Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 7.063
Filtrar
1.
Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue ; 32(10): 1174-1177, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33198858

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the clinical characteristics and prognosis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients complicated with pneumothorax. METHODS: The clinical data of 7 COVID-19 patients complicated with pneumothorax admitted to Huanggang Central Hospital from January 3 to March 10, 2020 were retrospectively analyzed. The clinical features, diagnosis and treatment were summarized, and experience in the treatment of COVID-19 was shared. RESULTS: (1) General information: among the 7 patients, 5 were males and 2 were females. Four of them had no underlying disease, and 1 had a history of diabetes and hypertension. One patient had only a history of hypertension. There were 6 cases of right pneumothorax and 1 case of bilateral pneumothorax. The 7 patients had a long hospital stay, all over 4 weeks, mostly complicated with multiple organ dysfunction. (2) Imaging examination: 1 case evolved from the early stage to the advanced stage within 1 week and to the severe stage within 2 weeks. Pneumothorax occurred 4 weeks later, and was absorbed within 2 weeks. The remaining 6 patients presented progressive stage on admission, all of them advanced to severe stage within 1 to 2 weeks, and most of them presented diffused consolidation shadows, striation shadows and fibrosis of both lungs, obvious pleural adhesion, and extremely slow lesion absorption. (3) Treatment: 1 severe patient with pneumothorax 4 weeks after onset was given non-invasive mechanical ventilation. The remaining 6 critically ill patients were treated with endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation. Five patients were treated with mechanical ventilation within 3 days after the occurrence of pneumothorax, and 1 patient was treated with mechanical ventilation after 11 days. (4) Outcome: 1 patient without endotracheal intubation was continuously given nasal high-flow oxygen therapy, and the condition was stable. Four of the 6 patients complicated with pneumothorax after endotracheal intubation died, and the other 2 patients successfully removed the drainage tube within 2 weeks of closed thoracic drainage, and their condition gradually stabilized. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 complicated with pneumothorax is a dangerous disease with poor prognosis, and should be paid adequate attention.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Pneumotórax , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumotórax/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
2.
J Cardiothorac Surg ; 15(1): 310, 2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046088

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Spontaneous pneumothorax has been reported as a possibile complication of novel coronavirus associated pneumonia (COVID-19). We report two cases of COVID-19 patients who developed spontaeous and recurrent pneumothorax as a presenting symptom, treated with surgical procedure. An insight on pathological finding is given. CASE PRESENTATION: Two patients presented to our hospital with spontaneous pneumothorax associated with Sars-Cov2 infection onset. After initial conservative treatment with chest drain, both patients had a recurrence of pneumothorax during COVI-19 disease, contralateral (patient 1) or ipsilateral (patient 2) and therefore underwent lung surgery with thoracoscopy and bullectomy. Intraoperative findings of COVID-19 pneumonia were parenchymal atelectasis and vascular congestion. Lung tissue was very frail and prone to bleeding. Histological examination showed interstitial infiltration of lymphocytes and plasma cells, as seen in non specific interstitial pneumonia, together with myo-intimal thicknening of vessels with blood extravasation and microthrombi. CONCLUSIONS: Although rarely, COVID-19 may present with spontaneous pneumothorax. Lung surgery for pneumothorax in COVID-19 patients can be safely and effectively performed when necessary.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Tubos Torácicos , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumotórax/etiologia , Toracoscopia/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumotórax/diagnóstico , Pneumotórax/cirurgia , Radiografia Torácica , Recidiva , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
3.
J Cardiothorac Surg ; 15(1): 301, 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33028398

