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1.
Monaldi Arch Chest Dis ; 90(4)2020 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33169599

RESUMO

The pandemic of COVID-19 has emerged as a serious health crisis globally and India too has been extensively affected with 604,641 active cases reported, till date. The present study focuses on the demographic, clinical and laboratory profile of such patients from a tertiary level non-COVID respiratory care hospital. This is a retrospective observational study. Seventy-seven sick patients fulfilling COVID suspect criteria were admitted to the isolation area. Their RT-PCR test was done from the designated laboratory and 35 of them  were confirmed to be COVID-19 patients. The detailed demographic, clinical and laboratory profile of these COVID-19 patients was studied. The mean age was 46±17 years with male predominance (57%). Majority  of the cases (83%) were symptomatic. The most common symptom was cough (66%) followed by breathlessness and fever. Nineteen (54.3%) patients had one or the other co-morbidity and 16 (45.7%) had chronic lung diseases as one of the comorbidities. Nearly half of the patients (51%) required supplementary oxygen on presentation. Two patients were put on invasive mechanical ventilation while 4 patients required non-invasive ventilation before being shifted to the COVID hospital. Hence, it can be concluded that COVID-19 in patients of chronic respiratory diseases  manifests with higher prevalence of symptoms and also higher severity of disease. Further, the  symptomatology of COVID-19 closely mimics the acute exacerbation of chronic lung diseases, so cautious screening and testing should be done, especially at the pulmonary department.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Hospitais Especializados , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipóxia/fisiopatologia , Pneumopatias/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Pneumologia , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Adulto , Asma/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Bronquiectasia/epidemiologia , Doença Crônica , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Tosse/fisiopatologia , Dispneia/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Febre/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ventilação não Invasiva , Oxigenoterapia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Respiração Artificial , Estudos Retrospectivos
2.
Clin Neuropsychol ; 34(7-8): 1480-1497, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32883155

RESUMO

Objective: The illness resulting from Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), better known as COVID-19, has quickly escalated to a worldwide pandemic. Although understanding of the short and long-term manifestations of COVID-19 remains incomplete, there is a preponderance of respiratory pathology in COVID-19 and potential for chronic loss of pulmonary function in recovered patients, raising concerns for associated cognitive impacts.Method: We conducted a narrative review of the existing literature on neuropsychological variables in acute/severe respiratory disease and various forms of chronic pulmonary disease to inform expectations about potential cognitive manifestations of COVID-19.Results: Cognitive dysfunction is common but not inevitable in acute and chronic pulmonary disease, although unique predictors and symptom trajectories appear to be associated with each.Conclusions: Although the full scope of neuropathophysiology associated with COVID-19 remains to be established, pulmonary insults associated with the disease are likely to produce cognitive dysfunction in a substantial percentage of patients.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Pneumopatias/epidemiologia , Pneumopatias/psicologia , Neuropsicologia/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Doença Aguda , Doença Crônica , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Humanos , Pneumopatias/terapia , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/terapia
3.
Bull Cancer ; 107(10): 982-990, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32977935

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Preoperative chemoradiotherapy is an option for locally advanced esophageal cancer. Radiation therapy may increase postoperative pulmonary complications. Usual lungs dose constraints in radiotherapy are old and used by extrapolation of lung cancer management. Our objective is to review the literature on correlations between postoperative lung toxicity and dosimetric factors. METHOD: This literature review identified and selected studies published between 1987 and 2019 using the PRISMA method. The articles were identified on the basis of a PubMed search and the author's knowledge, using the following terms: "esophageal cancer"; "chemoradiotherapy"; "dosimetric factors"; "postoperative pulmonary complications". RESULTS: Fourteen articles were selected, and five did not demonstrate a correlation between dosimetric factors and the postoperative pulmonary complications rate. The V20 (lung volume receiving more than 20Gy) was identified in three studies, like the V10, V15 and mean lung dose (around 10Gy) in two studies. The V30≥20% was identified in one study. DISCUSSION: The most frequently identified dosimetric predictors for postoperative pulmonary complications are the V20 and the mean lung dose. Results of prospective studies would lead us to specify which of these parameters is most relevant for predicting the risk of postoperative pulmonary complications.


