109-116, 2022 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35934806

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postoperative pneumonia is one of the major complications after esophagectomy. The aim of this study was to determine whether bacterial cultures before esophagectomy could predict occurrence of postoperative pneumonia and help treatment strategies for postoperative pneumonia. METHODS: Sixty-nine patients who underwent subtotal esophagectomy at Fukushima Medical University Hospital between January 2017 and May 2021 were included in this study. We collected sputum, oral, and/or nasopharyngeal swabs for bacterial culture preoperatively from all patients and from those who were suspected of postoperative pulmonary infections. We compared cultured pathogenic bacteria obtained preoperatively and postoperatively from patients who developed postoperative pneumonia, and investigated their association with incidence of postoperative pneumonia. RESULTS: Postoperative pneumonia occurred in 22 of 69 patients (31%), including 13 cases of severe pneumonia with a Clavien-Dindo classification of grade IIIa or higher. Multivariate analysis revealed that longer operative duration (for 30 minutes increase;odds ratio 1.27, 95% CI 1.01-1.51, p=0.039) and positivity for preoperative bacterial culture (odds ratio 5.03, 95% CI 1.31-19.2, p=0.018) were independent risk factors for severe postoperative pneumonia, but not for all incidences of postoperative pneumonia. Of note, in only 5 of the 22 patients with pneumonia, the same pathogenic species were detected preoperatively and after the onset of pneumonia. CONCLUSIONS: Our results imply that preoperative bacterial culture may be useful to predict severe postoperative pneumonia. However, it may not be useful in determining pathogenic bacteria responsible for postoperative pneumonia.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Esofágicas , Pneumonia , Neoplasias Esofágicas/cirurgia , Esofagectomia/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Pneumonia/epidemiologia , Pneumonia/etiologia , Pneumonia/cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
13.
JAMA Health Forum ; 3(1): e214611, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35977231

RESUMO

Importance: Low-income older adults who are dually eligible (DE) for Medicare and Medicaid often experience worse outcomes following hospitalization. Among other federal policies aimed at improving health for DE patients, Medicare has recently begun reporting disparities in within-hospital readmissions. The degree to which disparities for DE patients are owing to differences in community-level factors or, conversely, are amenable to hospital quality improvement, remains heavily debated. Objective: To examine the extent to which within-hospital disparities in 30-day readmission rates for DE patients are ameliorated by state- and community-level factors. Design Setting and Participants: In this retrospective cohort study, Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) Disparity Methods were used to calculate within-hospital disparities in 30-day risk-adjusted readmission rates for DE vs non-DE patients in US hospitals participating in Medicare. All analyses were performed in February and March 2019. The study included Medicare patients (aged ≥65 years) hospitalized for acute myocardial infarction (AMI), heart failure (HF), or pneumonia in 2014 to 2017. Main Outcomes and Measures: Within-hospital disparities, as measured by the rate difference (RD) in 30-day readmission between DE vs non-DE patients following admission for AMI, HF, or pneumonia; variance across hospitals; and correlation of hospital RDs with and without adjustment for state Medicaid eligibility policies and community-level factors. Results: The final sample included 475 444 patients admitted for AMI, 898 395 for HF, and 1 214 282 for pneumonia, of whom 13.2%, 17.4%, and 23.0% were DE patients, respectively. Dually eligible patients had higher 30-day readmission rates relative to non-DE patients (RD >0) in 99.0% (AMI), 99.4% (HF), and 97.5% (pneumonia) of US hospitals. Across hospitals, the mean (IQR) RD between DE vs non-DE was 1.00% (0.87%-1.10%) for AMI, 0.82% (0.73%-0.96%) for HF, and 0.53% (0.37%-0.71%) for pneumonia. The mean (IQR) RD after adjustment for community-level factors was 0.87% (0.73%-0.97%) for AMI, 0.67% (0.57%-0.80%) for HF, and 0.42% (0.29%-0.57%) for pneumonia. Relative hospital rankings of corresponding within-hospital disparities before and after community-level adjustment were highly correlated (Pearson coefficient, 0.98). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, within-hospital disparities in 30-day readmission for DE patients were modestly associated with differences in state Medicaid policies and community-level factors. This suggests that remaining variation in these disparities should be the focus of hospital efforts to improve the quality of care transitions at discharge for DE patients in efforts to advance equity.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca , Infarto do Miocárdio , Pneumonia , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Humanos , Medicaid , Medicare , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Readmissão do Paciente , Pneumonia/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
14.
BMC Pediatr ; 22(1): 485, 2022 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35964106

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aspiration pneumonia is a major complication that occurs in patients with severe cerebral palsy and is associated with their survival prognosis, necessitating appropriate assessment and response. We focused on swallowing frequency as an index of daily swallowing function due to the difficulty in evaluating the risk of pneumonia. The swallowing motion protects the airway by safely directing the food, saliva, and secretions accumulated in the pharynx into the esophagus to prevent aspiration and entry into the trachea. Thus, swallowing frequency may be correlated with the incidence of pneumonia. In this study, we aimed to investigate the relationship between swallowing frequency and history of pneumonia in patients with severe cerebral palsy. METHODS: Fifty-seven patients with cerebral palsy were included in this study. Swallowing frequency was measured three times for each patient on separate days, and the reproducibility was examined by calculating the intraclass correlation coefficient. Further, the relationship between swallowing frequency and history of pneumonia was investigated using multivariate logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: While swallowing frequency differed between participants, it was constant within individuals (intraclass correlation coefficient: 0.941). Furthermore, the swallowing frequencies per hour were 12.2 ± 12.2 and 27.0 ± 20.4 in the patient groups with and without a history of pneumonia, respectively (P < 0.001). Swallowing frequency (odds ratio: 10.489, 95% confidence interval: 2.706-40.663, P = 0.001) was significantly associated with the incidence of pneumonia in the previous year. CONCLUSIONS: Swallowing frequency could be used as an index for assessing the risk of dysphagia and pneumonia in patients with severe cerebral palsy.


Assuntos
Paralisia Cerebral , Pneumonia Aspirativa , Pneumonia , Paralisia Cerebral/complicações , Deglutição/fisiologia , Humanos , Pneumonia/complicações , Pneumonia/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Aspirativa/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Aspirativa/etiologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
15.
J Korean Med Sci ; 37(32): e248, 2022 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35971762

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have reported an association between pneumonia risk and the use of certain drugs. We investigated the relationship between antihypertensive drugs and pneumonia in the general population. METHODS: This case-crossover study utilized the nationwide data of South Korea. We included participants who were hospitalized for pneumonia. A single case period was defined as 30 days before pneumonia onset, and two control periods were established (90-120 and 150-180 days before pneumonia onset). Further, we performed sensitivity and subgroup analyses (according to the presence of diabetes, documented disability, and whether participants were aged ≥ 70 years). We used conditional logistic regression models adjusted for covariates, such as angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), other antihypertensives, statins, antipsychotics, benzodiazepine, and the number of outpatient visits. RESULTS: In total, 15,463 subjects were included in this study. ACE inhibitors (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.660; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.558-0.781), ARBs (aOR, 0.702; 95% CI, 0.640-0.770), and other antihypertensive drugs (aOR, 0.737; 95% CI, 0.665-0.816) were significantly associated with reduced pneumonia risk. Subgroup analyses according to the presence of diabetes mellitus, documented disability, and whether participants were aged ≥ 70 years consistently showed the association of antihypertensives with a reduced risk of hospitalization for pneumonia. CONCLUSION: All antihypertensive drug types were related to a lower risk of hospitalization for pneumonia in the general population. Our results implied that frequent medical service usage and protective immunity were primarily related to a reduced risk of pneumonia in the general population of South Korea.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos , Hospitalização , Hipertensão , Pneumonia , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Estudos Cross-Over , Humanos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Programas Nacionais de Saúde , Pneumonia/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia/epidemiologia , República da Coreia/epidemiologia
16.
J Clin Virol ; 154: 105244, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35917678

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human adenovirus type B7 (HAdV-B7) has been reported to cause pneumonia. However, there are limited data about the epidemiological and clinical features of HAdV-B7 pneumonia in young adults. METHODS: This retrospective observational study included 52 patients diagnosed of human adenovirus B7 pneumonia in Nanjing, China from February 7, 2016, to February 20, 2016. We retrospectively collected and analyzed clinical, laboratory, and radiologic features, treatments and outcomes. RESULTS: The median age of the 52 patients was 19.5 years (IQR 18.0-21.0). The most common symptoms were fever (50, 96.2%), cough (49, 94.2%), and expectoration (48, 92.3%). Most of the routine hematology and blood chemistry parameters were within the normal range. The predominant abnormal patterns seen on chest CT were unilateral (33, 66%), multifocal (36, 72%), and ground-glass opacity (27, 54%), mainly involving the left lower lobes (41 [36.0%] of 114 affected segments). As the disease progressed in the second week after symptom onset, consolidation and mixed patterns became more common, while the ground glass opacity pattern decreased. The single-agent ribavirin therapy group had a significantly shorter duration of nonrespiratory symptoms, and no statistically significant difference was observed between the single-agent methylprednisolone group and the nonglucocorticoid group. CONCLUSIONS: The main symptoms in immunocompetent patients with adenovirus type 7 are fever, cough and sputum, with no significant abnormalities in laboratory tests. Chest CT scan mostly shows a ground-glass opacity at the beginning of the disease, which subsequently changes to a mixed pattern. Ribavirin and glucocorticoids did not shorten the course of disease.


Assuntos
Adenovírus Humanos , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pneumonia Viral , Pneumonia , Adolescente , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Tosse , Surtos de Doenças , Febre/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pulmão , Pandemias , Pneumonia/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ribavirina , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
17.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0273842, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36037228

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Due to the possibility of asymptomatic pneumonia in children with COVID-19 leading to overexposure to radiation and problems in limited-resource settings, we conducted a nationwide, multi-center study to determine the risk factors of pneumonia in children with COVID-19 in order to create a pediatric pneumonia predictive score, with score validation. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study done by chart review of all children aged 0-15 years admitted to 13 medical centers across Thailand during the study period. Univariate and multivariate analyses as well as backward and forward stepwise logistic regression were used to generate a final prediction model of the pneumonia score. Data during the pre-Delta era was used to create a prediction model whilst data from the Delta one was used as a validation cohort. RESULTS: The score development cohort consisted of 1,076 patients in the pre-Delta era, and the validation cohort included 2,856 patients in the Delta one. Four predictors remained after backward and forward stepwise logistic regression: age < 5 years, number of comorbidities, fever, and dyspnea symptoms. The predictive ability of the novel pneumonia score was acceptable with the area under the receiver operating characteristics curve of 0.677 and a well-calibrated goodness-of-fit test (p = 0.098). The positive likelihood ratio for pneumonia was 0.544 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.491-0.602) in the low-risk category, 1.563 (95% CI: 1.454-1.679) in the moderate, and 4.339 (95% CI: 2.527-7.449) in the high-risk. CONCLUSION: This study created an acceptable clinical prediction model which can aid clinicians in performing an appropriate triage for children with COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pneumonia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Criança , Humanos , Modelos Estatísticos , Pneumonia/diagnóstico , Pneumonia/epidemiologia , Pneumonia/etiologia , Prognóstico , Curva ROC , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco
18.
Eur J Cancer ; 174: 81-89, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35985251

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To analyse the incidence of pneumonitis related to enfortumab vedotin (EV) in patients with metastatic urothelial cell carcinoma (mUC). METHODS: Patients with mUC who participated in two EV clinical trials in South Korea were analysed for the incidence and clinical course of EV-related pneumonitis through retrospective, independent review. The clinical characteristics and radiologic attributes of potential pneumonitis were identified and reviewed by the participating investigators and pulmonologists. RESULTS: Between October 2018 and January 2020, 64 patients were enrolled in the EV-201 and EV-301 trials across eight institutions in South Korea and were treated with EV. Among them, 18 (28.1%) developed all-grade EV-related pneumonitis, from which 2 (11.1%) patients died. The median time between the last dosing of immunotherapy and the start of EV was 5.6 weeks (range, 0.71-143.1). The median time from the start of EV treatment to the onset of pneumonitis was 13 weeks (range, 2.7-51.0). Of the patients who developed pneumonitis, 7 (38.9%) were clinically asymptomatic. The most common radiologic finding was organising pneumonia (66.7%). CONCLUSIONS: Although we could not rule out the relationship with prior immunotherapy administration, EV-related pneumonitis occurred in approximately 25% of the patients who had received EV in two prospective clinical trials, from which two died. Clinicians should closely monitor patients who have experienced immunotherapy treatment failure for the development of pneumonitis. A delay between initiating EV after termination of immunotherapy should be considered with caution.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células de Transição , Pneumonia , Insuficiência Respiratória , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária , Anticorpos Monoclonais , Carcinoma de Células de Transição/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Pneumonia/induzido quimicamente , Pneumonia/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Insuficiência Respiratória/induzido quimicamente , Insuficiência Respiratória/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
19.
J Nutr Health Aging ; 26(8): 799-805, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35934825

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study investigates the associations between the severity of sarcopenia and pneumonia in patients with stable schizophrenia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a prospective study that includes patients from the rehabilitation wards of two mental health centres in western China, who were diagnosed with stable schizophrenia. Baseline data were collected from these patients between September 1 and September 30, 2020, while patients' data associated with pneumonia, diagnosed and treated by clinicians, were collected between October 2020 and October 2021. The severity of sarcopenia was diagnosed according to the diagnostic criteria defined by the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia (AWGS) 2019. The association between the severity of sarcopenia and pneumonia in patients with schizophrenia was analyzed with the use of logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Three hundred and thirty-five patients with stable schizophrenia were enrolled in the prospective study, among whom 242 (72.24%) were≥60 years old, and 229 (68.36%) were males. Among the patients with stable schizophrenia, 130 (38.8%) were diagnosed with non-severe sarcopenia, whereas 47 (14.0%) had severe sarcopenia. Eighty-two (24.5%) of patients with schizophrenia fought pneumonia. Our study showed that the severe sarcopenia group had the highest incidence of pneumonia, followed by the non-severe sarcopenia group (severe sarcopenia vs. non-severe sarcopenia vs. normal, 38.3% vs. 28.46% vs. 17.09%, p=0.005). Compared with the normal group, the non-severe sarcopenia group (OR=1.93, 95%CI: 1.1-3.389) and the severe sarcopenia group (OR=3.011, 95%CI: 1.467-6.183) had a higher risk of pneumonia. We further adjusted the potential confounders such as sex, smoking history, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) score, and benzhexol and confirmed that only the severe sarcopenia group had an increased risk of pneumonia (OR=2.366, 95%CI: 1.078-5.191). CONCLUSIONS: We have demonstrated that severe sarcopenia was associated with pneumonia in patients diagnosed with stable schizophrenia.


Assuntos
Pneumonia , Sarcopenia , Esquizofrenia , Feminino , Força da Mão , Humanos , Masculino , Pneumonia/complicações , Pneumonia/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Sarcopenia/complicações , Sarcopenia/epidemiologia , Esquizofrenia/complicações , Esquizofrenia/epidemiologia
20.
J Hosp Med ; 17(8): 624-632, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35880811

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Guidelines recommend testing hospitalized patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) for Legionella pneumophila only if the infection is severe or risk factors are present. There are no validated models for predicting Legionella. OBJECTIVE: To derive and externally validate a model to predict a positive Legionella test. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Diagnostic study of adult inpatients with pneumonia using data from 177 US hospitals in the Premier Healthcare Database (training and hold-out validation sets) and 12 Cleveland Clinic Health System (CCHS) hospitals (external validation set). We used multiple logistic regression to predict positive Legionella tests in the training set, and evaluated performance in both validation sets. MAIN OUTCOME AND MEASURES: The outcome was a positive Legionella test. Potential predictors included demographics and co-morbidities, disease severity indicators, season, region, and presence of a local outbreak. RESULTS: Of 166,689 patients hospitalized for pneumonia, 43,070 were tested for Legionella and 642 (1.5%) tested positive. The strongest predictors of a positive test were a local outbreak (odds ratio [OR], 3.4), June-October occurrence (OR, 3.4), hyponatremia (OR, 3.3), smoking (OR, 2.4), and diarrhea (OR, 2.0); prior admission within 6 months (OR, 0.27) and chronic pulmonary disease (OR, 0.49) were associated with a negative test. Model c-statistics were 0.79 in the Premier and 0.77 in the CCHS validation samples. High-risk patients were only slightly more likely to have been tested than lower-risk patients. Compared to actual practice, the model-based testing strategy detected twice as many cases. CONCLUSIONS: Although Legionella is an uncommon cause of pneumonia, patient characteristics can identify individuals at high risk, allowing for more efficient testing.


Assuntos
Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas , Legionella , Doença dos Legionários , Pneumonia , Adulto , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/diagnóstico , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/epidemiologia , Humanos , Doença dos Legionários/diagnóstico , Doença dos Legionários/epidemiologia , Pneumonia/diagnóstico , Pneumonia/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
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