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2.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 821, 2020 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33172398

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although Moraxella catarrhalis (M. catarrhalis) is a common cause of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), studies investigating clinical manifestations of CAP due to M. catarrhalis (MC-CAP) in adults are limited. Since S. pneumoniae is the leading cause of CAP globally, it is important to distinguish between MC-CAP and CAP due to S. pneumoniae (SP-CAP) in clinical practice. However, no past study compared clinical characteristics of MC-CAP and SP-CAP by statistical analysis. We aimed to clarify the clinical characteristics of MC-CAP by comparing those of SP-CAP, as well as the utility of sputum Gram staining. METHODS: This retrospective study screened CAP patients aged over 20 years visiting or admitted to Okinawa Miyako Hospital between May 2013 and April 2018. Among these, we included patients whom either M. catarrhalis alone or S. pneumoniae alone was isolated from their sputum by bacterial cultures. RESULTS: We identified 134 MC-CAP and 130 SP-CAP patients. Although seasonality was not observed in SP-CAP, almost half of MC-CAP patients were admitted in the winter. Compared to those with SP-CAP, MC-CAP patients were older (p < 0.01) and more likely to have underlying pulmonary diseases such as asthma and bronchiectasis (p < 0.01). Approximately half of asthmatic MC-CAP and SP-CAP patients had asthma attacks. Although winter is an influenza season in Japan, co-infection with influenza virus was less common in MC-CAP compared to SP-CAP patients (3% vs. 15%, p < 0.01). Bronchopneumonia patterns on X-ray, as well as bronchial wall thickening, bilateral distribution, and segmental pattern on CT were more common in MC-CAP patients than in SP-CAP patients (p < 0.01). Sputum Gram stain was highly useful method for the diagnosis in both MC-CAP and SP-CAP (78.4% vs. 89.2%), and penicillins were most frequently chosen as an initial treatment for both pneumonias. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to show that MC-CAP occurred in older people compared to SP-CAP, influenza virus co-infection was less common in MC-CAP than SP-CAP, and that MC-CAP frequently caused asthma attacks. Gram stain contributed for the appropriate treatment, resulting in conserving broad-spectrum antibiotics such as cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones in both MC-CAP and SP-CAP patients.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/diagnóstico , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/tratamento farmacológico , Moraxella catarrhalis/isolamento & purificação , Pneumonia/diagnóstico , Pneumonia/tratamento farmacológico , Streptococcus pneumoniae/isolamento & purificação , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/microbiologia , Feminino , Violeta Genciana , Hospitalização , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenazinas , Pneumonia/microbiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Escarro/microbiologia , Coloração e Rotulagem , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
3.
Gan To Kagaku Ryoho ; 47(9): 1363-1365, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33130701

RESUMO

We present an unusual case of late-onset acute pneumonitis developing 21 months after pembrolizumab monotherapy. An 80-year-old male with primary, pulmonary, squamous cell carcinoma underwent right lower lobectomy and lymph node dissection(ND2a-2); the postoperative pathological stage was ⅢA(pT2bN2M0)and the PD-L1 tumor proportion score 70%. Six months after surgery, he developed mediastinal lymph node(#2R), bilateral pulmonary, and hepatic metastases; pembrolizumab was administered every 3 weeks as a first-line treatment. A partial response was evident after 3 courses; we thus continued the monotherapy. However, after 28 courses(21 months)of pembrolizumab, we discontinued the regimen because acute pneumonitis(Grade 3)developed; we prescribed prednisolone at 50 mg/day. The acute pneumonitis shadow improved and prednisolone was tapered over 2 months. The patient exhibited no new lesion and no progressive disease 6 months after pembrolizumab was discontinued.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Pneumonia , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/cirurgia , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/cirurgia , Masculino , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Pneumonia/induzido quimicamente , Pneumonia/tratamento farmacológico
4.
J Pharmacol Sci ; 144(4): 189-196, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33070837

