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2.
Kyobu Geka ; 71(6): 403-406, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30042237

RESUMO

We assessed the clinical features in surgery cases of female spontaneous pneumothorax by comparing them with male patients. One hundred six patients ( female/male:16/90)who had undergone surgery for spontaneous pneumothorax between January 2003 and August 2013 was retrospectively studied. Patient background, pneumothorax classification and treatment were assessed. No significant difference was found in patient background and treatment. In pneumothorax classification, the frequency of secondary pneumothorax in females was significantly greater than that in males (p<0.001). Additionally, in females, the number of bulla identified during surgery was significantly fewer and the number of recurrences before surgery was more frequent than that in males.


Assuntos
Pneumotórax/cirurgia , Vesícula/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Doenças Pleurais/diagnóstico , Pneumotórax/classificação , Pneumotórax/etiologia , Recidiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Sexuais
4.
An. pediatr. (2003. Ed. impr.) ; 86(1): 37-44, ene. 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-159133

RESUMO

Objetivo: Determinar si el uso de oxigenoterapia de alto flujo (OAF) en cánulas nasales disminuye la necesidad de ventilación mecánica en neonatos hospitalizados con bronquiolitis aguda. Métodos: Estudio de cohortes ambispectivo, realizado en una unidad neonatal IIB, que incluyó neonatos ingresados con bronquiolitis desde la instauración de la técnica de OAF (período-OAF: octubre de 2011-abril de 2015), comparándolo con una cohorte histórica de la temporada previa a su uso (período pre-OAF: enero de 2008-mayo de 2011). Se analizó la proporción de ventilación mecánica antes y después del inicio del tratamiento con OAF y se evaluaron parámetros clínicos y complicaciones de los pacientes tratados con esta técnica. Resultados: Se incluyeron 112 neonatos, 56 del período-OAF y 56 de la temporada pre-OAF. En el período-OAF ningún paciente requirió intubación en comparación con la temporada previa, donde el 3,6% precisó ventilación mecánica invasiva. El uso de OAF se asoció con una disminución significativa de ventilación mecánica no invasiva (30,4% vs 10,7%; p = 0,01), con un RR de 0,353 (IC 95%: 0,150-0,829), RAR de 19,6% (IC 95%: 5,13-34,2) y NNT de 5. En el período-OAF 22 pacientes recibieron terapia de alto flujo y 22,7% de ellos (IC 95%: 7,8-45,4) requirieron ventilación no invasiva. Tras el inicio de OAF se observó una mejoría rápida y progresiva de la frecuencia cardiaca (p = 0,03), frecuencia respiratoria (p = 0,01) y escala clínica (p = 0,00) a partir de 3 h. No se registraron efectos adversos. Conclusiones: El uso de OAF disminuye la necesidad de ventilación no invasiva y es un tratamiento seguro que consigue mejoría clínica de neonatos con bronquiolitis (AU)


Objective: To determine whether the availability of heated humidified high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) therapy was associated with a decrease in need for mechanical ventilation in neonates hospitalised with acute bronchiolitis. Methods: A combined retrospective and prospective (ambispective) cohort study was performed in a type II-B Neonatal Unit, including hospitalised neonates with acute bronchiolitis after the introduction of HFNC (HFNC-period; October 2011-April 2015). They were compared with a historical cohort prior to the availability of this technique (pre-HFNC; January 2008-May 2011). The need for mechanical ventilation between the two study groups was analysed. Clinical parameters and technique-related complications were evaluated in neonates treated with HFNC. Results: A total of 112 neonates were included, 56 after the introduction of HFNC and 56 from the period before the introduction of HFNC. None of patients in the HFNC-period required intubation, compared with 3.6% of the patients in the pre-HFNC group. The availability of HFNC resulted in a significant decrease in the need for non-invasive mechanical ventilation (30.4% vs 10.7%; P = .01), with a relative risk (RR) of .353 (95% CI; .150-.829), an absolute risk reduction (ARR) of 19.6% (95% CI; 5.13 - 34.2), yielding a NNT of 5. In the HFNC-period, 22 patients received high flow therapy, and 22.7% (95% CI; 7.8 to 45.4) required non-invasive ventilation. Treatment with HFNC was associated with a significant decrease in heart rate (P = .03), respiratory rate (P = .01), and an improvement in the Wood-Downes Férres score (P = .00). No adverse effects were observed. Conclusions: The availability of HFNC reduces the need for non-invasive mechanical ventilation, allowing a safe and effective medical management of neonates with acute bronchiolitis (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Oxigenoterapia/métodos , Stents/classificação , Bronquite/congênito , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Frequência Cardíaca/genética , Preparações Farmacêuticas/administração & dosagem , Gasometria/métodos , Pneumotórax/complicações , Hipotermia/patologia , Oxigenoterapia , Stents/provisão & distribução , Bronquite/patologia , Respiração Artificial/instrumentação , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Espanha/etnologia , Preparações Farmacêuticas/provisão & distribução , Gasometria , Pneumotórax/classificação , Hipotermia/prevenção & controle
5.
Crit Care Nurs Q ; 39(2): 176-89, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26919678