Assuntos
Quimiorradioterapia , Neoplasias Esofágicas/terapia , Pneumopatias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Quimiorradioterapia/efeitos adversos , Quimiorradioterapia/métodos , Neoplasias Esofágicas/patologia , Humanos , Pneumopatias/etiologia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Período Pré-Operatório , Dosagem Radioterapêutica
4.
Neurologia ; 35(9): 639-645, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32893069

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The elderly population is the group most threatened by COVID-19, with the highest mortality rates. This study aims to analyse the case fatality of COVID-19 in a cohort of patients with degenerative dementia. METHODS: We conducted a descriptive case-control study of a sample of patients diagnosed with primary neurodegenerative dementia. RESULTS: Twenty-four of the 88 patients with COVID-19 included in the study died: 10/23 (43.4%) patients diagnosed with dementia and 14/65 (21.5%) controls; this difference was statistically significant. DISCUSSION: Our results suggest that case fatality of COVID-19 is significantly higher among patients with primary degenerative dementia than in other patients with similar mean ages and comorbidities.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Demência/epidemiologia , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doença de Alzheimer/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Comorbidade , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Nefropatias/epidemiologia , Pneumopatias/epidemiologia , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/epidemiologia , Espanha/epidemiologia
5.
Int J Med Sci ; 17(14): 2187-2193, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32922180

RESUMO

Background: The number of asymptomatic infected patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-2019) is rampaging around the world but limited information aimed on risk factors of asymptomatic infections. The purpose of this study is to investigate the risk factors of symptoms onset and clinical features in asymptomatic COVID-19 infected patients. Methods: A retrospective study was performed in 70 asymptomatic COVID-2019 infected patients confirmed by nucleic acid tests in Hunan province, China between 28 January 2020 and 18 February, 2020. The epidemiological, clinical features and laboratory data were reviewed and analyzed. Presence or absence at the onset of symptoms was taken as the outcome. A Cox regression model was performed to evaluate the potential predictors of the onset of symptoms. Results: The study included 36 males and 34 females with a mean age of 33.24±20.40 years (range, 0.5-84 years). There were 22 asymptomatic carriers developed symptoms during hospitalization isolated observation, and diagnosed as confirmed cases, while 48 cases remained asymptomatic throughout the course of disease. Of 70 asymptomatic patients, 14 (14/70, 20%) had underlying diseases, 3 (3/70, 4.3%) had drinking history, and 11 (11/70, 15.7%) had smoking history. 22 patients developed symptoms onset of fever (4/22, 18.2%), cough (13/22, 59.1%), chest discomfort (2/22, 9.1%), fatigue (1/22, 4.5%), pharyngalgia (1/22, 4.5%) during hospitalization; only one (1/22, 4.5%) patient developed signs of both cough and pharyngalgia. Abnormalities on chest CT were detected among 35 of the 69 patients (50.7%) after admission, except for one pregnant woman had not been examined. 4 (4/70, 5.7%) and 8 (8/70, 11.4%) cases showed leucopenia and lymphopenia. With the effective antiviral treatment, all the 70 asymptomatic infections had been discharged, none cases developed severe pneumonia, admission to intensive care unit, or died. The mean time from nucleic acid positive to negative was 13.2±6.84 days. Cox regression analysis showed that smoking history (P=0.028, hazard ratio=4.49, 95% CI 1.18-17.08) and existence of pulmonary disease (P=0.038, hazard ratio=7.09, 95% CI 1.12-44.90) were risk factors of the onset of symptoms in asymptomatic carries. Conclusion: The initially asymptomatic patients can develop mild symptoms and have a good prognosis. History of smoking and pulmonary disease was prone to illness onset in asymptomatic patients, and it is necessary to be highly vigilant to those patients.


Assuntos
Infecções Assintomáticas/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Pneumopatias/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Fumar/epidemiologia , Exacerbação dos Sintomas , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumopatias/complicações , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Gravidez , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
6.
JAMA ; 324(9): 848-858, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32870298