RESUMO

Pneumonia is a common illness that continues to be the major killer of remaining to be a significant source of morbidity and mortality in the patient population. Many microorganisms cause pneumonia, and now concern is turning to the importance of the cause the new therapies for viral pneumonia. In the current study, we report the effect of andrographolide sulfonate, a water-soluble form of andrographolide (trade name: Xi-Yan-Ping Injection), on poly I: C-induced pneumonia. Andrographolide sulfonate was administrated through intraperitoneal injection to mice with poly I: C-induced pneumonia. Recruitment of airway inflammatory cells, alteration of lung histological induced by Poly I: C were significantly ameliorated by andrographolide sulfonate. The protein levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in bronchoalveolar fluid (BALF) and serum were reduced by andrographolide sulfonate treatment. The levels of MUC5AC and MUC5B in lung tissue were also suppressed. These results reveal that andrographolide sulfate remarkably alleviated pneumonia induced by poly I:C in mice. Moreover, andrographolide sulfonate markedly inhibited the activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). Taken together, we demonstrated that andrographolide sulfonate ameliorated poly I: C-induced pneumonia in mice, suggesting the possible use of andrographolide sulfonate for virus-induced pneumonia in clinical.


Assuntos
Diterpenos/administração & dosagem , Diterpenos/farmacologia , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Fitoterapia , Pneumonia/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia/metabolismo , Poli I-C/efeitos adversos , Animais , Citocinas/sangue , Citocinas/metabolismo , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Injeções Intraperitoneais , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Mucina-5AC/metabolismo , Mucina-5B/metabolismo , Pneumonia/induzido quimicamente , Pneumonia/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(43): e22757, 2020 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33120780

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pneumonia is a common respiratory disease. In severe cases, it can induce cardiovascular disease and even life-threatening. In particular, pneumonia caused by the new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) that broke out at the end of 2019 has seriously affected the health of people in all countries. In recent years, it has been treated with the combination of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) (such as Reduning injection) and Western medicine, and its mortality has decreased significantly. But their efficacy has not been scientifically and systematically assessed. Accordingly, it is essential to provide a systematized review program to estimate the efficacy and safety of Reduning injection combined with Western medicine to treat pneumonia. METHODS: The following databases are retrieved from start to September 2020: Pubmed, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, Web of Science, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Wanfang database, the Chongqing VIP Chinese Science and Technology Periodical Database (VIP) databases, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM), and other databases, which are absorbed into clinical RCTs of pneumonia using western medicine alone or plus Reduning injections. The selection of studies, data extraction, and assessment of risk of bias will be performed independently by 2 reviewers. At the same time, Review Manager V.5.3.5 (Rev Man V.5.3.5) was used for bias risk assessment and data synthesis. RESULTS: The efficacy and safety of Reduning injection combined with western medicine in the treatment of pneumonia were evaluated in terms of overall effective rate, the patient's antipyretic time, antitussive time, rales disappearing time, X-ray recovery time, and the incidence of adverse reactions. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides reliable evidence-based support for the clinical application of Reduning injection combined with western medicine for pneumonia. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval is not required in this secondary research evidence, and we will publish the results of this study in a journal or relevant conferences. REGISTRATION NUMBER: DOI 10.17605/OSF.IO/VS75Y.


Assuntos
Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/administração & dosagem , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Pneumonia/tratamento farmacológico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus , Protocolos Clínicos , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Quimioterapia Combinada , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Injeções , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(43): e22924, 2020 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33120846