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Spontaneous pneumomediastinum unrelated to mechanical ventilation is a newly described complication of COVID-19 pneumonia. The objective of this case presentation is to highlight an important complication and to explore potential predisposing risk factors and possible underlying pathophysiology of this phenomenon. CASE PRESENTATION: We present two patients with COVID-19 pneumonia complicated by spontaneous pneumomediastinum, pneumopericardium, pneumothorax and subcutaneous emphysema without positive pressure ventilation. Both patients had multiple comorbidities, received a combination of antibiotics, steroids and supportive oxygen therapy, and underwent routine laboratory workup. Both patients then developed spontaneous pneumomediastinum and ultimately required intubation and mechanical ventilation, which proved to be challenging to manage. CONCLUSIONS: Spontaneous pneumomediastinum is a serious complication of COVID-19 pneumonia, of which clinicians should be aware. Further studies are needed to determine risk factors and laboratory data predictive of development of spontaneous pneumomediastinum in COVID-19 pneumonia.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Enfisema Mediastínico/etiologia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumopericárdio/etiologia , Pneumotórax/etiologia , Enfisema Subcutâneo/etiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Ventilação com Pressão Positiva Intermitente/métodos , Masculino , Enfisema Mediastínico/diagnóstico , Enfisema Mediastínico/terapia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oxigenoterapia/métodos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Pneumopericárdio/diagnóstico , Pneumotórax/diagnóstico , Pneumotórax/terapia , Radiografia Torácica , Enfisema Subcutâneo/diagnóstico , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
4.
BMJ Case Rep ; 13(10)2020 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33122234

RESUMO

A 60-year-old man presented with sudden onset right-sided chest pain and gradually worsening shortness of breath on exertion. Eleven days earlier, he had an admission with COVID-19 pneumonitis requiring 8 days of continuous positive airway pressure. He was tachypnoeic with a respiratory rate of 24 breaths/min, oxygen saturations on room air of 91%. Examination revealed reduced air entry and a resonant percussion note over the right hemithorax. Chest radiograph suggested a complex right pneumothorax; however, a CT chest was notable for widespread right-sided bullous lung disease. After a day of observation on a COVID-19 ward (and a repeat radiograph with a stable appearance), he was discharged with a 2-week follow-up with the respiratory team, safety netting advice and ambulatory oxygen. This case suggests that bullous lung disease may be a complication of severe COVID-19 pneumonitis.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Pneumopatias/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Pneumotórax/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumotórax/etiologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/complicações , Dor no Peito/diagnóstico , Dor no Peito/etiologia , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Pressão Positiva Contínua nas Vias Aéreas/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Dispneia/diagnóstico , Dispneia/etiologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Humanos , Pneumopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumotórax/terapia , Radiografia Torácica/métodos , Medição de Risco , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/diagnóstico , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/terapia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 10: CD002271, 2020 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33058208