RESUMO

Importance: In patients who undergo mechanical ventilation during surgery, the ideal tidal volume is unclear. Objective: To determine whether low-tidal-volume ventilation compared with conventional ventilation during major surgery decreases postoperative pulmonary complications. Design, Setting, and Participants: Single-center, assessor-blinded, randomized clinical trial of 1236 patients older than 40 years undergoing major noncardiothoracic, nonintracranial surgery under general anesthesia lasting more than 2 hours in a tertiary hospital in Melbourne, Australia, from February 2015 to February 2019. The last date of follow-up was February 17, 2019. Interventions: Patients were randomized to receive a tidal volume of 6 mL/kg predicted body weight (n = 614; low tidal volume group) or a tidal volume of 10 mL/kg predicted body weight (n = 592; conventional tidal volume group). All patients received positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) at 5 cm H2O. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was a composite of postoperative pulmonary complications within the first 7 postoperative days, including pneumonia, bronchospasm, atelectasis, pulmonary congestion, respiratory failure, pleural effusion, pneumothorax, or unplanned requirement for postoperative invasive or noninvasive ventilation. Secondary outcomes were postoperative pulmonary complications including development of pulmonary embolism, acute respiratory distress syndrome, systemic inflammatory response syndrome, sepsis, acute kidney injury, wound infection (superficial and deep), rate of intraoperative need for vasopressor, incidence of unplanned intensive care unit admission, rate of need for rapid response team call, intensive care unit length of stay, hospital length of stay, and in-hospital mortality. Results: Among 1236 patients who were randomized, 1206 (98.9%) completed the trial (mean age, 63.5 years; 494 [40.9%] women; 681 [56.4%] undergoing abdominal surgery). The primary outcome occurred in 231 of 608 patients (38%) in the low tidal volume group compared with 232 of 590 patients (39%) in the conventional tidal volume group (difference, -1.3% [95% CI, -6.8% to 4.2%]; risk ratio, 0.97 [95% CI, 0.84-1.11]; P = .64). There were no significant differences in any of the secondary outcomes. Conclusions and Relevance: Among adult patients undergoing major surgery, intraoperative ventilation with low tidal volume compared with conventional tidal volume, with PEEP applied equally between groups, did not significantly reduce pulmonary complications within the first 7 postoperative days. Trial Registration: ANZCTR Identifier: ACTRN12614000790640.


Assuntos
Pneumopatias/prevenção & controle , Respiração com Pressão Positiva/métodos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios , Volume de Ventilação Pulmonar , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Cuidados Intraoperatórios , Pneumopatias/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Período Pós-Operatório , Método Simples-Cego , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/efeitos adversos
7.
Anesth Analg ; 131(4): 1156-1163, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925336

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ideal timing of postoperative ß-blockers is unclear. We hypothesized that patients who do not receive ß-blockers immediately after cardiac surgery would have increased in-hospital mortality (primary outcome) and postoperative hemodynamic, pulmonary, neurologic, or respiratory complications (secondary outcomes). METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study evaluating patients who underwent cardiac surgery at our institution from January 1, 2013 to September 30, 2017. We compared outcomes between patients who received ß-blockers by postoperative day (POD) 5 with outcomes in patients who did not receive ß-blockers at any time or received them after POD 5. Inverse probability of treatment weighting was used to minimize confounding. Univariate logistic regression analyses were performed on the weighted sets using absent or delayed ß-blockers as the independent variable and each outcome as dependent variables in separate analyses. A secondary analysis was performed in patients prescribed preoperative ß-blockers. E-values were calculated for significant outcomes. RESULTS: All results were confounder adjusted. Among patients presenting for cardiac surgery, not receiving ß-blockers by POD 5 or at any time was not associated with the primary outcome in-hospital mortality, estimated odds ratio (OR; 99.5% confidence interval [CI]) of 1.6 (0.49-5.1), P = .28. Not receiving ß-blockers by POD 5 or at any time was associated with postoperative atrial fibrillation, estimated OR (99.5% CI) of 1.5 (1.1-2.1), P < .001, and pulmonary complications, estimated OR (99.5% CI) of 3.0 (1.8-5.2), P < .001. E-values were 2.4 for postoperative atrial fibrillation and 5.6 for pulmonary complications. Among patients presenting for cardiac surgery taking preoperative ß-blockers, not receiving ß-blockers by POD 5 or at any time was not associated with the primary outcome mortality, with estimated OR (99.5% CI) of 1.3 (0.43-4.1), P = .63. In this subset, not receiving ß-blockers by POD 5 or at any time was associated with increased adjusted ORs of postoperative atrial fibrillation (OR = 1.6; 99.5% CI, 1.1-2.4; P < .001) and postoperative pulmonary complications (OR = 2.8; 99.5% CI, 1.6-5.2; P < .001). Here, e-values were 2.7 for postoperative atrial fibrillation and 5.1 for pulmonary complications. For the sensitivity analyses for secondary outcomes, exposure and outcome periods overlap. Outcomes may have occurred before or after postoperative ß-blocker administration. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients who undergo cardiac surgery, not receiving postoperative ß-blockers within the first 5 days after cardiac surgery or at any time is not associated with in-hospital mortality and is associated with, but may not necessarily cause, postoperative atrial fibrillation and pulmonary complications.


