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1.
Thorac Surg Clin ; 32(1): 43-49, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34801194

RESUMO

The many socioeconomic disparities in the myriad of diagnoses that make up benign lung diseases are unfortunately a global issue that was most recently highlighted by the COVID-19 pandemic of 2020. In this chapter, we will be reviewing the socioeconomic disparities in benign lung disease from both a United States perspective as well as a global perspective. We will cover the spectrum of infectious, obstructive, and restrictive lung disease and review the evidence on how social disparities affect these populations and their access to medical care.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pneumopatias , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Humanos , Pneumopatias/epidemiologia , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
2.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 1165, 2021 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34789152

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The objective of the study was to describe the epidemiology, management and cost of non-tuberculous mycobacteria pulmonary disease (NTM-PD) in France. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed using the SNDS ("Système national des données de santé") database over 2010-2017. Patients with NTM-PD were identified based on the ICD10 codes during hospitalizations and/or specific antibiotics treatment regimens. The study population was matched (age, sex and region) to a control group (1:3) without NTM-PD. RESULTS: 5628 patients with NTM-PD (men: 52.9%, mean age = 60.9 years) were identified over the study period and 1433 (25.5%) were treated with antibiotics. The proportion of patients still receiving treatment at 6 and 12 months was 40% and 22%, respectively. The prevalence of NTM-PD was estimated at 5.92 per 100,000 inhabitants and the incidence rate of NTM-PD remained stable over time between 1.025/100,000 in 2010 and 1.096/100,000 in 2017. Patients with NTM-PD had more co-morbidities compared to controls: corticoids (57.3% vs. 33.8%), chronic lower respiratory disease (34.4% vs. 2.7%), other infectious pneumonia (24.4% vs. 1.4%), malnutrition (based on hospitalization with the ICD-10 code reported during a hospital stay as a main or secondary diagnosis) (22.0% vs. 2.0%), history of tuberculosis (14.1% vs. 0.1%), HIV (8.7% vs. 0.2%), lung cancer and lung graft (5.7% vs. 0.4%), cystic fibrosis (3.2% vs. 0.0%), gastro-esophageal reflux disease (2.9% vs. 0.9%) and bone marrow transplant (1.3% vs. 0.0%) (p < 0.0001). The mean Charlson comorbidity index score was 1.6 (vs. 0.2 for controls; p < 0.0001). NTM-PD was independently associated with an increased mortality rate with a hazard ratio of 2.8 (95% CI: 2.53; 3.11). Mortality was lower for patients treated with antibiotics compared to untreated patients (HR = 0.772 (95% CI [0.628; 0.949]). Annual total expenses the year following the infection in a societal perspective were € 24,083 (SD: 29,358) in NTM-PD subjects vs. € 3402 (SD: 8575) in controls (p < 0.0001). Main driver of the total expense for NTM-PD patients was hospital expense (> 50% of the total expense). CONCLUSION: Patients with NTM-PD in France were shown to have many comorbidities, their mortality risk is high and mainly driven by NTM-PD, and their management costly. Only a minority of patients got treated with antibiotics and of those patients treated, many stopped their therapy prematurely. These results underline the high burden associated with NTM-PD and the need for improvement of NTM-PD management in France.


Assuntos
Fibrose Cística , Pneumopatias , Infecções por Mycobacterium não Tuberculosas , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pneumopatias/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções por Mycobacterium não Tuberculosas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Mycobacterium não Tuberculosas/epidemiologia , Micobactérias não Tuberculosas , Estudos Retrospectivos
3.
Am J Cardiol ; 160: 31-39, 2021 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34740394

RESUMO

Chest pain (CP) has been reported in 20% to 40% of patients 1 year after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), though rates of post-PCI health-care utilization (HCU) for CP in nonclinical trial populations are unknown. Furthermore, the contribution of noncardiac factors - such as pulmonary, gastrointestinal, and psychological - to post-PCI CP HCU is unclear. Accordingly, the objectives of this study were to describe long-term trajectories and identify predictors of post-PCI CP-related HCU in real-world patients undergoing PCI for any indication. This retrospective cohort study included patients receiving PCI for any indication from 2003 to 2017 through a single integrated health-care system. Post-PCI CP-related HCU tracked through electronic medical records included (1) office visits, (2) emergency department (ED) visits, and (3) hospital admissions with CP or angina as the primary diagnosis. The strongest predictors of CP-related HCU were identified from >100 candidate variables. Among 6386 patients followed an average of 6.7 years after PCI, 73% received PCI for acute coronary syndrome (ACS), 19% for stable angina, and 8% for other indications. Post-PCI CP-related HCU was common with 26%, 16%, and 5% of patients having ≥1 office visits, ED visits, and hospital admissions for CP within 2 years of PCI. The following factors were significant predictors of all 3 CP outcomes: ACS presentation, documented CP >7 days prior to the index PCI, anxiety, depression, and syncope. In conclusion, CP-related HCU following PCI was common, especially within the first 2 years. The strongest predictors of CP-related HCU included coronary disease attributes and psychological factors.