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Respiratory distress, particularly respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), is the single most important cause of morbidity and mortality in preterm infants. In infants with progressive respiratory insufficiency, intermittent positive pressure ventilation (IPPV) with surfactant has been the usual treatment, but it is invasive, potentially resulting in airway and lung injury. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) has been used for the prevention and treatment of respiratory distress, as well as for the prevention of apnoea, and in weaning from IPPV. Its use in the treatment of RDS might reduce the need for IPPV and its sequelae. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effect of continuous distending pressure in the form of CPAP on the need for IPPV and associated morbidity in spontaneously breathing preterm infants with respiratory distress. SEARCH METHODS: We used the standard strategy of Cochrane Neonatal to search CENTRAL (2020, Issue 6); Ovid MEDLINE and Epub Ahead of Print, In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, Daily and Versions; and CINAHL on 30 June 2020. We also searched clinical trials databases and the reference lists of retrieved articles for randomised controlled trials and quasi-randomised trials. SELECTION CRITERIA: All randomised or quasi-randomised trials of preterm infants with respiratory distress were eligible. Interventions were CPAP by mask, nasal prong, nasopharyngeal tube or endotracheal tube, compared with spontaneous breathing with supplemental oxygen as necessary. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard methods of Cochrane and its Neonatal Review Group, including independent assessment of risk of bias and extraction of data by two review authors. We used the GRADE approach to assess the certainty of evidence. Subgroup analyses were planned on the basis of birth weight (greater than or less than 1000 g or 1500 g), gestational age (groups divided at about 28 weeks and 32 weeks), timing of application (early versus late in the course of respiratory distress), pressure applied (high versus low) and trial setting (tertiary compared with non-tertiary hospitals; high income compared with low income) MAIN RESULTS: We included five studies involving 322 infants; two studies used face mask CPAP, two studies used nasal CPAP and one study used endotracheal CPAP and continuing negative pressure for a small number of less ill babies. For this update, we included one new trial. CPAP was associated with lower risk of treatment failure (death or use of assisted ventilation) (typical risk ratio (RR) 0.64, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.50 to 0.82; typical risk difference (RD) -0.19, 95% CI -0.28 to -0.09; number needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome (NNTB) 6, 95% CI 4 to 11; I2 = 50%; 5 studies, 322 infants; very low-certainty evidence), lower use of ventilatory assistance (typical RR 0.72, 95% CI 0.54 to 0.96; typical RD -0.13, 95% CI -0.25 to -0.02; NNTB 8, 95% CI 4 to 50; I2 = 55%; very low-certainty evidence) and lower overall mortality (typical RR 0.53, 95% CI 0.34 to 0.83; typical RD -0.11, 95% CI -0.18 to -0.04; NNTB 9, 95% CI 2 to 13; I2 = 0%; 5 studies, 322 infants; moderate-certainty evidence). CPAP was associated with increased risk of pneumothorax (typical RR 2.48, 95% CI 1.16 to 5.30; typical RD 0.09, 95% CI 0.02 to 0.16; number needed to treat for an additional harmful outcome (NNTH) 11, 95% CI 7 to 50; I2 = 0%; 4 studies, 274 infants; low-certainty evidence). There was no evidence of a difference in bronchopulmonary dysplasia, defined as oxygen dependency at 28 days (RR 1.04, 95% CI 0.35 to 3.13; I2 = 0%; 2 studies, 209 infants; very low-certainty evidence). The trials did not report use of surfactant, intraventricular haemorrhage, retinopathy of prematurity, necrotising enterocolitis and neurodevelopment outcomes in childhood. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: In preterm infants with respiratory distress, the application of CPAP is associated with reduced respiratory failure, use of mechanical ventilation and mortality and an increased rate of pneumothorax compared to spontaneous breathing with supplemental oxygen as necessary. Three out of five of these trials were conducted in the 1970s. Therefore, the applicability of these results to current practice is unclear. Further studies in resource-poor settings should be considered and research to determine the most appropriate pressure level needs to be considered.


Assuntos
Pressão Positiva Contínua nas Vias Aéreas/métodos , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido/terapia , Displasia Broncopulmonar/etiologia , Pressão Positiva Contínua nas Vias Aéreas/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Recém-Nascido , Ventilação com Pressão Positiva Intermitente/efeitos adversos , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Pneumotórax/etiologia , Surfactantes Pulmonares/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido/mortalidade , Insuficiência Respiratória/prevenção & controle , Viés de Seleção , Falha de Tratamento
6.
Monaldi Arch Chest Dis ; 90(4)2020 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32945644

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a recent pandemic that affected more than 5 million people worldwide. Chest high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) is an essential tool in diagnosis and management of the disease. Pulmonary parenchymal opacity is a typical sign of the disease, but not the only one. Pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum, bronchiectasis and cysts are probably underrated complications of COVID-19 that can worsen prognosis, in terms of prolonged hospitalization and need of oxygen therapy. In our single center case series, we outline four different manifestations of pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum and cysts in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 pneumonia.


Assuntos
Bronquiectasia/diagnóstico por imagem , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico por imagem , Cistos/diagnóstico por imagem , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Enfisema Mediastínico/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumotórax/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Bronquiectasia/etiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Cistos/etiologia , Humanos , Itália , Pneumopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumopatias/etiologia , Masculino , Enfisema Mediastínico/etiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumotórax/etiologia , Enfisema Subcutâneo/diagnóstico por imagem , Enfisema Subcutâneo/etiologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32876299

RESUMO

In late 2019, a novel coronavirus initially related to a cluster of severe pneumonia cases in China was identified. COVID-19 cases have rapidly spread to multiple countries worldwide. We present a typical laboratory confirmed case of COVID-19 pneumonia, that was hospitalized due to hypoxemia but did not require mechanical ventilation. Although initially the patient was evaluated with a favorable outcome, in the third week of the disease, the symptomatology deteriorated due to a massive hypertensive pneumothorax with no known previous risk factor. Since the first cases of COVID-19 have been described, pneumothorax was characterized as a potential, though uncommon, complication. It has been reported that diffuse alveolar injury caused by SARS-CoV-2 can cause alveolar rupture, produce air leakage and interstitial emphysema. Although uncommon, pneumothorax should be listed as a differential diagnosis for COVID-19 patients with sudden respiratory decompensation. As a life-threatening event, it requires prompt recognition and expeditious treatment.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Enfisema Mediastínico/diagnóstico por imagem , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumotórax/diagnóstico por imagem , China , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Pulmão/patologia , Enfisema Mediastínico/etiologia , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumotórax/etiologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
8.
J Cardiothorac Surg ; 15(1): 263, 2020 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32958067