RESUMO

Pneumothorax is defined as the abnormal presence of air within the pleural space (cavity) that results in the partial or complete collapse of a lung. It can occur spontaneously or due to a traumatic event. Symptoms can vary from a nondescriptive complaint of shortness of breath or chest pain to complete cardiopulmonary collapse. Diagnosis is based on a combination of clinical suspicion along with supporting imaging studies. Treatment often involves surgical or nonsurgical approaches with goal to alleviate symptoms and prevent recurrence.


Assuntos
Pneumotórax/diagnóstico , Pneumotórax/terapia , Doença Aguda , Humanos , Incidência , Pneumotórax/classificação , Recidiva , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
6.
Lancet Respir Med ; 3(7): 578-88, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26170077

RESUMO

There are substantial differences in international guidelines for the management of pneumothorax and much geographical variation in clinical practice. These discrepancies have, in part, been driven by a paucity of high-quality evidence. Advances in diagnostic techniques have increasingly allowed the identification of lung abnormalities in patients previously labelled as having primary spontaneous pneumothorax, a group in whom recommended management differs from those with clinically apparent lung disease. Pathophysiological mechanisms underlying pneumothorax are now better understood and this may have implications for clinical management. Risk stratification of patients at baseline could help to identify subgroups at higher risk of recurrent pneumothorax who would benefit from early intervention to prevent recurrence. Further research into the roles of conservative management, Heimlich valves, digital air-leak monitoring, and pleurodesis at first presentation might lead to an increase in their use in the future.


Assuntos
Pneumotórax/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Assistência Ambulatorial/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumotórax/classificação , Pneumotórax/etiologia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Recidiva , Medição de Risco , Prevenção Secundária , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Adulto Jovem
7.
Chest ; 145(2): 354-360, 2014 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24091546

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A significant percentage of pneumothorax in women is due to thoracic endometriosis. Pathophysiologic mechanisms continue to be debated, and pathologic aspects are poorly known. METHODS: Clinical and pathologic records of all consecutive women of reproductive age operated on for pneumothorax between 2000 and 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. RESULTS: Two hundred twenty-nine women (mean age, 33 years) underwent surgery. One hundred forty-four cases (63%) were right-sided, and pneumothoraces were catamenial for 80 women (35%). Diagnosed pelvic endometriosis was associated in 29 cases. At pathology, thoracic endometriosis was diagnosed in 54 cases (24%). Endometrial glands were observed in 33 of 54 cases and were often cystic (16 of 33). Stroma was observed in 51 of 54 cases and endometrial stroma without glands in 21 cases. Hemosiderin-laden macrophages were observed in 27 of 54 cases. All cases of thoracic endometriosis were positive for progesterone and/or estrogen receptors (intense and nuclear). Catamenial pneumothoraces (n = 80, 34.9%) were endometriosis related in 50% of cases (n = 40, 17% of the whole population). Pneumothoraces were noncatamenial but endometriosis related in 6% of cases (n = 14) and merely idiopathic in 60% of patients (n = 135). Multivariate analysis showed that right side, presence of diaphragmatic abnormalities, relapse after unilateral surgery, and presence of hemosiderin-laden macrophages were independent variables associated with thoracic endometriosis (all, P < .02). Apical emphysema-like changes were found in 184 of the 213 patients (86%) with apical resection and were significantly associated with the absence of thoracic endometriosis (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: In women with surgically treated pneumothorax, prevalence of catamenial/endometriosis-related pneumothorax is high. Clinicians and pathologists must be aware to recognize such a difficult diagnosis.