Assuntos
Dor no Peito/epidemiologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Visita a Consultório Médico/estatística & dados numéricos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/cirurgia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Angina Pectoris , Angina Estável/cirurgia , Angina Instável/cirurgia , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , AVC Isquêmico/epidemiologia , Pneumopatias/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio sem Supradesnível do Segmento ST/cirurgia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/cirurgia , Fatores Sexuais
4.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(10): e2128568, 2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34643720

RESUMO

Importance: Short-term and long-term persistent postacute sequelae of COVID-19 (PASC) have not been systematically evaluated. The incidence and evolution of PASC are dependent on time from infection, organ systems and tissue affected, vaccination status, variant of the virus, and geographic region. Objective: To estimate organ system-specific frequency and evolution of PASC. Evidence Review: PubMed (MEDLINE), Scopus, the World Health Organization Global Literature on Coronavirus Disease, and CoronaCentral databases were searched from December 2019 through March 2021. A total of 2100 studies were identified from databases and through cited references. Studies providing data on PASC in children and adults were included. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines for abstracting data were followed and performed independently by 2 reviewers. Quality was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale for cohort studies. The main outcome was frequency of PASC diagnosed by (1) laboratory investigation, (2) radiologic pathology, and (3) clinical signs and symptoms. PASC were classified by organ system, ie, neurologic; cardiovascular; respiratory; digestive; dermatologic; and ear, nose, and throat as well as mental health, constitutional symptoms, and functional mobility. Findings: From a total of 2100 studies identified, 57 studies with 250 351 survivors of COVID-19 met inclusion criteria. The mean (SD) age of survivors was 54.4 (8.9) years, 140 196 (56%) were male, and 197 777 (79%) were hospitalized during acute COVID-19. High-income countries contributed 45 studies (79%). The median (IQR) proportion of COVID-19 survivors experiencing at least 1 PASC was 54.0% (45.0%-69.0%; 13 studies) at 1 month (short-term), 55.0% (34.8%-65.5%; 38 studies) at 2 to 5 months (intermediate-term), and 54.0% (31.0%-67.0%; 9 studies) at 6 or more months (long-term). Most prevalent pulmonary sequelae, neurologic disorders, mental health disorders, functional mobility impairments, and general and constitutional symptoms were chest imaging abnormality (median [IQR], 62.2% [45.8%-76.5%]), difficulty concentrating (median [IQR], 23.8% [20.4%-25.9%]), generalized anxiety disorder (median [IQR], 29.6% [14.0%-44.0%]), general functional impairments (median [IQR], 44.0% [23.4%-62.6%]), and fatigue or muscle weakness (median [IQR], 37.5% [25.4%-54.5%]), respectively. Other frequently reported symptoms included cardiac, dermatologic, digestive, and ear, nose, and throat disorders. Conclusions and Relevance: In this systematic review, more than half of COVID-19 survivors experienced PASC 6 months after recovery. The most common PASC involved functional mobility impairments, pulmonary abnormalities, and mental health disorders. These long-term PASC effects occur on a scale that could overwhelm existing health care capacity, particularly in low- and middle-income countries.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Sobreviventes , Fadiga/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pneumopatias/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Limitação da Mobilidade , Debilidade Muscular/epidemiologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso
7.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34579139

RESUMO

Breastfeeding (BF) is considered the normative standard of feeding for all infants. However, the impact of BF in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) is not completely defined. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review to evaluate BF prevalence in the CF population and its impact on anthropometric and pulmonary outcomes. We searched MEDLINE, Embase and the Cochrane Library for original articles published in English up to 4 December 2020 that report the prevalence of BF and/or any measure of association between BF and anthropometric or pulmonary outcomes. Nine observational studies were identified (six retrospective cohort studies, one prospective cohort study, one survey and one case-control study within a retrospective cohort). The BF rate in CF patients is lower than that of the healthy population (approximately 50-60% of infants were breastfed at any time). The benefits in anthropometric outcomes of BF for >2 months in this at-risk population are unclear. A few relatively small studies suggest a potential benefit of BF in reducing lung infections, although data are inconsistent. The currently available data are insufficient to draw definite conclusions on the benefits of exclusive BF in anthropometric and pulmonary outcomes in CF. Clinical trials evaluating well-defined BF promotion interventions are needed.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno/estatística & dados numéricos , Fibrose Cística , Peso Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Fibrose Cística/complicações , Fibrose Cística/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Pneumopatias/epidemiologia , Pneumopatias/fisiopatologia , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia
8.
Respiration ; 100(11): 1078-1087, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34515212