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is an increasing amount of literature describing the pathogenesis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia and its associated complications. Historically, a small pneumothorax has been shown to be successfully treated without chest tube insertion, but this management has yet to be proven in COVID-19 pneumonia patients. In addition, pneumothorax in an intubated patient with high positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) provides additional uncertainty with pursuing non-operative management. CASE PRESENTATION: In this series we report four cases of patients with respiratory distress who tested positive for COVID-19 via nasopharyngeal swab and developed ventilator-induced pneumothoraces which were successfully managed with observation alone. CONCLUSIONS: Management of patients with COVID-19 pneumonia on positive pressure ventilation who develop small stable pneumothoraces can be safely observed without chest tube insertion.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Pneumotórax/terapia , Conduta Expectante , Idoso , Betacoronavirus , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumotórax/etiologia , Respiração com Pressão Positiva/efeitos adversos
9.
Clin Imaging ; 67: 207-213, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871424

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We describe the presenting characteristics and hospital course of 11 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) patients who developed spontaneous subcutaneous emphysema (SE) with or without pneumomediastinum (SPM) in the absence of prior mechanical ventilation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 11 non-intubated COVID-19 patients (8 male and 3 female, median age 61 years) developed SE and SPM between March 15 and April 30, 2020 at a multi-center urban health system in New York City. Demographics (age, gender, smoking status, comorbid conditions, and body-mass index), clinical variables (temperature, oxygen saturation, and symptoms), and laboratory values (white blood cell count, C-reactive protein, D-dimer, and peak interleukin-6) were collected. Chest radiography (CXR) and computed tomography (CT) were analyzed for SE, SPM, and pneumothorax by a board-certified cardiothoracic-fellowship trained radiologist. RESULTS: Eleven non-intubated patients developed SE, 36% (4/11) of whom had SE on their initial CXR. Concomitant SPM was apparent in 91% (10/11) of patients, and 45% (5/11) also developed pneumothorax. Patients developed SE on average 13.3 days (SD: 6.3) following symptom onset. No patients reported a history of smoking. The most common comorbidities included hypertension (6/11), diabetes mellitus (5/11), asthma (3/11), dyslipidemia (3/11), and renal disease (2/11). Four (36%) patients expired during hospitalization. CONCLUSION: SE and SPM were observed in a cohort of 11 non-intubated COVID-19 patients without any known cause or history of invasive ventilation. Further investigation is required to elucidate the underlying mechanism in this patient population.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Enfisema Mediastínico/etiologia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Enfisema Subcutâneo/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Betacoronavirus , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , Produtos de Degradação da Fibrina e do Fibrinogênio/metabolismo , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Enfisema Mediastínico/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Pneumotórax/epidemiologia , Pneumotórax/etiologia , Respiração Artificial/efeitos adversos , Enfisema Subcutâneo/epidemiologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos
10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(35): e21001, 2020 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871860