Assuntos
Cavidade Pleural/patologia , Pneumotórax/classificação , Pneumotórax/patologia , Adulto , Endometriose/complicações , Feminino , Hemossiderina/metabolismo , Humanos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Macrófagos/patologia , Análise Multivariada , Cavidade Pleural/cirurgia , Pneumotórax/etiologia , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Doenças Torácicas/complicações , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Torácicos
8.
Intern Med J ; 42(10): 1157-60, 2012 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23227475

RESUMO

Tension pneumothorax is variously defined but is generally thought of as a pneumothorax in which the pressure of intrapleural gas exceeds atmospheric pressure, producing adverse effects, including mediastinal shift associated with cardiovascular collapse, often attributed to reduced venous return and kinking of the great vessels. The mechanism of tension pneumothorax is said to be a valvular defect in the visceral pleura such that air enters the pleural space in inspiration but cannot exit in expiration, leading to a progressive increase in pressure. However, as the driving pressure forcing air into the pleura in inspiration is atmospheric pressure, the pleural pressure can never exceed 1 atm during inspiration in a spontaneously breathing subject. Furthermore, all pneumothoraces must have pressures greater than atmospheric during expiration, or conventional treatment with intercostal tube drainage would not work. Pilot experiments have failed to show any re-entry of pleural gas into the lung in patients with persistent air leaks but no evidence of tension, suggesting these behave as valvular pneumothoraces. Case reports of tension pneumothorax in spontaneously breathing patients are rare, and most patients have other explanations for clinical deterioration. Although a large and rapidly expanding pneumothorax may require urgent intervention, it is unlikely that the effects are mediated by high intrapleural pressures. The term tension pneumothorax in spontaneously breathing patients should be reconsidered.


Assuntos
Pneumotórax/diagnóstico , Pneumotórax/fisiopatologia , Respiração , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Pneumotórax/classificação
9.
Am J Emerg Med ; 30(7): 1025-31, 2012 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21908143

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We sought to assess the anatomical distribution of traumatic pneumothoraces (PTXs) on chest computed tomography (CT) to develop an optimized protocol for PTX screening with ultrasound in the emergency department (ED). METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of all chest CTs performed in one ED between January 2005 and December 2008 according to presence, location, and size of PTX. Pneumothoraces were then measured and categorized into 14 anatomical regions for each hemithorax. RESULTS: A total of 277 (3.8%) PTXs were identified, with 26 bilateral PTX, on 3636 chest CTs performed during the study period. Etiology was blunt (85%) or penetrating trauma (15%). Eighty-three (45%) PTXs were radiographically occult on initial chest x-ray. One hundred eighty-three (66%) PTX had no chest tube at the time of CT. For both hemithoraces, the distribution demonstrated increasing PTX frequency and size from lateral to medial and from superior to inferior. Region 12 (parasternal, intercostal spaces [ICS] 7-8) was involved in 68% of PTX on either side; region 9 (parasternal, ICS 5-6), in 67% on the left and in 52% on the right; and region 11 (lateral to midclavicular line, ICS 7-8), in 46% on the left and in 53% on the right. The largest anterior-to-posterior PTX dimension was seen in region 12. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that 80.4% of right- and 83.7% of left-sided traumatic PTXs would be identified by scanning regions 9, 11, and 12. These findings suggest that a standardized protocol for PTX screening with ultrasound should include these regions.


Assuntos
Pneumotórax/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Tubos Torácicos , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumotórax/classificação , Pneumotórax/diagnóstico por imagem , Radiografia Torácica , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Tórax/patologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Ultrassonografia , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/diagnóstico por imagem , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/patologia , Ferimentos Penetrantes/diagnóstico por imagem , Ferimentos Penetrantes/patologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
In. Valls Pérez, Orlando. Imaginología de urgencia. Valor de los algoritmos diagnósticos. La Habana, Ecimed, 2012. , ilus.
Monografia em Espanhol | CUMED | ID: cum-53876
11.
J Zhejiang Univ Sci B ; 11(10): 735-44, 2010 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20872980

RESUMO

Primary spontaneous pneumothorax (PSP) commonly occurs in tall, thin, adolescent men. Though the pathogenesis of PSP has been gradually uncovered, there is still a lack of consensus in the diagnostic approach and treatment strategies for this disorder. Herein, the literature is reviewed concerning mechanisms and personal clinical experience with PSP. The chest computed tomography (CT) has been more commonly used than before to help understand the pathogenesis of PSP and plan further management strategies. The development of video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) has changed the profiles of management strategies of PSP due to its minimal invasiveness and high effectiveness for patients with these diseases.