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Polymyxin B has been used to treat extensively drug-resistant gram-negative bacteria and shown a better antibacterial effect in the clinic at present. Meanwhile, polymyxin B is associated with several adverse effects. However, there is a lack of awareness that polymyxin B can cause rhabdomyolysis. In this study, we firstly report a case of polymyxin B-induced rhabdomyolysis during antiinfection therapy. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 70-year-old woman suffering from rheumatic heart disease underwent aortic and mitral valve replacement at our institute. Subsequently, she developed bacteremia and pneumonia caused by extensively drug resistance-acinetobacter baumannii. Polymyxin B was administered for 5 days. During treatment, the patient complained of muscle pain and limb weakness, and her serum creatine phosphokinase and myoglobin levels rose. DIAGNOSIS: The clinical symptoms and laboratory examination confirmed rhabdomyolysis, and polymyxin B-induced rhabdomyolysis was considered. INTERVENTION: We ceased polymyxin B treatment and monitored the patient daily. OUTCOMES: Serum creatine phosphokinase levels returned to normal, myoglobin levels decreased, and muscle pain was significantly alleviated after cessation of polymyxin B. We identified this as a case of polymyxin B-induced rhabdomyolysis. LESSONS: Here, we report the first reported case of rhabdomyolysis induced by polymyxin B administration. The awareness of rare adverse reaction helps ensure the clinical safety of polymyxin B treatment.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Polimixina B/efeitos adversos , Rabdomiólise/induzido quimicamente , Acinetobacter baumannii/isolamento & purificação , Idoso , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Conscientização , Bacteriemia/tratamento farmacológico , Creatina Quinase/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Debilidade Muscular/etiologia , Mialgia/etiologia , Mioglobina/sangue , Pneumonia/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia/microbiologia , Polimixina B/administração & dosagem , Polimixina B/uso terapêutico , Rabdomiólise/diagnóstico , Suspensão de Tratamento
7.
Wiad Lek ; 73(8): 1707-1711, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055338

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim: To assess the metabolic by-products of nitric oxide in peripheral blood before and after the medicamentous management in patients suffering from community-acquired pneumonia associated with coronary heart disease. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: We have examined 102 patients with community-acquired pneumonia aged from 50 to 65 years, of which 58 patients were diagnosed with coronary heart disease (CHD). The complex treatment of patients with coronary heart disease was supplemented by the additional use of tivortin aspartate, which was taken orally with food at the dose of 5 ml (1g) 3 times a day for 15 days. The NO content in blood plasma was assessed by the concentration of the amount of final NO metabolites (NO3 + NO2), identified by means of the photocalorimetric method. RESULTS: Results: The content of (NO3 + NO2) in peripheral blood of patients with CAP was slightly higher (6.83 ± 0.29) µmol/l as compared to the group of apparently healthy individuals (5.19 ± 0.14) µmol/l, while in patients with CAP associated with CHD it has markedly increased to (12.74 ± 1.09) µmol/l. Against the background of administered treatment, the index of (NO3 + NO2) in patients with coronary heart disease has decreased to (5.76 ± 0.33) µmol/l, while in the group of patients who were not given tivortin aspartate additionally, this index has even slightly increased (7.01 ± 0.40) µmol/l. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: Marked increase of (NO3 + NO2) levels in blood pointed to destabilization of the course of coronary heart disease with CAP, which was eliminated by the involvement of tivortin aspartate (15 days) to the main course of treatment.


Assuntos
Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas , Doença das Coronárias , Pneumonia , Idoso , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/complicações , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/tratamento farmacológico , Doença das Coronárias/complicações , Doença das Coronárias/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Óxido Nítrico , Nitritos , Pneumonia/complicações , Pneumonia/tratamento farmacológico
8.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(19): e017297, 2020 10 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32998607

RESUMO

Background Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-Is) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) may worsen the prognosis of coronavirus disease 2019, but any association could be confounded by the cardiometabolic conditions indicating ACE-I/ARB use. We therefore examined the impact of ACE-Is/ARBs on respiratory tract infection outcomes. Methods and Results This cohort study included all adult patients hospitalized with influenza or pneumonia from 2005 to 2018 in Denmark using population-based medical databases. Thirty-day mortality and risk of admission to the intensive care unit in ACE-Is/ARBs users was compared with nonusers and with users of calcium channel blockers. We used propensity scores to handle confounding and computed propensity score-weighted risks, risk differences (RDs), and risk ratios (RRs). Of 568 019 patients hospitalized with influenza or pneumonia, 100 278 were ACE-I/ARB users and 37 961 were users of calcium channel blockers. In propensity score-weighted analyses, ACE-I/ARB users had marginally lower 30-day mortality than users of calcium channel blockers (13.9% versus 14.5%; RD, -0.6%; 95% CI, -1.0 to -0.1; RR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.93-0.99), and a lower risk of admission to the intensive care unit (8.0% versus 9.6%; RD, -1.6%; 95% CI, -2.0 to -1.2; RR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.80-0.87). Compared with nonusers, current ACE-I/ARB users had lower mortality (RD, -2.4%; 95% CI, -2.8 to -2.0; RR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.83-0.87), but similar risk of admission to the intensive care unit (RD, 0.4%; 95% CI, 0.0-0.7; RR, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.00-1.09). Conclusions Among patients with influenza or pneumonia, ACE-I/ARB users had no increased risk of admission to the intensive care unit and slightly reduced mortality after controlling for confounding.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Influenza Humana/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia/tratamento farmacológico , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina/efeitos dos fármacos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Pandemias , Pneumonia/epidemiologia , Pontuação de Propensão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências
9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(35): e22010, 2020 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871955