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous literature on epidural pneumatosis (pneumorrhachis, or air in epidural cavity) associated with forceful vomiting in a patient with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) has consisted of individual case reports without comprehensive syndrome characterization due to syndromic rarity, with the largest previous literature review comprising 6 cases. Presumed pathophysiology is air escaping from alveolar rupture from forceful vomiting via tissue planes to cause epidural pneumatosis. AIM: Systematically review literature to facilitate syndromic diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment. A new illustrative case is reported. METHODS: Systematic review of literature using 2 independent readers, 2 computerized databases, and the following medical terms/keywords: ["epidural pneumatosis" OR "pneumorrhachis"] AND ["diabetes" OR "diabetic ketoacidosis" or "DKA"]. Discrepancies between 2 readers were resolved by consensus using prospectively developed study inclusion criteria. Two readers independently abstracted case report. Prospective review protocol and patients, problems, intervene, comparison group, outcomes discussed in Methods section of paper. RESULTS-SYSTEMATIC-LITERATURE-REVIEW: Revealed 10 previously reported cases plus 1 new case (see below) that shows this syndrome presents rather stereotypically with the tentatively proposed following pentad (% of patients fulfilling individual criterion): 1-forceful vomiting (100%), 2-during DKA (100%), 3-pneumomediastinum from forceful alveolar rupture (100%), 4-epidural pneumatosis from air escape from pneumomediastinum (100%), and 5-no complications of Boerhaave syndrome or of focal neurological deficits (100%). Pentad is pathophysiologically reasonable because forceful vomiting can cause alveolar rupture, pneumomediastinum, and air entry into epidural space. RESULTS-ILLUSTRATIVE-CASE-REPORT: Epidural pneumatosis occurred in a 33-year-old-male with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus type 1 who presented with forceful vomiting while in DKA. Radiologic findings also included subcutaneous emphysema, pneumomediastinum, and small pneumothorax. The patient rapidly improved while receiving acute therapy for DKA, and was discharged after 2 hospital days. STUDY LIMITATIONS: Limited number of analyzed, retrospectively reported cases. Case reports subject to reporting bias. Specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value not meaningfully analyzed in this homogeneous population. CONCLUSIONS: Based on systematic review, syndrome is tentatively proposed as a pentad with: 1-forceful vomiting, 2-during DKA, 3- pneumomediastinum, 4-epidural pneumatosis, and 5-no complications of Boerhaave syndrome or focal neurological deficits. Proposed pentad should be prospectively tested in a larger population including patients with this versus closely related syndromes.


Assuntos
Cetoacidose Diabética/complicações , Perfuração Esofágica/complicações , Doenças do Mediastino/complicações , Pneumorraque/diagnóstico , Radiografia Torácica/métodos , Vômito/complicações , Adolescente , Adulto , Tratamento Conservador/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Enfisema Mediastínico/diagnóstico por imagem , Enfisema Mediastínico/etiologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/epidemiologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/fisiopatologia , Pneumorraque/fisiopatologia , Pneumotórax/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumotórax/etiologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Alvéolos Pulmonares/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ruptura/complicações , Enfisema Subcutâneo/diagnóstico por imagem , Enfisema Subcutâneo/etiologia , Síndrome , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
11.
Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg ; 31(4): 540-543, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32865193

RESUMO

A significant proportion of patients infected with the novel coronavirus, now termed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), require intensive care admission and subsequent mechanical ventilation. Pneumothorax, a potential fatal complication of mechanical ventilation, can further complicate the management of COVID-19 patients, whilst chest drain insertion may increase the risk of transmission of attending staff. We present a case series and a suggested best-practice protocol for how to manage and treat pneumothoraces in COVID-19 patients in an intensive care unit setting.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Gerenciamento Clínico , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumotórax/terapia , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Adulto , Tubos Torácicos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumotórax/etiologia
12.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0238107, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32834016

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In CT-guided transthoracic lung biopsy (CTLB), pneumothorax can occur as a late complication (delayed pneumothorax). The incidence, risk factors, and clinical significance of delayed pneumothorax are not well known. OBJECTIVES: To compare the risk factors for immediate and delayed pneumothorax after CTLB and to know their clinical significance. METHODS: Images and medical records of 536 consecutive patients who underwent CTLB were reviewed. All biopsies were performed as inpatient procedures. Follow-up chest radiographs were obtained at least twice at 4 h after procedure and before discharge. Risk factors for immediate and delayed pneumothorax were assessed based on patient-, lesion-, and procedure-related variables. Rates of chest tube insertion were also compared. RESULTS: Pneumothorax developed in 161 patients (30.0%) including 135 (25.2%) immediate and 26 (4.9%) delayed cases. Lesion size was an independent risk factor for both immediate and delayed pneumothorax (OR = 0.813; CI = 0.717-0.922 and OR = 0.610; CI = 0.441-0.844, respectively). While emphysema, lower lobe location, and long intrapulmonary biopsy track were risk factors (OR = 1.981; CI = 1.172-3.344, OR = 3.505; CI = 2.718-5.650, and OR = 1.330; CI = 1.132-1.563, respectively) for immediate pneumothorax, upper lobe location and increased number of pleural punctures were independent risk factors (OR = 5.756; CI = 1.634-20.274 and OR = 3.738; CI = 1.860-7.511, respectively) for delayed pneumothorax. The rate of chest tube insertion was significantly (p < 0.001) higher in delayed pneumothorax. CONCLUSION: Pneumothorax tends to occur immediately after CTLB in patients with emphysema, lower lobe lesion, and long intrapulmonary biopsy track. Further attention and warnings are needed for those with multiple punctures of small lesions involving upper lobes due to the possibility of delayed development of pneumothorax and higher requirement for chest tube drainage.