Assuntos
Pneumotórax/diagnóstico , Pneumotórax/terapia , Humanos , Pneumotórax/classificação , Pneumotórax/etiologia , Prognóstico
12.
Am J Med Qual ; 25(3): 218-24, 2010.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20460565

RESUMO

Hospital administrative data are being used to identify hospitals with hospital-acquired complications such as iatrogenic pneumothorax. This was a retrospective cross-sectional study of hospitalization records to estimate the positive predictive value (PPV) of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) Patient Safety Indicator for iatrogenic pneumothorax. A probability sample of inpatient medical records from 2006 to 2007 was reviewed in a national sample of 28 volunteer hospitals. Among the 200 flagged cases, the PPV was 78% (95% confidence interval = 73%-82%). False positive cases were mostly a result of exclusionary conditions (11%) and pneumothoraxes that were present on admission (7%). About 44% of events followed attempted central venous catheter (CVC) placement. Of the 69 CVC-associated events, only 5 occurred with ultrasound guidance. AHRQ's iatrogenic pneumothorax indicator can serve in quality of care improvement. At least 1725 hospital-acquired pneumothoraxes could have been prevented in 2004 through universal use of ultrasound guidance during internal jugular cannulation.


Assuntos
Doença Iatrogênica/epidemiologia , Classificação Internacional de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Registros Médicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumotórax/epidemiologia , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde , Cateterismo Venoso Central/efeitos adversos , Cateterismo Venoso Central/estatística & dados numéricos , Causalidade , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Incidência , Pneumotórax/classificação , Pneumotórax/etiologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Torácicos/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Torácicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , United States Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality
13.
Nurs Stand ; 24(21): 47-55; quiz 56, 60, 2010.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20196325

RESUMO

Most nurses working in an acute hospital setting will encounter patients with chest drains and underwater seal drainage at some point in their careers. This article is primarily written for the non-specialist nurse who requires a good working knowledge of chest drain insertion and underwater seal drainage. The article discusses the indications for chest drain insertion and the merits of different approaches, and provides a detailed analysis of the nursing care of a patient with a chest drain.


Assuntos
Tubos Torácicos , Drenagem/enfermagem , Cuidados de Enfermagem , Pneumotórax/enfermagem , Vias de Administração de Medicamentos , Humanos , Pneumotórax/classificação , Pneumotórax/terapia
16.
J Trauma ; 63(1): 13-7, 2007 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17622863

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The incidence of occult pneumothorax (OPTX) has dramatically increased since the widespread use of computed tomography (CT) scanning. The OPTX is defined as a pneumothorax not identified on plain chest X-ray but detected by CT scan. The overall reported incidence is about 5% to 8% of all trauma patients. We conducted a 5-year review of our OPTX incidence and asked if an objective score could be developed to better quantify the OPTX. This in turn may guide the practitioner with the decision to observe these patients. METHODS: This is a retrospective review of all trauma patients in a Level I university trauma center during a 5-year period. The patients were identified by a query of all pneumothoraces in our trauma registry. Those X-ray results were then reviewed to identify those who had OPTX. After developing an OPTX score on a small number, we retrospectively scored 50 of the OPTXs by taking the largest perpendicular distance in millimeters from the chest wall of the largest air pocket. We then added 10 or 20 to this if the OPTX was either anterior/posterior or lateral, respectively. RESULTS: A total of 21,193 trauma patients were evaluated and 1,295 patients with pneumothoraces (6.1%) were identified. Of the 1,295 patients with pneumothoraces, 379 (29.5%) OPTXs were identified. The overall incidence of OPTX was 1.8%: 95.7% occurred after blunt trauma, 222 (59%) of the OPTX patients had chest tubes and of the remaining 157 without chest tubes, 27 (17%) were on positive pressure ventilation. Of the 50 studies selected for scoring, the average score was 28.5. The average score for those with chest tubes was 34. The average score for those without chest tubes was 21. The positive predictive value for need of chest tube if the score was >30 was 78% and the negative predictive value if the score was <20 was 70%. Area under the receiver operator characteristic curve was 0.72, which was significant with p < 0.007. CONCLUSIONS: The OPTX score could quantify the size of the OPTX allowing the practitioner to better define a "small" pneumothorax. The management of OPTX is not standardized and further study using a more objective classification may assist the surgeon's decision-making. The application of a scoring system may also decrease unnecessary insertion of chest tubes for small OPTXs and is currently being prospectively validated.


Assuntos
Pneumotórax/epidemiologia , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/complicações , Adulto , Área Sob a Curva , Tubos Torácicos , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Masculino , Pneumotórax/classificação , Pneumotórax/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumotórax/terapia , Curva ROC , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
17.
J. bras. pneumol ; 32(supl.4): s212-s216, ago. 2006. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-448743

RESUMO

O pneumotórax, ou a presença de ar livre na cavidade pleural, é uma condição freqüente na prática clínica. As normas de conduta para a abordagem do pneumotórax dependem das condições clinicas do paciente, da magnitude do pneumotórax e da presença ou ausência de doença pulmonar concomitante. Neste capítulo, apresentamos as diretrizes diagnósticas e de conduta para uma abordagem mais racional do pneumotórax.


The presence of free air in the pleural space, or pneumothorax, is a frequent condition in the clinical practice. The therapeutic approach of the pneumothorax depends on the clinical conditions of the patient, the magnitude of the disease and the presence or absence of underlying lung disease. In this chapter we emphasize the diagnostic and therapeutic guidelines for a rational approach of the pneumothorax.


Assuntos
Humanos , Pneumotórax , Pneumotórax/classificação , Pneumotórax/diagnóstico , Pneumotórax/terapia , Recidiva , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
18.
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao ; 26(4): 490-2, 2006 Apr.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16624761

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the feasibility of treating pneumothorax with automatic intermittent decompression with micro-catheter instead of traditional thorax water sealed drainage (TWSD). METHODS: The automatic decompression instrument (ADI), which decompressed intermittently with programmed control, was designed and assembled by the authors (Patent No. ZL 01242081.6). A prospective study of the efficacy of this device was conducted in 87 pneumatothorax cases, and the results were compared with those of TWSD. RESULTS: The average time of closure in ADI group was 4.12+/-0.98 days, which was significantly shorter than that with TWSD (6.83+/-2.06 days, P<0.01). The incidence of complications was also significantly lower in ADI patients (P<0.01), and none of them developed severe complications. Clinical cure was achieved in all the patients in ADI group except for two patients who gave up treatment voluntarily and one transferred for open surgery. CONCLUSIONS: Application of ADI allows faster healing and safer and easier operation, and causes fewer complications and less pain with shortened hospital stay as compared with conventional therapy for open and tension pneumothorax.


Assuntos
Descompressão Cirúrgica/métodos , Pneumotórax/cirurgia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Cateterismo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumotórax/classificação , Estudos Prospectivos
19.
J Bras Pneumol ; 32 Suppl 4: S212-216, 2006.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17273626

RESUMO

The presence of free air in the pleural space, or pneumothorax, is a frequent condition in the clinical practice. The therapeutic approach of the pneumothorax depends on the clinical conditions of the patient, the magnitude of the disease and the presence or absence of underlying lung disease. In this chapter we emphasize the diagnostic and therapeutic guidelines for a rational approach of the pneumothorax.


Assuntos
Pneumotórax , Humanos , Pneumotórax/classificação , Pneumotórax/diagnóstico , Pneumotórax/terapia , Recidiva , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
20.
South Med J ; 99(11): 1297-9, 2006 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17195431

RESUMO

A 27-year-old medical student seeking acupuncture therapy for a right levator scapular muscle spasm developed acute dyspnea, chest pain, and nonproductive cough within minutes following the treatment. The patient was later diagnosed with a 30% pneumothorax of the right lung. Pneumothorax is a well-known adverse effect of medical procedures such as central line placement, thoracocentesis and transbronchial lung biopsy. This case illustrates another iatrogenic cause of pneumothorax--acupuncture-induced pneumothorax. A review of the literature since 1985 reveals nine case reports of acupuncture-induced pneumothorax.


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura/efeitos adversos , Doença Iatrogênica , Pneumotórax/etiologia , Adulto , Tubos Torácicos , Feminino , Humanos , Pneumotórax/classificação , Pneumotórax/terapia , Espasmo/terapia
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