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tanreqing injection, as a kind of traditional Chinese medicine injection widely used in clinic, has the effects of clearing heat, reducing phlegm and detoxifying, and avoids the problems of slow effect and complicated decocting of traditional Chinese medicine. Severe pneumonia is a critical disease of the respiratory system, with symptoms such as dyspnea, shortness of breath, high fever, and coma. Clinical studies have found that Tanreqing injection combined with Western medicine has a good effect in the treatment of severe pneumonia. In order to explore the efficacy and safety of Tanreqing injection combined with antibiotics in the treatment of severe pneumonia, we plan to conduct a systematic evaluation and meta-analysis. METHODS: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the treatment of severe pneumonia with Tanreqing injection combined with western medicine were collected by searching PubMed, The Cochrane Library, Embase, Web of Science, CNKI, Wanfang Database, Weipu Database, and China Biomedical Literature Service System (CBM) by computer with the retrieval time from establishment of database to July 2020. Two researchers independently screened and extracted the literature, and finally evaluated the bias risk of the included study, and meta-analysis was conducted using RevMan5.3 software. RESULTS: The study evaluated the efficacy and safety of Tanreqing injection combined with Western medicine in the treatment of severe pneumonia in terms of total response rate, CURB-65 score, white blood cell count (WBC), antipyretic time (AT), adverse reaction incidence, etc. CONCLUSIONS:: This study will provide a reliable evidence-based basis for the clinical application of Tanreqing injection in the treatment of severe pneumonia. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The private information from individuals will not be published. This systematic review also will not involve endangering participant rights. Ethical approval is not required. The results may be published in a peer-reviewed journal or disseminated in relevant conferences. OSF REGISTRATION NUMBER: DOI 10.17605/OSF.IO/SQDMG.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Injeções , Metanálise como Assunto , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(17)2020 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32872332

RESUMO

Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) causes up to 40% mortality in humans and is difficult to treat. ARDS is also one of the major triggers of mortality associated with coronavirus-induced disease (COVID-19). We used a mouse model of ARDS induced by Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB), which triggers 100% mortality, to investigate the mechanisms through which Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) attenuates ARDS. SEB was used to trigger ARDS in C3H mice. These mice were treated with THC and analyzed for survival, ARDS, cytokine storm, and metabolome. Additionally, cells isolated from the lungs were used to perform single-cell RNA sequencing and transcriptome analysis. A database analysis of human COVID-19 patients was also performed to compare the signaling pathways with SEB-mediated ARDS. The treatment of SEB-mediated ARDS mice with THC led to a 100% survival, decreased lung inflammation, and the suppression of cytokine storm. This was associated with immune cell apoptosis involving the mitochondrial pathway, as suggested by single-cell RNA sequencing. A transcriptomic analysis of immune cells from the lungs revealed an increase in mitochondrial respiratory chain enzymes following THC treatment. In addition, metabolomic analysis revealed elevated serum concentrations of amino acids, lysine, n-acetyl methionine, carnitine, and propionyl L-carnitine in THC-treated mice. THC caused the downregulation of miR-185, which correlated with an increase in the pro-apoptotic gene targets. Interestingly, the gene expression datasets from the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of human COVID-19 patients showed some similarities between cytokine and apoptotic genes with SEB-induced ARDS. Collectively, this study suggests that the activation of cannabinoid receptors may serve as a therapeutic modality to treat ARDS associated with COVID-19.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Agonistas de Receptores de Canabinoides/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Citocinas/imunologia , Dronabinol/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Animais , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Enterotoxinas/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Pulmão/imunologia , Pulmão/virologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C3H , MicroRNAs/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/mortalidade , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/virologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
11.
BMJ Open Respir Res ; 7(1)2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32913008