Assuntos
Biópsia Guiada por Imagem/efeitos adversos , Pneumotórax/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biópsia por Agulha/métodos , Tubos Torácicos , Enfisema/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Pulmão/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paracentese/efeitos adversos , Enfisema Pulmonar/patologia , Punções/efeitos adversos , Radiografia Intervencionista/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Tórax , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/efeitos adversos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos
13.
Geriatr Gerontol Int ; 20(10): 878-884, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32770645

RESUMO

AIM: Spontaneous pneumothorax shows a bimodal age distribution, with the secondary peak including patients aged ≥50 years. The purpose of this study was to clarify the etiology and prognosis of spontaneous pneumothorax in the elderly. METHODS: Patients aged ≥50 years who were admitted to a tertiary university hospital between 2006 and 2016 due to spontaneous pneumothorax were retrospectively investigated. RESULTS: Among 136 consecutive patients aged ≥50 years with spontaneous pneumothorax (mean age, 70 years; 114 men), 124 (91%) had underlying lung diseases, including pulmonary emphysema (42%) and interstitial pneumonia (27%). The median period of thoracic drainage was longer (14 days) in the cases with interstitial pneumonia than in the cases of primary pneumothorax (4 days; P < 0.001) and emphysema (9 days; P < 0.005). Eighteen patients (13%) died within 180 days after the onset of pneumothorax. The mortality rate was highest in the cases with interstitial pneumonia (27%) and was mostly associated with infectious complications. Death or worsened respiratory failure within 180 days from admission was associated with older age, systemic corticosteroid use and interstitial pneumonia in multivariate logistic regression analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Pulmonary emphysema is the most common underlying disease associated with spontaneous pneumothorax in the elderly population. Pneumothorax associated with interstitial pneumonia is less frequent, but it requires prolonged tube thoracostomy and demonstrates higher mortality and morbidity, particularly in those receiving systemic corticosteroids. Different treatment strategies are warranted for patients with interstitial pneumonia-related pneumothorax. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2020; 20: 878-884.


Assuntos
Enfisema/complicações , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/complicações , Pneumotórax/etiologia , Pneumotórax/terapia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Pneumopatias/complicações , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumotórax/mortalidade , Prognóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/complicações , Insuficiência Respiratória , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Toracostomia , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak ; 30(6): 43-45, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32723448

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19), first reported in December 2019 in Wuhan, China, has spread all over the world in a short time and was declared as a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO). During COVID-19 pandemic, chest computed tomography (CT) imaging has become an important tool with high sensitivity for diagnosis due to the low positive rate of the real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Furthermore, the chest CT has played an important role in the diagnosis of underlying pulmonary lesions. In this case report, we present a patient who was admitted to the emergency department with fever, cough and left shoulder pain, and was subsequently diagnosed with both COVID-19 and pneumothorax following chest CT and RT-PCR test. Key Words: COVID-19, Coronavirus, Pneumothorax, Tomography.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Coronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumotórax/diagnóstico por imagem , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Azitromicina/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Tosse/etiologia , Enoxaparina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Febre/etiologia , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Oseltamivir/uso terapêutico , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumotórax/etiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
16.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(28): e21046, 2020 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32664116