Assuntos
Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios , Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/administração & dosagem , Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/mortalidade , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Pneumopatias/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Anesth Analg ; 131(4): 1173-1183, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925338

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the University Medical Center Groningen in Groningen, the Netherlands, moderate-to-deep sedation is provided by nursing staff trained and supervised by the anesthesia department using protocol-based target-controlled infusions (TCIs) of propofol and remifentanil. The aim of this retrospective cohort study was to investigate the incidence of events with potential adverse health consequences within this service model and the risk factors for the occurrence of these events. METHODS: We retrospectively interrogated a database containing the computerized anesthetic records of 2937 procedures where moderate-to-deep sedation was provided using TCI administration of propofol and remifentanil between May 2014 and October 2017. The primary outcome measures were the incidence of sedation-related events with potential adverse health consequences and risk factors for the occurrence of such events. The events under investigation were unplanned intensive care unit (ICU) admission, need for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), death on the day of the procedure due to sedation-related events, cardiovascular events (arrhythmias, hypertension, and hypotension), pulmonary events (aspiration, desaturation, unplanned tracheal intubation), anaphylactic or allergic reactions, and the termination of the procedure due to sedation-related events. Cardiovascular and pulmonary events were classified as severe, significant, or moderate. Events were identified by using computer algorithms to search the computerized records from all included procedures. RESULTS: Data from 2937 procedures were analyzed. No patients suffered catastrophic events (death, need for CPR, or unplanned ICU admission). Thirty-two severe sedation-related events occurred in 32 procedures. Severe desaturation (0.6%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.4-0.9) and severe hypertension (0.2%; 95% CI, 0.04-0.37) were the most common severe events. Significant hypotension (8.8%; 95% CI, 7.73-9.77) and significant desaturation (1.6%; 95% CI, 1.12-2.02) were found to be the most common events with potential adverse health consequences. No patient suffered lasting health consequences. Average mean and maximum targeted effect-site concentrations (Cet) for propofol were 2.6 ± 0.83 and 3.3 ± 1.09 µg·mL, respectively, and for remifentanil 0.84 ± 0.18 and 0.99 ± 0.22 ng·mL, respectively. Maximum Cets of propofol were lower among patients with higher body mass index (BMI) and were higher among patients of younger age. Higher BMI was a risk factor for desaturation. Increased age and lower BMI were risk factors for hypotension. Longer procedure time was a risk factor for both desaturation and hypotension. CONCLUSIONS: Moderate-to-deep sedation by propofol and remifentanil TCI has a low incidence of catastrophic and severe events.


Assuntos
Sedação Profunda/métodos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos , Propofol , Remifentanil , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar , Estudos de Coortes , Cuidados Críticos , Sedação Profunda/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Cardiopatias/epidemiologia , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/administração & dosagem , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/efeitos adversos , Infusões Intravenosas , Pneumopatias/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Propofol/administração & dosagem , Propofol/efeitos adversos , Remifentanil/administração & dosagem , Remifentanil/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Risco
9.
BMJ Open Respir Res ; 7(1)2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32847947

RESUMO

Invasive mechanical has been associated with high mortality in COVID-19. Alternative therapy of high flow nasal therapy (HFNT) has been greatly debated around the world for use in COVID-19 pandemic due to concern for increased healthcare worker transmission.This was a retrospective analysis of consecutive patients admitted to Temple University Hospital in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, from 10 March 2020 to 24 April 2020 with moderate-to-severe respiratory failure treated with HFNT. Primary outcome was prevention of intubation. Of the 445 patients with COVID-19, 104 met our inclusion criteria. The average age was 60.66 (+13.50) years, 49 (47.12 %) were female, 53 (50.96%) were African-American, 23 (22.12%) Hispanic. Forty-three patients (43.43%) were smokers. Saturation to fraction ratio and chest X-ray scores had a statistically significant improvement from day 1 to day 7. 67 of 104 (64.42%) were able to avoid invasive mechanical ventilation in our cohort. Incidence of hospital-associated/ventilator-associated pneumonia was 2.9%. Overall, mortality was 14.44% (n=15) in our cohort with 13 (34.4%) in the progressed to intubation group and 2 (2.9%) in the non-intubation group. Mortality and incidence of pneumonia was statistically higher in the progressed to intubation group. CONCLUSION: HFNT use is associated with a reduction in the rate of invasive mechanical ventilation and overall mortality in patients with COVID-19 infection.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Pneumonia Associada a Assistência à Saúde/epidemiologia , Hipóxia/terapia , Intubação Intratraqueal/estatística & dados numéricos , Oxigenoterapia/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Insuficiência Respiratória/terapia , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Afro-Americanos , Idoso , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Azitromicina/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus , Cânula , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Cardiopatias/epidemiologia , Hispano-Americanos , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Imunoglobulinas Intravenosas/uso terapêutico , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Pneumopatias/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Philadelphia/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Associada à Ventilação Mecânica/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pulsoterapia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fumar/epidemiologia
10.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 79(11): 1393-1399, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32769150