RESUMO

We and others propose vimentin as a possible cellular target for the treatment of COVID-19. This innovative idea is so recent that it requires further attention and debate. The significant role played by vimentin in virus-induced infection however is well established: (1) vimentin has been reported as a co-receptor and/or attachment site for SARS-CoV; (2) vimentin is involved in viral replication in cells; (3) vimentin plays a fundamental role in both the viral infection and the consequent explosive immune-inflammatory response and (4) a lower vimentin expression is associated with the inhibition of epithelial to mesenchymal transition and fibrosis. Moreover, the absence of vimentin in mice makes them resistant to lung injury. Since vimentin has a twofold role in the disease, not only being involved in the viral infection but also in the associated life-threatening lung inflammation, the use of vimentin-targeted drugs may offer a synergistic advantage as compared with other treatments not targeting vimentin. Consequently, we speculate here that drugs which decrease the expression of vimentin can be used for the treatment of patients with COVID-19 and advise that several Food and Drug Administration-approved drugs be immediately tested in clinical trials against SARS-CoV-2, thus broadening therapeutic options for this type of viral infection.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Vimentina/fisiologia , Internalização do Vírus/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Regulação para Baixo , Descoberta de Drogas/métodos , Humanos , Camundongos , Pneumonia/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia/imunologia , Pneumonia/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Receptores Virais , Replicação Viral/fisiologia
12.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(37): e22160, 2020 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925778

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is the main acute complication of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and the main cause of hospitalization for infectious diseases. Unfortunately, in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus complicated with community-acquired pneumonia (T2DM-CAP), modern medicine is still faced with enormous challenges because of insulin resistance and drug-resistant bacteria. In recent decades, clinical and experimental evidence shows that Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has a certain beneficial effect on diabetes and pneumonia. Therefore, this trial aims to assess the efficacy and safety of CHM plus western medicines for the treatment of T2DM-CAP. METHODS: We propose a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized superiority trial.A total of 92 participants with T2DM-CAP will be randomly allocated at a 1:1 ratio to either the experimental group, which will receive modified Ban-Xia-Xie-Xin-Decotion and basic treatment, or the control group, which will receive basic treatment only. The study duration will be 14 days. The primary outcome will be the total clinical effective rate. The secondary outcomes are traditional Chinese medicine symptom score scale, pneumonia severity index, usage time of antibiotic, time required for blood sugar to reach the required level, frequency of hypoglycemia, and chest CT. Liquid chromatograph-mass spectrometry method will be used to explore the blood metabolism profiles of the subjects, to explore the pathogenesis of T2DM-CAP and the mechanism of CHM on T2DM-CAP. Adverse events will also be evaluated. DISCUSSION: This trial will provide evidence of the effectiveness and safety of traditional CHM in treating patients with T2DM-CAP. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ChiCTR2000035204.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Hipoglicemia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Metabolômica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia/sangue , Radiografia Torácica , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores de Tempo , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Adulto Jovem
13.
Rozhl Chir ; 99(7): 293-298, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32972146

RESUMO

The paper provides clear definitions of the basic concepts of nosocomial pneumonias. Specifically, definitions and classifications of HAP and VAP, general treatment principles and specific recommended procedures for antibiotic therapy are given as applicable in the Czech Republic.


Assuntos
Infecção Hospitalar/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia/tratamento farmacológico , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , República Tcheca , Humanos
14.
Euro Surveill ; 25(30)2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32734857

RESUMO

We report a case of Legionella pneumonia in a dishwasher of a restaurant in Rome, Italy, just after the end of the lockdown that was in place to control the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic. The case highlights the importance of strict monitoring of water and air systems immediately before reopening business or public sector buildings, and the need to consider Legionella infections among the differential diagnosis of respiratory infections after lockdown due to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Bactérias/urina , Legionella pneumophila/isolamento & purificação , Legionella/isolamento & purificação , Doença dos Legionários/diagnóstico , Levofloxacino/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia/diagnóstico , Administração Intravenosa , Adulto , Anti-Infecciosos Urinários/uso terapêutico , Tosse/etiologia , Febre/etiologia , Cefaleia/etiologia , Humanos , Doença dos Legionários/tratamento farmacológico , Doença dos Legionários/urina , Masculino , Pneumonia/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia/urina , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Pneumologie ; 74(8): 515-544, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32823360

RESUMO

The present guideline aims to improve the evidence-based management of children and adolescents with pediatric community-acquired pneumonia (pCAP). Despite a prevalence of approx. 300 cases per 100 000 children per year in Central Europe, mortality is very low. Prevention includes infection control measures and comprehensive immunization. The diagnosis can and should be established clinically by history, physical examination and pulse oximetry, with fever and tachypnea as cardinal features. Additional signs or symptoms such as severely compromised general condition, poor feeding, dehydration, altered consciousness or seizures discriminate subjects with severe pCAP from those with non-severe pCAP. Within an age-dependent spectrum of infectious agents, bacterial etiology cannot be reliably differentiated from viral or mixed infections by currently available biomarkers. Most children and adolescents with non-severe pCAP and oxygen saturation > 92 % can be managed as outpatients without laboratory/microbiology workup or imaging. Anti-infective agents are not generally indicated and can be safely withheld especially in children of young age, with wheeze or other indices suggesting a viral origin. For calculated antibiotic therapy, aminopenicillins are the preferred drug class with comparable efficacy of oral (amoxicillin) and intravenous administration (ampicillin). Follow-up evaluation after 48 - 72 hours is mandatory for the assessment of clinical course, treatment success and potential complications such as parapneumonic pleural effusion or empyema, which may necessitate alternative or add-on therapy.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia/tratamento farmacológico , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Pneumologia/normas , Adolescente , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Criança , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/diagnóstico , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/virologia , Europa (Continente) , Alemanha , Humanos , Lactente , Pneumonia/diagnóstico , Pneumonia/virologia , Sociedades Médicas
17.
Drug Discov Ther ; 14(3): 151-152, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32669524

RESUMO

Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is the third leading contributor to lost disability-adjusted life years worldwide, and this is especially true in the elderly population. In order to reduce the burden of disease, effective management of CAP is crucial to public health in terms of maintaining and promoting the health of the elderly and involves safe drug use, vaccinations, early treatment in the ICU, and health education. Since the long-term mortality of CAP is particularly high in the elderly, biomarkers and a predictive diagnostic model of CAP should be developed in future research.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/prevenção & controle , Gerenciamento Clínico , Vacinas Pneumocócicas/administração & dosagem , Pneumonia/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Atenção , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/epidemiologia , Humanos , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/métodos , Pneumonia/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia/epidemiologia
18.
Pediatrics ; 146(2)2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32616629

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To compare the frequency of opioid and corticosteroid prescriptions dispensed for children with pneumonia or sinusitis visits on the basis of location of care. METHODS: We evaluated 2016 South Carolina Medicaid claims data for 5 to 18 years olds with pneumonia or sinusitis. Visits were associated with 1 of 3 locations: the emergency department (ED), urgent care, or the ambulatory setting. RESULTS: Inclusion criteria were met by 31 838 children. Pneumonia visits were more often linked to an opioid prescription in the ED (34 of 542 [6.3%]) than in ambulatory settings (24 of 1590 [1.5%]; P ≤ .0001) and were more frequently linked to a steroid prescription in the ED (106 of 542 [19.6%]) than in ambulatory settings (196 of 1590 [12.3%]; P ≤ .0001). Sinusitis visits were more often linked to an opioid prescription in the ED (202 of 2705 [7.5%]) than in ambulatory settings (568 of 26 866 [2.1%]; P ≤ .0001) and were more frequently linked to a steroid prescription in the ED (510 of 2705 [18.9%]) than in ambulatory settings (1922 of 26 866 [7.2%]; P ≤ .0001). In logistic regression for children with pneumonia, the ED setting was associated with increased odds of receiving an opioid (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 4.69) or steroid (aOR 1.67). Similarly, patients with sinusitis were more likely to be prescribed opioids (aOR 4.02) or steroids (aOR 3.05) in the ED than in ambulatory sites. CONCLUSIONS: School-aged children received opioid and steroid prescriptions for pneumonia or sinusitis at a higher frequency in the ED versus the ambulatory setting.


Assuntos
Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Prescrição Inadequada/estatística & dados numéricos , Ambulatório Hospitalar/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia/tratamento farmacológico , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Sinusite/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Assistência Ambulatorial , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Feminino , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Medicaid , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , South Carolina , Estados Unidos
19.
Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi ; 43(8): 670-676, 2020 Aug 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32727179

RESUMO

Objective: To summarize the clinical features of 21 cases of acute fibrinous and organizing pneumonia (AFOP) confirmed by pathology, thereby improving clinicians' understanding of this disease and avoiding misdiagnosis in clinical practice. Methods: Twenty-one patients diagnosed pathologically with AFOP from January 2016 to April 2019 were analyzed retrospectively. The clinical symptoms, laboratory examination results, imaging features, treatments and outcomes were analyzed comprehensively. Results: There were 10 males and 11 females, with an average age of (58±10) years. All the cases presented subacute disease onset. The main symptoms were cough, expectoration and fever. The results from laboratory examination showed that the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were significantly higher than the normal levels. The total number of leukocytes, the percentage of neutrophils, and procalcitonin were also higher than the normal levels. Among these patients, 4 cases showed positive sputum bacteriology. Nine patients were found to have probable etiological factors (infections in 4, tumors in 4 cases, and connective tissue disease in 1 case). Twelve patients had no confirmed etiological factors. As to radiological findings, the patterns were multiple patchy infiltrates(16/21), solitary mass (3/21) and multiple nodules in both lungs (2/21). Most lesions were subpleural in distribution (15/21), with air bronchogram sign (11/21), pleural effusion (9/21), and cavity (4/21). Three patients received anti-infective therapy only. The infiltration in lung disappeared within 2 months in one patient, but the lesion still existed in one case after three years of follow-up. However, one patient were lost during the follow-up. Eighteen patients were treated with oral glucocorticoids, and about 50% of the patients showed significant improvement in symptoms and imaging findings within one month. The average follow-up time was (22±10) months, and there was no death. Conclusions: The clinical and imaging findings of AFOP are nonspecific. The exact mechanism of its pathogenesis is not clear. Infection and tumor may be related to the pathogenesis of AFOP. AFOP with subacute onset has a good response to glucocorticoid treatment with a better prognosis.


Assuntos
Pneumonia em Organização Criptogênica/diagnóstico , Pneumonia/diagnóstico , Idoso , Sedimentação Sanguínea , Proteína C-Reativa , Pneumonia em Organização Criptogênica/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Pulmão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Cell Mol Immunol ; 17(9): 995-997, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32612152

Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Terapia de Alvo Molecular/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia/imunologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/imunologia , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Apirase/antagonistas & inibidores , Apirase/genética , Apirase/imunologia , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Linfócitos B/patologia , Antígeno B7-H1/antagonistas & inibidores , Antígeno B7-H1/genética , Antígeno B7-H1/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Células Matadoras Naturais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/patologia , Subfamília C de Receptores Semelhantes a Lectina de Células NK/antagonistas & inibidores , Subfamília C de Receptores Semelhantes a Lectina de Células NK/genética , Subfamília C de Receptores Semelhantes a Lectina de Células NK/imunologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia/genética , Pneumonia/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/genética , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/genética , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/imunologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/genética , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/virologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/patologia
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