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Although there have been several studies describing clinical and radiographic features about the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) infection, there is a lack of pathologic data conducted on biopsies or autopsies. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 56-year-old and a 70-year-old men with fever, cough, and respiratory fatigue were admitted to the intensive care unit and intubated for respiratory distress. DIAGNOSIS: The nasopharyngeal swab was positive for COVID-19 and the chest Computed Tomography (CT) scan showed the presence of peripheral and bilateral ground-glass opacities. INTERVENTIONS: Both patients developed pneumothoraces after intubation and was managed with chest tube. Due to persistent air leak, thoracoscopies with blebs resection and pleurectomies were performed on 23rd and 16th days from symptoms onset. OUTCOMES: The procedures were successful with no evidence of postoperative air-leak, with respiratory improvement. Pathological specimens were analyzed with evidence of diffuse alveolar septum disruption, interstitium thickness, and infiltration of inflammatory cells with diffuse endothelial dysfunction and hemorrhagic thrombosis. LESSONS: Despite well-known pulmonary damages induced by the COVID-19, the late-phase histological changes include diffused peripheral vessels endothelial hyperplasia, in toto muscular wall thickening, and intravascular hemorrhagic thrombosis.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Endotélio Vascular/patologia , Pulmão , Pandemias , Pleura , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Trombose/patologia , Trombose/parasitologia , Idoso , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Biópsia/métodos , Tubos Torácicos/efeitos adversos , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Humanos , Pulmão/irrigação sanguínea , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pulmão/patologia , Pulmão/cirurgia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pleura/patologia , Pleura/cirurgia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Pneumotórax/etiologia , Pneumotórax/terapia , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Insuficiência Respiratória/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Respiratória/etiologia , Insuficiência Respiratória/terapia , Toracoscopia/métodos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235599, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32649662

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As percutaneous transthoracic needle biopsy (PTNB) of the lung is a well-established diagnostic method for the evaluating pulmonary lesions, evidence of safety based on representative data is limited. This study investigated the practice patterns of PTNB of the lung and assessed the incidence and risk factors of PTNB-related severe pneumothorax in Korea. METHODS: We used a national-level health insurance database between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2015. Patients who underwent PTNB of the lung were identified using procedure codes for organ biopsy, fluoroscopy, computed tomography, chest radiography, and lung-related diagnosis codes. The annual age-/sex-standardized rate of PTNB and the incidence of PTNB-related severe pneumothorax were calculated. We defined severe pneumothorax as the pneumothorax requiring intervention. The odds ratios of risk factors were assessed by a generalized estimating equation model with exchangeable working correlation matrix to address clustering effect within institution. RESULTS: A total of 66,754 patients were identified between 2007 and 2015. The annual age-/sex-standardized rate of PTNB per 100,000 population was 19.6 in 2007 and 22.4 in 2015, and it showed an increasing trend. The incidence of severe pneumothorax was 2.4% overall: 2.5% in men and 1.2% in women, and 2.6%, 2.7%, 2.1%, 2.1%, 1.9%, 2.4%, and 2.4% from 2009 to 2015. Older age (≥60), male sex, presence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, receiving treatment in an urban or rural area versus a metropolitan area, and receiving treatment at a general hospital were significantly associated with the risk of severe pneumothorax. CONCLUSIONS: Considering the increasing trend of PTNB, more attention needs to be paid to patients with risk factors for severe pneumothorax.


Assuntos
Biópsia por Agulha/efeitos adversos , Pulmão/patologia , Pneumotórax/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Seguro Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Risco , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
18.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 7: CD013031, 2020 07 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32702777