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long-term pulmonary sequelae following severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pneumonia are not yet confirmed; however, preliminary observations suggest a possible relevant clinical, functional, and radiological impairment. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to identify and characterize pulmonary sequelae caused by SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia at 6-month follow-up. METHODS: In this multicentre, prospective, observational cohort study, patients hospitalized for SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia and without prior diagnosis of structural lung diseases were stratified by maximum ventilatory support ("oxygen only," "continuous positive airway pressure," and "invasive mechanical ventilation") and followed up at 6 months from discharge. Pulmonary function tests and diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO), 6-min walking test, chest X-ray, physical examination, and modified Medical Research Council (mMRC) dyspnoea score were collected. RESULTS: Between March and June 2020, 312 patients were enrolled (83, 27% women; median interquartile range age 61.1 [53.4, 69.3] years). The parameters that showed the highest rate of impairment were DLCO and chest X-ray, in 46% and 25% of patients, respectively. However, only a minority of patients reported dyspnoea (31%), defined as mMRC ≥1, or showed restrictive ventilatory defects (9%). In the logistic regression model, having asthma as a comorbidity was associated with DLCO impairment at follow-up, while prophylactic heparin administration during hospitalization appeared as a protective factor. The need for invasive ventilatory support during hospitalization was associated with chest imaging abnormalities. CONCLUSIONS: DLCO and radiological assessment appear to be the most sensitive tools to monitor patients with the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) during follow-up. Future studies with longer follow-up are warranted to better understand pulmonary sequelae.


Assuntos
COVID-19/complicações , Pneumopatias/epidemiologia , Pneumopatias/virologia , Respiração Artificial , Idoso , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/terapia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Hospitalização , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Pneumopatias/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Testes de Função Respiratória , Fatores de Tempo
9.
BMC Cancer ; 21(1): 1016, 2021 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34511059

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to evaluate the surgical outcome and quality of life (QoL) of totally laparoscopic total gastrectomy (TLTG) compared with laparoscopy-assisted total gastrectomy (LATG) in patients with clinical stage I gastric cancer. METHODS: From 2012 to 2018, EGC patients who underwent TLTG (n = 223), including the first case with intracorporeal hemi-double stapling, were matched to those who underwent LATG (n = 114) with extracorporeal circular stapling, using 2:1 propensity score matching (PSM). Prospectively collected morbidity was compared between the TLTG and LATG groups in conjunction with the learning curve. The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QoL questionnaires QLQ-C30, STO22, and OG25 were prospectively surveyed during postoperative 1 year for patient subgroups. RESULTS: After PSM, grade I pulmonary complication rate was lower in the TLTG group (n = 213) than in the LATG group (n = 111) (0.5% vs. 5.4%, P = 0.007). Other complications were not different between the groups. The learning curve of TLTG was overcome at the 26th case in terms of the comprehensive complication index. The TLTG group after learning curve showed lower grade I pulmonary complication rate than the matched LATG group (0.5% vs. 4.7%, P = 0.024). Regarding postoperative QoL, the TLTG group (n = 63) revealed less dysphagia (P = 0.028), pain (P = 0.028), eating restriction (P = 0.006), eating (P = 0.004), odynophagia (P = 0.023) than the LATG group (n = 21). Multivariate analyses for each QoL item demonstrated that TLTG was the only common independent factor for better QoL. CONCLUSIONS: TLTG reduced grade I pulmonary complications and provided better QoL in dysphagia, pain, eating, odynophagia than LATG for patients with clinical stage I gastric cancer.


Assuntos
Gastrectomia/efeitos adversos , Laparoscopia/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Qualidade de Vida , Neoplasias Gástricas/cirurgia , Transtornos de Deglutição/epidemiologia , Esofagostomia/métodos , Feminino , Gastrectomia/métodos , Humanos , Jejunostomia/métodos , Laparoscopia/métodos , Curva de Aprendizado , Pneumopatias/epidemiologia , Masculino , Ilustração Médica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dor Pós-Operatória/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Pontuação de Propensão , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia , Grampeamento Cirúrgico/métodos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
BMC Med Genomics ; 14(1): 226, 2021 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34535131

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Higher mortality of COVID-19 patients with lung disease is a formidable challenge for the health care system. Genetic association between COVID-19 and various lung disorders must be understood to comprehend the molecular basis of comorbidity and accelerate drug development. METHODS: Lungs tissue-specific neighborhood network of human targets of SARS-CoV-2 was constructed. This network was integrated with lung diseases to build a disease-gene and disease-disease association network. Network-based toolset was used to identify the overlapping disease modules and drug targets. The functional protein modules were identified using community detection algorithms and biological processes, and pathway enrichment analysis. RESULTS: In total, 141 lung diseases were linked to a neighborhood network of SARS-CoV-2 targets, and 59 lung diseases were found to be topologically overlapped with the COVID-19 module. Topological overlap with various lung disorders allows repurposing of drugs used for these disorders to hit the closely associated COVID-19 module. Further analysis showed that functional protein-protein interaction modules in the lungs, substantially hijacked by SARS-CoV-2, are connected to several lung disorders. FDA-approved targets in the hijacked protein modules were identified and that can be hit by exiting drugs to rescue these modules from virus possession. CONCLUSION: Lung diseases are clustered with COVID-19 in the same network vicinity, indicating the potential threat for patients with respiratory diseases after SARS-CoV-2 infection. Pathobiological similarities between lung diseases and COVID-19 and clinical evidence suggest that shared molecular features are the probable reason for comorbidity. Network-based drug repurposing approaches can be applied to improve the clinical conditions of COVID-19 patients.


Assuntos
COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos , Pneumopatias/epidemiologia , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Algoritmos , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/genética , Comorbidade , Descoberta de Drogas , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos/métodos , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/efeitos dos fármacos , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos/efeitos dos fármacos , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos/genética , Humanos , Pneumopatias/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumopatias/genética , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas/efeitos dos fármacos , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas/genética , Biologia de Sistemas
11.
Wien Klin Wochenschr ; 133(21-22): 1195-1200, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34402990

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The incidence, geographical distribution and clinical relevance of different nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) in Croatia are well described. There are few data on the risk factors for developing NTM pulmonary disease (NTM-PD) in this setting. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study on all Croatian residents with NTM isolated from respiratory samples in the period from 2006 to 2015 with follow-up to 2018. The American Thoracic Society/Infectious Diseases Society of America (ATS/IDSA) guidelines were used to establish NTM-PD diagnosis. Clinical, radiological and treatment data were collected from hospital records. RESULTS: Risk analysis calculations were made on the 439 isolation episodes that were classified as definitive NTM-PD (n = 137) or no disease (n = 302). Female gender, presence of bronchiectasis, low BMI and long-term systemic corticosteroid treatment were independent risk factors associated with NTM-PD. Hemoptysis and malaise were presenting symptoms independently associated with NTM-PD. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and low/moderate dose inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) treatment were not associated with NTM-PD. High dose ICS treatment was a significant risk factor for developing NTM-PD (aOR = 4.73, CI 1.69-13.23 p = 0.003). CONCLUSION: The NTM-PD patients in Croatia are similar to those in other published cohorts in terms of their characteristics and risk factors. The significant dose-dependent association between ICS use and NTM-PD adds to the body of evidence suggesting that high dose ICS use is associated with NTM-PD.


Assuntos
Pneumopatias , Infecções por Mycobacterium não Tuberculosas , Croácia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pneumopatias/epidemiologia , Infecções por Mycobacterium não Tuberculosas/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
12.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0255617, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343220

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coal mine dust lung disease comprises a group of occupational lung diseases including coal workers pneumoconiosis. In many countries, there is a lack of robust prevalence estimates for these diseases. Our objective was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of published contemporary estimates on prevalence, mortality, and survival for coal mine dust lung disease worldwide. METHODS: Systematic searches of PubMed, EMBASE and Web of Science databases for English language peer-reviewed articles published from 1/1/2000 to 30/03/2021 that presented quantitative estimates of prevalence, mortality, or survival for coal mine dust lung disease. Review was conducted per PRISMA guidelines. Articles were screened independently by two authors. Studies were critically assessed using Joanna Briggs Institute tools. Pooled prevalence estimates were obtained using random effects meta-analysis models. Heterogeneity was measured using the I2 statistics and publication bias using Egger's tests. RESULTS: Overall 40 studies were included, (31 prevalence, 8 mortality, 1 survival). Of the prevalence estimates, fifteen (12 from the United States) were retained for the meta-analysis. The overall pooled prevalence estimate for coal workers pneumoconiosis among underground miners was 3.7% (95% CI 3.0-4.5%) with high heterogeneity between studies. The pooled estimate of coal workers pneumoconiosis prevalence in the United States was higher in the 2000s than in the 1990s, consistent with published reports of increasing prevalence following decades of declining trends. Sub-group analyses also indicated higher prevalence among underground miners, and in Central Appalachia. The mortality studies were suggestive of reduced pneumoconiosis mortality rates over time, relative to the general population. CONCLUSION: The ongoing prevalence of occupational lung diseases among contemporary coal miners highlights the importance of respiratory surveillance and preventive efforts through effective dust control measures. Limited prevalence studies from countries other than the United States limits our understanding of the current disease burden in other coal-producing countries.


Assuntos
Antracose/patologia , Minas de Carvão/métodos , Pneumopatias/epidemiologia , Pneumopatias/mortalidade , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Doenças Profissionais/mortalidade , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Antracose/etiologia , Humanos , Agências Internacionais , Pneumopatias/patologia , Doenças Profissionais/patologia , Prevalência
13.
Yonsei Med J ; 62(8): 702-707, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34296547

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We aimed to determine the relationship between environmental exposure and nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease (NTM-PD) in Korea. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A group of 150 patients with NTM-PD and a control group of 217 patients with other respiratory diseases were prospectively enrolled between June 2018 and December 2020 in Seoul, Korea. They were surveyed with a standardized questionnaire, and their medical records were reviewed. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated with multivariate logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: The mean ages of the NTM-PD and control groups were similar (63.8±9.2 years vs. 63.5±10.0 years; p=0.737), and most patients were female (76.0% vs. 68.7%; p=0.157) and nonsmokers (82.0% vs. 72.8%; p=0.021). Mycobacterium avium (49.3%) was the most commonly identified strain among NTM-PD patients, followed by M. intracellulare (32.0%) and M. abscessus subspecies massiliense (12.7%). There were no differences in housing type or frequency of soil- or pet-related exposure between the case and the control groups. However, in subgroup analysis excluding patients with M. intracellulare infection, more case patients frequently visited public baths ≥1 time/week (35.3% vs. 19.4%, p=0.003); this remained significant after multivariate analysis (OR, 2.84; 95% CI, 1.58-5.17). CONCLUSION: Frequent exposure to water at public baths might affect the odds of contracting NTM-PD, excluding individuals infected with M. intracellulare strains.


Assuntos
Pneumopatias , Micobactérias não Tuberculosas , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Pneumopatias/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complexo Mycobacterium avium , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Seul
14.
AIDS Patient Care STDS ; 35(7): 239-248, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34242091

RESUMO

Despite widespread use of antiretroviral therapy (ART), people with HIV (PWH) continue to suffer substantial morbidity and mortality from pulmonary diseases. We sought to evaluate the prevalence of pulmonary symptoms, evaluations, and diagnoses (both infectious and noninfectious) among PWH receiving care at one of the largest HIV clinics in the United States. All PWH seen at the Infectious Disease Program in Atlanta, Georgia, from July 2013 to June 2018 were included. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the odds of all-cause mortality. Among 8387 patients, median age was 48 years, 35% had documented smoking, 74% were male, and the 47% with ≥1 pulmonary symptom or diagnosis were older and had higher rates of smoking compared to those without any symptoms or diagnoses (p-values <0.0001). Percent on ART was 97% and 81% for individuals with and without symptoms or diagnoses, respectively (p-value <0.0001). Patients with an infectious diagnosis were more likely to have a diagnostic test ordered than those with a noninfectious diagnosis (p-value <0.0001). After adjustment for demographic and clinical risk factors, odds of death were 2.1 times greater [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.3-3.5] among those with a pulmonary symptom or diagnosis compared to those without. Despite a high prevalence of pulmonary symptoms and diagnoses in this large cohort of PWH, many did not have a complete diagnostic evaluation, particularly those with noninfectious diagnoses. Greater awareness of evaluation and treatment of noninfectious pulmonary diseases among HIV care providers will be critical to improving long-term outcomes for PWH.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Pneumopatias , Estudos de Coortes , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Pneumopatias/diagnóstico , Pneumopatias/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Fumar , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
15.
J Autoimmun ; 123: 102687, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34311142

RESUMO

The impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection in patients with autoimmune/auto-inflammatory rheumatic diseases (AARD) under immunomodulatory treatment has been a focus of interest during the COVID-19 pandemic. In this observational study, demographic data, disease related features and comorbidities, COVID-19 manifestations and outcome as well as antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 were recorded among 77 consecutive patients with underlying AARD infected by SARS-CoV-2. Analysis of data was performed using univariate and multivariate models. Most patients (68.8%) had a mild COVID-19 course. The predominant clinical manifestations were fatigue (58.4%), low grade fever (45.4%) and upper respiratory tract symptoms (68.8%). About a quarter of patients required hospitalization (23.3%) and the mortality rate was 1.3%. Regarding COVID-19 severity, prior treatment with corticosteroids, mycophenolate mofetil or rituximab was more common in patients who developed a more serious disease course (60.0 vs 29.9%, p = 0.003, 40.0 vs 7.5%, p = 0.003, 10.0 vs 0.0%, p = 0.009, respectively). When disease related features and comorbidities were considered in multivariate models, older age and lung disease in the context of the AARD were found to be independent predictive factors for hospitalization (OR [95%]: 1.09 [1.03-1.15] and 6.43 [1.11-37.19]). Among COVID-19 related features, patients with shortness of breath and high-grade fever were more likely to get hospitalized (OR [95%]: 7.06 [1.36-36.57], 12.04 [2.96-48.86]), while anosmia was independently associated with lower hospitalization risk (OR [95%]: 0.09 [0.01-0.99]). Though the majority of AARD patients displayed a mild COVID-19 course, certain underlying disease features and COVID-19 related manifestations should prompt alertness for the physician to identify patients with AARD at high risk for severe COVID-19 and need for hospitalization.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Doenças do Tecido Conjuntivo/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Antivirais/biossíntese , Infecções Assintomáticas/epidemiologia , Doenças Autoimunes/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Autoimunes/imunologia , Comorbidade , Doenças do Tecido Conjuntivo/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Tecido Conjuntivo/imunologia , Estado Terminal , Feminino , Grécia/epidemiologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Hipotireoidismo/epidemiologia , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Imunoglobulina G/biossíntese , Fatores Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Imunossupressores/efeitos adversos , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Inflamação , Pneumopatias/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Literatura de Revisão como Assunto , Doenças Reumáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Reumáticas/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Avaliação de Sintomas
16.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 7: CD013662, 2021 07 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34236703

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is an abnormal dilation in the diameter of the abdominal aorta of 50% or more of the normal diameter or greater than 3 cm in total. The risk of rupture increases with the diameter of the aneurysm, particularly above a diameter of approximately 5.5 cm. Perioperative and postoperative morbidity is common following elective repair in people with AAA. Prehabilitation or preoperative exercise is the process of enhancing an individual's functional capacity before surgery to improve postoperative outcomes. Studies have evaluated exercise interventions for people waiting for AAA repair, but the results of these studies are conflicting. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of exercise programmes on perioperative and postoperative morbidity and mortality associated with elective abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Vascular Specialised register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature), and Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) databases, and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform and ClinicalTrials.gov trials registers to 6 July 2020. We also examined the included study reports' bibliographies to identify other relevant articles. SELECTION CRITERIA: We considered randomised controlled trials (RCTs) examining exercise interventions compared with usual care (no exercise; participants maintained normal physical activity) for people waiting for AAA repair. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently selected studies for inclusion, assessed the included studies, extracted data and resolved disagreements by discussion. We assessed the methodological quality of studies using the Cochrane risk of bias tool and collected results related to the outcomes of interest: post-AAA repair mortality; perioperative and postoperative complications; length of intensive care unit (ICU) stay; length of hospital stay; number of days on a ventilator; change in aneurysm size pre- and post-exercise; and quality of life. We used GRADE to evaluate certainty of the evidence. For dichotomous outcomes, we calculated the risk ratio (RR) with the corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI). MAIN RESULTS: This review identified four RCTs with a total of 232 participants with clinically diagnosed AAA deemed suitable for elective intervention, comparing prehabilitation exercise therapy with usual care (no exercise). The prehabilitation exercise therapy was supervised and hospital-based in three of the four included trials, and in the remaining trial the first session was supervised in hospital, but subsequent sessions were completed unsupervised in the participants' homes. The dose and schedule of the prehabilitation exercise therapy varied across the trials with three to six sessions per week and a duration of one hour per session for a period of one to six weeks. The types of exercise therapy included circuit training, moderate-intensity continuous exercise and high-intensity interval training. All trials were at a high risk of bias. The certainty of the evidence for each of our outcomes was low to very low. We downgraded the certainty of the evidence because of risk of bias and imprecision (small sample sizes). Overall, we are uncertain whether prehabilitation exercise compared to usual care (no exercise) reduces the occurrence of 30-day (or longer if reported) mortality post-AAA repair (RR 1.33, 95% CI 0.31 to 5.77; 3 trials, 192 participants; very low-certainty evidence). Compared to usual care (no exercise), prehabilitation exercise may decrease the occurrence of cardiac complications (RR 0.36, 95% CI 0.14 to 0.92; 1 trial, 124 participants; low-certainty evidence) and the occurrence of renal complications (RR 0.31, 95% CI 0.11 to 0.88; 1 trial, 124 participants; low-certainty evidence). We are uncertain whether prehabilitation exercise, compared to usual care (no exercise), decreases the occurrence of pulmonary complications (RR 0.49, 95% 0.26 to 0.92; 2 trials, 144 participants; very low-certainty evidence), decreases the need for re-intervention (RR 1.29, 95% 0.33 to 4.96; 2 trials, 144 participants; very low-certainty evidence) or decreases postoperative bleeding (RR 0.57, 95% CI 0.18 to 1.80; 1 trial, 124 participants; very low-certainty evidence). There was little or no difference between the exercise and usual care (no exercise) groups in length of ICU stay, length of hospital stay and quality of life. None of the studies reported data for the number of days on a ventilator and change in aneurysm size pre- and post-exercise outcomes. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Due to very low-certainty evidence, we are uncertain whether prehabilitation exercise therapy reduces 30-day mortality, pulmonary complications, need for re-intervention or postoperative bleeding. Prehabilitation exercise therapy might slightly reduce cardiac and renal complications compared with usual care (no exercise). More RCTs of high methodological quality, with large sample sizes and long-term follow-up, are needed. Important questions should include the type and cost-effectiveness of exercise programmes, the minimum number of sessions and programme duration needed to effect clinically important benefits, and which groups of participants and types of repair benefit most.


Assuntos
Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos , Condicionamento Físico Humano/métodos , Exercício Pré-Operatório , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/mortalidade , Viés , Exercícios em Circuitos , Cardiopatias/epidemiologia , Cardiopatias/prevenção & controle , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade , Humanos , Nefropatias/epidemiologia , Nefropatias/prevenção & controle , Pneumopatias/epidemiologia , Pneumopatias/prevenção & controle , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Hemorragia Pós-Operatória/epidemiologia , Hemorragia Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Reoperação , Fatores de Tempo
17.
Am J Cardiol ; 153: 9-19, 2021 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34233836

RESUMO

Gender differences have been recognized in several aspects of coronary artery disease (CAD). However, evidence for gender differences in long-term outcomes after left main coronary artery (LMCA) revascularization is limited. We sought to evaluate the impact of gender on outcomes after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) for unprotected LMCA disease. We evaluated 4,320 patients with LMCA disease who underwent CABG (n = 1,456) or PCI (n = 2,864) from the Interventional Research Incorporation Society-Left MAIN Revascularization registry. The primary outcome was a composite of death, myocardial infarction (MI), or stroke. Among 4,320 patients, 968 (22.4%) were females and 3,352 (77.6%) were males. Compared to males, females were older, had a higher prevalence of hypertension and insulin-requiring diabetes, more frequently presented with acute coronary syndrome, but had less extensive CAD and less frequent left main bifurcation involvement. The adjusted risk for the primary outcome was not different after PCI or CABG in females and males (hazard ratio [HR] 1.09; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.73-1.63 and HR 0.97; 95% CI: 0.80-1.19, respectively); there was no significant interaction between gender and the revascularization strategy (P for interaction = 0.775). In multivariable analysis, gender did not appear to be an independent predictor for the primary outcome. In revascularization for LMCA disease, females and males had a comparable primary composite outcome of death, MI, or stroke with either CABG or PCI without a significant interaction of gender with the revascularization strategy.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/cirurgia , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/métodos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/métodos , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/epidemiologia , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Angina Estável/epidemiologia , Angina Estável/cirurgia , Angina Instável/epidemiologia , Angina Instável/cirurgia , Comorbidade , Angiografia Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/patologia , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Stents Farmacológicos , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Insulina/uso terapêutico , Pneumopatias/epidemiologia , Artéria Torácica Interna/transplante , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Revascularização Miocárdica , Infarto do Miocárdio sem Supradesnível do Segmento ST/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio sem Supradesnível do Segmento ST/cirurgia , Doença Arterial Periférica/epidemiologia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Artéria Radial/transplante , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/cirurgia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Sexuais , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia
18.
Parasitol Int ; 84: 102418, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34245917

RESUMO

The Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) is a protected species in Denmark and at present, the population is recovering due to conservation efforts. The Danish otters are mainly found in the continental part of Denmark (Jutland), but establishment in the main islands (Fyn and Zealand) has been observed. While there is a lack of systematic studies on the parasite fauna of otters in Denmark, this study aims to screen otters for their parasite fauna, especially those of zoonotic and/or veterinary importance. Thirty-three otter carcasses, road-killed (n = 30), found dead (n = 2) and shot (n = 1), were collected between June 2013 and May 2014 and examined for cardiopulmonary, urogenital, gastrointestinal, and muscle helminths by post mortem examination. Faecal samples were analysed by modified concentration McMaster technique and direct immunofluorescence test for Giardia and Cryptosporidium. At least one parasite was found in 75.8% of animals. The parasite fauna included 13 species, consisting of five nematodes: Molineus patens (30.3%), Aonchotheca putorii (27.3%), Strongyloides sp. (24.2%), Physaloptera sp. (12.1%), Eucoleus aerophilus (10.0%); one cestode: Schistocephalus solidius (6.1%); four trematodes: Metorchis bilis (33.3%), Isthimiophora melis (15.2%), Cryptocotyle sp. (3.0%), Plagiorchis sp. (3.0%); one acanthocephalan: Acanthocephalus ranae (18.2%); and two protozoans: Giardia spp. (3.1%), and Eimeria spp. (3.1%). The study showed that otters carry parasites of zoonotic and veterinary importance. Many of these parasites can also infect native carnivores and birds, and the distribution of these parasites may be affected if the otter population continue to increase in Denmark.


Assuntos
Lontras , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Animais , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Feminino , Doenças Urogenitais Femininas/epidemiologia , Doenças Urogenitais Femininas/parasitologia , Doenças Urogenitais Femininas/veterinária , Gastroenteropatias/epidemiologia , Gastroenteropatias/parasitologia , Gastroenteropatias/veterinária , Cardiopatias/epidemiologia , Cardiopatias/parasitologia , Cardiopatias/veterinária , Pneumopatias/epidemiologia , Pneumopatias/parasitologia , Pneumopatias/veterinária , Masculino , Doenças Urogenitais Masculinas/epidemiologia , Doenças Urogenitais Masculinas/parasitologia , Doenças Urogenitais Masculinas/veterinária , Doenças Musculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Musculares/parasitologia , Doenças Musculares/veterinária , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/parasitologia
19.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 15042, 2021 07 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34294826

RESUMO

The lung is inhabited by a diverse microbiome that originates from the oropharynx by a mechanism of micro-aspiration. Its bacterial biomass is usually low; however, this condition shifts in lung cancer (LC), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and interstitial lung disease (ILD). These chronic lung disorders (CLD) may coexist in the same patient as comorbidities and share common risk factors, among which the microbiome is included. We characterized the microbiome of 106 bronchoalveolar lavages. Samples were initially subdivided into cancer and non-cancer and high-throughput sequenced for the 16S rRNA gene. Additionally, we used a cohort of 25 CLD patients where crossed comorbidities were excluded. Firmicutes, Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were the most prevalent phyla independently of the analyzed group. Streptococcus and Prevotella were associated with LC and Haemophilus was enhanced in COPD versus ILD. Although no significant discrepancies in microbial diversity were observed between cancer and non-cancer samples, statistical tests suggested a gradient across CLD where COPD and ILD displayed the highest and lowest alpha diversities, respectively. Moreover, COPD and ILD were separated in two clusters by the unweighted UniFrac distance (P value = 0.0068). Our results support the association of Streptoccocus and Prevotella with LC and of Haemophilus with COPD, and advocate for specific CLD signatures.


Assuntos
Brônquios/microbiologia , Pneumopatias/epidemiologia , Pneumopatias/etiologia , Microbiota , Alvéolos Pulmonares/microbiologia , Biomarcadores , Doença Crônica , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Pneumopatias/diagnóstico , Masculino , Portugal , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , RNA Ribossômico 16S
20.
Acta Med Indones ; 53(2): 169-176, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34251345

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: multidrug-resistant organisms (MDRO) caused pneumonia has become a crucial case. MDRO infection has been a problem concern to community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). A lot of factors play roles in CAP with MDRO infection. This study aimed to analyze MDRO as the etiology of hospitalized patients with CAP along with its risk factors in Dr. Soetomo Hospital as one of the top referral hospitals in east Indonesia. METHODS: this retrospective cohort study was conducted from January 2016 to December 2018. Data were collected from patients' medical records. Automatic Rapid Diagnosis (Phoenix TM) was used as a standard method for culture and susceptibility test. Various risk factors were analyzed for MDRO infection. RESULTS: five most common pathogens in hospitalized patients with CAP were Acinetobacter baumannii 244/1364 (17.9%), Klebsiella pneumoniae 134/1364 (9.8%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa 91/1364 (6.7%), Escherichia coli 58/1364 (4.3%), and Enterobacter cloacae 45/1364 (3.3%). There were 294/1364 (21.5%) MDROs isolated from patients with CAP. MDRO infection was linked to previous hospitalization, malignancy, cardiovascular disease, and structural lung disease with p values of 0.002, <0.001, 0.024, and <0.001, respectively. CONCLUSION: the incidence of MDRO in CAP is high (21.5%). The risk factors related were previous hospitalization, malignancy, cardiovascular disease, and structural lung disease.


Assuntos
Bacteriemia/epidemiologia , Bacteriemia/microbiologia , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Pneumonia/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Bacteriemia/tratamento farmacológico , Bactérias/classificação , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/epidemiologia , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/microbiologia , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Incidência , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Modelos Logísticos , Pneumopatias/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Pneumonia/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
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