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To describe patients with autoimmune inflammatory rheumatic diseases (AIRD) who had COVID-19 disease; to compare patients who required hospital admission with those who did not and assess risk factors for hospital admission related to COVID-19. METHODS: An observational longitudinal study was conducted during the pandemic peak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (1 March 2020 to 24 April). All patients attended at the rheumatology outpatient clinic of a tertiary hospital in Madrid, Spain with a medical diagnosis of AIRD and with symptomatic COVID-19 were included. The main outcome was hospital admission related to COVID-19. The covariates were sociodemographic, clinical and treatments. We ran a multivariable logistic regression model to assess risk factors for the hospital admission. RESULTS: The study population included 123 patients with AIRD and COVID-19. Of these, 54 patients required hospital admission related to COVID-19. The mean age on admission was 69.7 (15.7) years, and the median time from onset of symptoms to hospital admission was 5 (3-10) days. The median length of stay was 9 (6-14) days. A total of 12 patients died (22%) during admission. Compared with outpatients, the factors independently associated with hospital admission were older age (OR: 1.08; p=0.00) and autoimmune systemic condition (vs chronic inflammatory arthritis) (OR: 3.55; p=0.01). No statistically significant findings for exposure to disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs were found in the final model. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that age and having a systemic autoimmune condition increased the risk of hospital admission, whereas disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs were not associated with hospital admission.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Doenças Reumáticas/epidemiologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Assistência Ambulatorial , Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Artrite Reumatoide/epidemiologia , Doenças Autoimunes/tratamento farmacológico , Betacoronavirus , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Cardiopatias/epidemiologia , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Longitudinais , Pneumopatias/epidemiologia , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/tratamento farmacológico , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença Mista do Tecido Conjuntivo/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Mista do Tecido Conjuntivo/epidemiologia , Análise Multivariada , Pandemias , Polimialgia Reumática/tratamento farmacológico , Polimialgia Reumática/epidemiologia , Fatores de Proteção , Doenças Reumáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Síndrome de Sjogren/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome de Sjogren/epidemiologia , Espanha/epidemiologia , Espondiloartropatias/tratamento farmacológico , Espondiloartropatias/epidemiologia , Inibidores do Fator de Necrose Tumoral/uso terapêutico
12.
Occup Environ Med ; 77(11): 790-794, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32859693

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Work-related lung diseases (WRLDs) are entirely preventable. To assess the impact of WRLDs on the US transplant system, we identified adult lung transplant recipients with a WRLD diagnosis specified at the time of transplant to describe demographic, payer and clinical characteristics of these patients and to assess post-transplant survival. METHODS: Using US registry data from 1991 to 2018, we identified lung transplant recipients with WRLDs including coal workers' pneumoconiosis, silicosis, asbestosis, metal pneumoconiosis and berylliosis. RESULTS: The frequency of WRLD-associated transplants has increased over time. Among 230 lung transplants for WRLD, a majority were performed since 2009; 79 were for coal workers' pneumoconiosis and 78 were for silicosis. Patients with coal workers' pneumoconiosis were predominantly from West Virginia (n=31), Kentucky (n=23) or Virginia (n=10). States with the highest number of patients with silicosis transplant were Pennsylvania (n=12) and West Virginia (n=8). Patients with metal pneumoconiosis and asbestosis had the lowest and highest mean age at transplant (48.8 and 62.1 years). Median post-transplant survival was 8.2 years for patients with asbestosis, 6.6 years for coal workers' pneumoconiosis and 7.8 years for silicosis. Risk of death among patients with silicosis, coal workers' pneumoconiosis and asbestosis did not differ when compared with patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. CONCLUSIONS: Lung transplants for WRLDs are increasingly common, indicating a need for primary prevention and surveillance in high-risk occupations. Collection of patient occupational history by the registry could enhance case identification and inform prevention strategies.


Assuntos
Pneumopatias/cirurgia , Transplante de Pulmão/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Profissionais/cirurgia , Beriliose/epidemiologia , Beriliose/mortalidade , Beriliose/cirurgia , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Pneumopatias/epidemiologia , Pneumopatias/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Doenças Profissionais/mortalidade , Pneumoconiose/epidemiologia , Pneumoconiose/mortalidade , Pneumoconiose/cirurgia , Sistema de Registros , Silicose/epidemiologia , Silicose/mortalidade , Silicose/cirurgia , Análise de Sobrevida , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
13.
Chron Respir Dis ; 17: 1479973120952418, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32840385

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To identify exercise tests that are suitable for home-based or remote administration in people with chronic lung disease. METHODS: Rapid review of studies that reported home-based or remote administration of an exercise test in people with chronic lung disease, and studies reporting their clinimetric (measurement) properties. RESULTS: 84 studies were included. Tests used at home were the 6-minute walk test (6MWT, two studies), sit-to-stand tests (STS, five studies), Timed Up and Go (TUG, 4 studies) and step tests (two studies). Exercise tests administered remotely were the 6MWT (two studies) and step test (one study). Compared to centre-based testing the 6MWT distance was similar when performed outdoors but shorter when performed at home (two studies). The STS, TUG and step tests were feasible, reliable (intra-class correlation coefficients >0.80), valid (concurrent and known groups validity) and moderately responsive to pulmonary rehabilitation (medium effect sizes). These tests elicited less desaturation than the 6MWT, and validated methods to prescribe exercise were not reported. DISCUSSION: The STS, step and TUG tests can be performed at home, but do not accurately document desaturation with walking or allow exercise prescription. Patients at risk of desaturation should be prioritised for centre-based exercise testing when this is available.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Teste de Esforço/métodos , Serviços de Assistência Domiciliar/organização & administração , Pneumopatias , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Telemedicina/métodos , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Pneumopatias/diagnóstico , Pneumopatias/epidemiologia , Pneumopatias/reabilitação , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
14.
Rheumatol Int ; 40(10): 1593-1598, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32794113

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe clinical characteristics of patients with rheumatic and musculoskeletal diseases (RMDs) and immunosuppressive therapies with Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) at an academic rheumatology center in Madrid and to identify baseline variables associated with a severe infection requiring hospitalization. METHODS: We identified SARS-CoV-2 positive cases by polymerase chain reaction performed at our center within an updated RMDs database in our clinic. Additional RMDs patients were identified when they contacted the clinic because of a positive infection. Data extraction included diagnosis, demographics, immunosuppressive treatment, comorbidities, and laboratory tests. Comparisons between patients with or without hospitalization were performed. Multivariate logistic regression was used to analyze associations between baseline variables and need for hospitalization. RESULTS: A total of 62 patients with COVID-19 and underlying RMDs were identified by April 24, 2020. Median age was 60.9 years, and 42% men. Forty-two patients required hospitalization; these were more frequently men, older and with comorbidities. There were no statistically significant between-group differences for rheumatologic diagnosis and for baseline use of immunosuppressive therapy except for glucocorticoids that were more frequent in hospitalized patients. Total deaths were 10 (16%) patients. In multivariate analysis, male sex (odds ratio [OR], 8.63; p = 0.018), previous lung disease (OR, 27.47; p = 0.042), and glucocorticoids use (> 5 mg/day) (OR, 9.95; p = 0.019) were significantly associated to hospitalization. CONCLUSION: Neither specific RMD diagnoses or exposures to DMARDs were associated with increased odds of hospitalization. Being male, previous lung disease and exposure to glucocorticoids were associated with higher odds of hospitalization in RMDs patients.


Assuntos
Artrite Psoriásica/tratamento farmacológico , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Artrite Psoriásica/complicações , Artrite Psoriásica/epidemiologia , Artrite Reumatoide/complicações , Artrite Reumatoide/epidemiologia , Doenças Autoimunes/complicações , Doenças Autoimunes/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Autoimunes/epidemiologia , Azitromicina/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Modelos Logísticos , Lopinavir/uso terapêutico , Pneumopatias/epidemiologia , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/complicações , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ritonavir/uso terapêutico , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Sexuais , Espanha/epidemiologia
15.
Hosp Pediatr ; 10(10): 902-905, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32636210

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has affected children differently from adults worldwide. Data on the clinical presentation of the infection in children are limited. We present a detailed account of pediatric inpatients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 virus at our institution during widespread local transmission, aiming to understand disease presentation and outcomes. A retrospective chart review was performed of children, ages 0 to 18 years, with a positive polymerase chain reaction test for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 on nasopharyngeal specimens admitted to our hospital over a 4-week period. We present clinical data from 22 patients and highlight the variability of the presentation. In our study, most children presented without respiratory illness or symptoms suggestive of COVID-19; many were identified only because of universal testing. Because children may have variable signs and symptoms of COVID-19 infection, targeted testing may miss some cases.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Tosse/fisiopatologia , Dispneia/fisiopatologia , Fadiga/fisiopatologia , Febre/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Convulsões/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Distribuição por Idade , Alanina Transaminase/metabolismo , Aspartato Aminotransferases/metabolismo , Betacoronavirus , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Doença Crônica , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Feminino , Cardiopatias/epidemiologia , Hospitalização , Hospitais Pediátricos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Pneumopatias/epidemiologia , Linfopenia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Cidade de Nova Iorque/epidemiologia , Ventilação não Invasiva , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Pró-Calcitonina/metabolismo , Respiração Artificial , Estudos Retrospectivos , Distribuição por Sexo , Estados Unidos
16.
Clin Immunol ; 218: 108524, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32659373

RESUMO

The outbreak of SARS-CoV-2-associated pneumonia, a disease called COVID-19, has caused a pandemic worldwide. To investigate the immune responses after infection of SARS-CoV-2 in non-critical patients may help to better understand the disease progression. We collected 334 confirmed COVID-19 cases including 212 still in hospital with nucleic acid test positive on halfway for SARS-CoV-2 and 122 discharged from hospital, compared specific antibodies, immune cells, and cytokine changes between the hospitalized and discharged patients. The hospitalized patients had a longer illness time compared with discharged patients. Analysis of viral loads explained long-term or persistent infection of SARS-CoV-2, which existed with the median time of 18.5 days of the positive nucleic acid test. Serum analysis showed that the specific anti-N IgG antibody was positive in all detected patients after infection of two weeks. Neutrophils, Monocytes, NK cells, and CD4+ T cells significantly increased, while total lymphocytes and CD8+ T cells decreased from non-critical hospitalized patients after longer-term infection. Further analysis of the cytokines showed that IL-6, TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4, and IL-10 from the hospitalized patients were significantly higher, indicating a potential of the increased CD4+ T cell differentiation.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Doenças Cardiovasculares/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Diabetes Mellitus/imunologia , Imunidade Inata , Pneumopatias/imunologia , Neoplasias/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Idoso , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/patologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/virologia , China/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Convalescença , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Citocinas/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/patologia , Diabetes Mellitus/virologia , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/patologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/virologia , Pneumopatias/epidemiologia , Pneumopatias/patologia , Pneumopatias/virologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos/patologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monócitos/imunologia , Monócitos/patologia , Monócitos/virologia , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/patologia , Neoplasias/virologia , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Neutrófilos/patologia , Neutrófilos/virologia , Pandemias , Alta do Paciente , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Fatores de Tempo , Carga Viral/imunologia
17.
Am J Cardiol ; 128: 113-119, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32650903

RESUMO

The Center for Medicare & Medicaid Services has identified readmission as an important quality metric in assessing hospital performance and value of care. The aim of this study was to quantify the impact of "care fragmentation" on transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) outcomes. Readmission to nonindex hospitals was defined as any hospital other than the hospital where the TAVI was performed. In this multicenter, population-based, nationally representative study, a nationally weighted cohort of US adult patients who underwent TAVI in the National Readmission Database between 01/01/2010 and 9/31/2015 were analyzed. Patient characteristics, trends, and outcomes after 90-day nonindex readmission were evaluated. Thirty-day metric was used as a reference group for comparison. A weighted total of 51,092 patients met inclusion criteria. Overall, the 90-day readmission rate after TAVI was 27.6% (30-day reference group: 17.4%), and 42% of these readmissions were to nonindex hospitals. Noncardiac causes accounted for most nonindex readmissions, but major cardiac procedures were more likely performed at index hospitals during readmission within 90 days. Despite the high co-morbidity burden of patients readmitted to nonindex hospitals, unadjusted and risk-adjusted all-cause mortality, readmission length of stay and total hospital costs following nonindex readmission were lower compared with index readmission at 90 days. In conclusion, in this real world, nationally representative cohort of TAVI patients in the United States, care fragmentation remains prevalent and represent an enduring, residual target for future health policies. Although the impactful readmissions may be directed toward index hospitals, concerted efforts are needed to address mechanisms that increase care fragmentation.


Assuntos
Continuidade da Assistência ao Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Hospitais/estatística & dados numéricos , Readmissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cateterismo Cardíaco/estatística & dados numéricos , Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, U.S. , Comorbidade , Angiografia Coronária/estatística & dados numéricos , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Custos Hospitalares/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumopatias/epidemiologia , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Marca-Passo Artificial , Readmissão do Paciente/tendências , Pericardiocentese/estatística & dados numéricos , Implantação de Prótese/estatística & dados numéricos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
18.
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis ; 39(12): 2309-2315, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32683596

RESUMO

During the COVID-19 outbreak, the mobile cabin hospital has effectively isolated and treated patients diagnosed as mild-moderate disease. However, a detailed clinical course has not been well described. We included 483 patients who were isolated and treated from Feb 6, 2020, to Feb 15, 2020, including definite outcome (discharge or deterioration). Sixty-two patients were transferred to severe cases, of whom were trasfered to designated hospital for intensive care. By March 9, 2020, all patients were discharged without dead. The mobile cabin hospital provides feasible strategy of isolation of mild-moderate cases and timely intervention during the virus outbreak.


Assuntos
Doença das Coronárias/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Pneumopatias/diagnóstico , Pandemias , Alta do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Isolamento de Pacientes/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Idoso , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Índice de Massa Corporal , China/epidemiologia , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Comorbidade , Doença das Coronárias/epidemiologia , Doença das Coronárias/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Pneumopatias/epidemiologia , Pneumopatias/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Unidades Móveis de Saúde , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
20.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 909, 2020 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32527249

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Occupational related respiratory diseases arise as a result of the deposition of dust particles in the lungs. Flour milling industries; generate organic dust during industrial processes, such as cleaning, milling, packaging, and loading which release dust into the air and later inhaled by workers. Flour mill workers are at risk of developing respiratory health problems because of exposure in their working environment, but existing data were few. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of chronic respiratory symptoms, lung function and associated factors among flour mill factory workers. METHODS: A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted among 196 flour mill factory workers and 210 soft drinks factory workers. We selected study participants using a systematic sampling technique. We assessed the chronic respiratory symptoms using the questionnaire adopted from the British Medical Research Council. Binary logistic regression analysis with 95% CI and p < 0.05 was used to identify the factors. Lung function parameters; Forced Vital Capacity (FVC), Forced Expiratory Volume in one second (FEV1) and ratio FEV1/FVC was measured by using spirometer and analyzed by using an independent t-test. RESULTS: We included 406 (96.7%) workers in this study. The prevalence of chronic respiratory symptoms was higher among flour mill workers as compared to soft-drinks factory workers (56.6% vs.12.9%). Primary education (AOR = 5.8, 95% CI, 1.3-23.2), mixing department (AOR = 5.3, 95% CI = 1.68-16.56), work experience 6-9 years (AOR = 5.1, 95% CI = 2.05-12.48), work experience ≥10 years (AOR = 2.5, 95% CI = 1.01-6.11) and working over eight hours (AOR = 2.4, 95% CI, 1.16-5.10) were factors that significantly associated with chronic respiratory symptoms among flour mill workers. FVC (p < 0.002), FEV1 (p < 0.001) and FEV1/FVC (p < 0.012) were significantly reduced among flour mill workers. CONCLUSIONS: We found chronic respiratory symptoms to be high among flour mill workers. Lower education level, mixing department, increased work experience, and longer working hours were identified factors. The flour mill dust exposed worker's lung function parameters were highly reduced. This study suggested that workers' dust exposure reduction and control methods in flour mill factories need to be implemented.


Assuntos
Poeira , Indústria Alimentícia , Pneumopatias/etiologia , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Doenças Profissionais/etiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Bebidas Gaseificadas , Doença Crônica , Cidades , Estudos Transversais , Poeira/análise , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Farinha , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Humanos , Pneumopatias/epidemiologia , Pneumopatias/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Testes de Função Respiratória , Capacidade Vital
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