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chest X-ray (CXR) is a longstanding method for the diagnosis of pneumothorax but chest ultrasonography (CUS) may be a safer, more rapid, and more accurate modality in trauma patients at the bedside that does not expose the patient to ionizing radiation. This may lead to improved and expedited management of traumatic pneumothorax and improved patient safety and clinical outcomes. OBJECTIVES: To compare the diagnostic accuracy of chest ultrasonography (CUS) by frontline non-radiologist physicians versus chest X-ray (CXR) for diagnosis of pneumothorax in trauma patients in the emergency department (ED). To investigate the effects of potential sources of heterogeneity such as type of CUS operator (frontline non-radiologist physicians), type of trauma (blunt vs penetrating), and type of US probe on test accuracy. SEARCH METHODS: We conducted a comprehensive search of the following electronic databases from database inception to 10 April 2020: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, Embase, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) Plus, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, Web of Science Core Collection and Clinicaltrials.gov. We handsearched reference lists of included articles and reviews retrieved via electronic searching; and we carried out forward citation searching of relevant articles in Google Scholar and looked at the "Related articles" on PubMed. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included prospective, paired comparative accuracy studies comparing CUS performed by frontline non-radiologist physicians to supine CXR in trauma patients in the emergency department (ED) suspected of having pneumothorax, and with computed tomography (CT) of the chest or tube thoracostomy as the reference standard. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently extracted data from each included study using a data extraction form. We included studies using patients as the unit of analysis in the main analysis and we included those using lung fields in the secondary analysis. We performed meta-analyses by using a bivariate model to estimate and compare summary sensitivities and specificities. MAIN RESULTS: We included 13 studies of which nine (410 traumatic pneumothorax patients out of 1271 patients) used patients as the unit of analysis; we thus included them in the primary analysis. The remaining four studies used lung field as the unit of analysis and we included them in the secondary analysis. We judged all studies to be at high or unclear risk of bias in one or more domains, with most studies (11/13, 85%) being judged at high or unclear risk of bias in the patient selection domain. There was substantial heterogeneity in the sensitivity of supine CXR amongst the included studies. In the primary analysis, the summary sensitivity and specificity of CUS were 0.91 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.85 to 0.94) and 0.99 (95% CI 0.97 to 1.00); and the summary sensitivity and specificity of supine CXR were 0.47 (95% CI 0.31 to 0.63) and 1.00 (95% CI 0.97 to 1.00). There was a significant difference in the sensitivity of CUS compared to CXR with an absolute difference in sensitivity of 0.44 (95% CI 0.27 to 0.61; P < 0.001). In contrast, CUS and CXR had similar specificities: comparing CUS to CXR, the absolute difference in specificity was -0.007 (95% CI -0.018 to 0.005, P = 0.35). The findings imply that in a hypothetical cohort of 100 patients if 30 patients have traumatic pneumothorax (i.e. prevalence of 30%), CUS would miss 3 (95% CI 2 to 4) cases (false negatives) and overdiagnose 1 (95% CI 0 to 2) of those without pneumothorax (false positives); while CXR would miss 16 (95% CI 11 to 21) cases with 0 (95% CI 0 to 2) overdiagnosis of those who do not have pneumothorax. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The diagnostic accuracy of CUS performed by frontline non-radiologist physicians for the diagnosis of pneumothorax in ED trauma patients is superior to supine CXR, independent of the type of trauma, type of CUS operator, or type of CUS probe used. These findings suggest that CUS for the diagnosis of traumatic pneumothorax should be incorporated into trauma protocols and algorithms in future medical training programmes; and that CUS may beneficially change routine management of trauma.


Assuntos
Pneumotórax/diagnóstico por imagem , Radiografia Torácica/métodos , Decúbito Dorsal , Traumatismos Torácicos/complicações , Ultrassonografia/métodos , Viés , Intervalos de Confiança , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Humanos , Pneumotórax/etiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/complicações , Ferimentos Penetrantes/complicações
19.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(3): 1166-1169, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32662394

RESUMO

COVID-19 is a recent outbreak in China and rapidly spread worldwide. Lung consolidation is the most common radiologic finding of COVID-19 pneumonia. Pneumothorax has been rarely reported as a complication of severe COVID-19 pneumonia. Early recognition and management are detrimental to the outcome. We here report three cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection complicated by pneumothorax. In addition, we present a brief literature review.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumotórax/etiologia , Adulto , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumotórax/diagnóstico , Pneumotórax/terapia
20.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(3): 1162-1165, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32666917

RESUMO

COVID-19 is a pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2, primarily affecting the respiratory tract. Pulmonary complications of COVID-19 may include acute respiratory distress syndrome and pulmonary embolism. Pneumothorax has been recently reported in association with COVID-19. We report a case of COVID-19 pneumonia with bilateral spontaneous pneumothorax with no known underlying lung disease or risk factors.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumotórax/etiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico por imagem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA