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1.
J Sci Food Agric ; 102(2): 540-549, 2022 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34146349

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pasture farming in south-western Australia is challenged by nutrient-poor soils. We assessed the impact of microbial consortium inoculant (MI) and rock mineral fertiliser (MF) on growth, nutrient uptake, root morphology, rhizosphere carboxylate exudation and mycorrhizal colonisation in three pasture grasses - tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea L.), veldt grass (Ehrharta calycina Sm.) and tall wheatgrass (Thinopyrum ponticum L.) grown in low-phosphorus (P) sandy soil in a glasshouse for 30 and 60 days after sowing (DAS). RESULTS: Veldt grass produced the highest specific root length and smallest average root diameter in both growth periods, and had similar shoot weight, root surface area and fine root length (except at 30 DAS) to tall fescue. Compared with the control, MI alone or combined with MF significantly increased shoot and root biomass (except root biomass at 30 DAS), likely due to the significant increases in root surface area and fine root length. Plants supplied with MI + MF had higher shoot N and P contents than those in the MI and the control treatments at 60 DAS. Malate, citrate and trans-aconitate were the major rhizosphere carboxylates exuded at both 30 and 60 DAS. Malate exudation varied among species and treatments in both growth periods, but citrate exudation was consistently higher in the low-P treatments (control and MI) than the MF and MI + MF treatments. CONCLUSION: Microbial consortium inoculant can positively influence pasture production in low-P soil by increasing root surface area and fine root length, whereas exudation of nutrient-mobilising carboxylates (citrate) is dependent more on soil P supply than microbial consortium inoculant. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Inoculantes Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Micorrizas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fósforo/análise , Exsudatos de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Poaceae/microbiologia , Ácidos Carboxílicos/análise , Ácidos Carboxílicos/metabolismo , Fertilizantes/análise , Consórcios Microbianos , Fósforo/metabolismo , Exsudatos de Plantas/análise , Raízes de Plantas/química , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Poaceae/química , Poaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Poaceae/metabolismo , Rizosfera , Solo/química
2.
J Sci Food Agric ; 102(2): 750-756, 2022 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34192366

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Due to increasing demand for livestock products in sub-Saharan Africa, increasing livestock productivity is a priority. The core constraint is limited availability of feed of good quality. We assessed optimal harvesting time of three improved grasses, two Urochloa lines (Basilisk a selection from wild population, Cayman - a hybrid, a product of breeding) plus Mombasa, a Megathyrsus selection. All are released in Latin America and Kenya or in the registration in other regional countries. We assessed dry matter (DM) yields and quality at 4, 6, 8 and 12 weeks of age in two sites. RESULTS: DM yields (in t ha-1 ) were of the order Cayman (9.6-14.3) > Mombasa (8.0-11.3) > Basilisk (5.5-10.2) in one site, and Cayman (6.4-9.7) > Basilisk (4.9-7.6) > Mombasa (3.3-5.9) at site two. The harvesting regimes produced DM largely similar for weeks 4 and 6, 6 and 8, 8 and 12. Across the sites quality was of the order Cayman > Mombasa > Basilisk for neutral detergent fiber (NDF), metabolizable energy (ME) and crude protein (CP). With increasing harvesting interval, MJ ME ha-1 and kg CP ha-1 were inconsistent across both sites, but significant differences returned for MJ ME ha-1 unlike kg CP ha-1 . CONCLUSIONS: Harvesting at either 8 or 12 weeks is not recommendable as quality drops without an increase in DM yield that can compensate despite doubling and tripling time respectively, compared to 4 weeks. We recommend harvesting at 4 through 6 weeks for any of the three grasses based on yield against time, and demand at the intensified cut-and-carry smallholder systems. © 2021 The Authors. Journal of The Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Poaceae/química , Poaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ração Animal/análise , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Quênia , Valor Nutritivo , Poaceae/classificação , Controle de Qualidade , Estações do Ano , Fatores de Tempo
3.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261788, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34941971

RESUMO

Chloris virgata has become one of the most difficult glyphosate-resistant (GR) grass weeds in summer fallows in the eastern region of Australia. It germinates in several cohorts following rainfall events; therefore, growers are often tempted to wait for most of the weeds to emerge before herbicide application. However, by that time, some seedlings have reached an advanced stage and there is limited information on the efficacy and reliability of alternate herbicides when targeting large plants of GR C. virgata. A series of experiments were conducted to determine the efficacy of alternate herbicides for the control of GR C. virgata. Haloxyfop (80 g a.i. ha-1) on its own, in mixtures, or sequential applications of haloxyfop and paraquat or glufosinate provided 97 to 100% mortality of the 8-10 leaf stage plants. Glufosinate (1500 g a.i. ha-1) also provided complete control of plants at this growth stage. For larger plants at the 24-28 leaf stage, glufosinate, with or without additional tank-mixed adjuvants, generally did not provide full control, however did show very high levels of biomass reduction and panicle suppression at application rates of 750 or 1500 g a.i. ha-1. Haloxyfop (40 to 160 g a.i. ha-1) and clethodim (180 g a.i. ha-1) on their own achieved 96 to 100% mortality at this growth stage. When applied to large plants (40-50 leaf stage), a tank-mix of isoxaflutole plus paraquat demonstrated significantly higher levels of plant mortality and biomass reduction than either herbicide used alone, and this mixture appears to be synergistic when tested via the Colby equation for synergy or antagonism. Plant mortality was greater (83%) when isoxaflutole (75 g a.i. ha-1) plus paraquat (300 g a.i. ha-1) was taken up through the foliage and soil, compared with the foliage alone. This study identified alternative herbicide options for large plants of GR C. virgata.


Assuntos
Biomassa , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Resistência a Herbicidas , Herbicidas/farmacologia , Plantas Daninhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Poaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Austrália , Glicina/farmacologia
4.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 477, 2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34670492

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Both underground rhizomes/buds and above-ground Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys heterocycla) shoots/culms/branches are connected together into a close inter-connecting system in which nutrients are transported and shared among each organ. However, the starch storage and utilization mechanisms during bamboo shoot growth remain unclear. This study aimed to reveal in which organs starch was stored, how carbohydrates were transformed among each organ, and how the expression of key genes was regulated during bamboo shoot growth and developmental stages which should lay a foundation for developing new theoretical techniques for bamboo cultivation. RESULTS: Based on changes of the NSC content, starch metabolism-related enzyme activity and gene expression from S0 to S3, we observed that starch grains were mainly elliptical in shape and proliferated through budding and constriction. Content of both soluble sugar and starch in bamboo shoot peaked at S0, in which the former decreased gradually, and the latter initially decreased and then increased as shoots grew. Starch synthesis-related enzymes (AGPase, GBSS and SBE) and starch hydrolase (α-amylase and ß-amylase) activities exhibited the same dynamic change patterns as those of the starch content. From S0 to S3, the activity of starch synthesis-related enzyme and starch amylase in bamboo rhizome was significantly higher than that in bamboo shoot, while the NSC content in rhizomes was obviously lower than that in bamboo shoots. It was revealed by the comparative transcriptome analysis that the expression of starch synthesis-related enzyme-encoding genes were increased at S0, but reduced thereafter, with almost the same dynamic change tendency as the starch content and metabolism-related enzymes, especially during S0 and S1. It was revealed by the gene interaction analysis that AGPase and SBE were core genes for the starch and sucrose metabolism pathway. CONCLUSIONS: Bamboo shoots were the main organ in which starch was stored, while bamboo rhizome should be mainly functioned as a carbohydrate transportation channel and the second carbohydrate sink. Starch metabolism-related genes were expressed at the transcriptional level during underground growth, but at the post-transcriptional level during above-ground growth. It may be possible to enhance edible bamboo shoot quality for an alternative starch source through genetic engineering.


Assuntos
Metabolismo dos Carboidratos/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Poaceae/genética , Amido/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Enzima Ramificadora de 1,4-alfa-Glucana/genética , Enzima Ramificadora de 1,4-alfa-Glucana/metabolismo , Amilases/genética , Amilases/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Brotos de Planta/genética , Brotos de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brotos de Planta/fisiologia , Brotos de Planta/ultraestrutura , Poaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Poaceae/fisiologia , Poaceae/ultraestrutura , Rizoma/genética , Rizoma/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Rizoma/fisiologia , Rizoma/ultraestrutura
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(19)2021 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639205

RESUMO

Bamboo is one of the most important non-timber forest resources worldwide. It has considerable economic value and unique flowering characteristics. The long juvenile phase in bamboo and unpredictable flowering time limit breeding and genetic improvement and seriously affect the productivity and application of bamboo forests. Members of SQUA-like subfamily genes play an essential role in controlling flowering time and floral organ identity. A comprehensive study was conducted to explain the functions of five SQUA-like subfamily genes in Phyllostachys edulis. Expression analysis revealed that all PeSQUAs have higher transcript levels in the reproductive period than in the juvenile phase. However, PeSQUAs showed divergent expression patterns during inflorescence development. The protein-protein interaction (PPI) patterns among PeSQUAs and other MADS-box members were analyzed by yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) experiments. Consistent with amino acid sequence similarity and phylogenetic analysis, the PPI patterns clustered into two groups. PeMADS2, 13, and 41 interacted with multiple PeMADS proteins, whereas PeMADS3 and 28 hardly interacted with other proteins. Based on our results, PeSQUA might possess different functions by forming protein complexes with other MADS-box proteins at different flowering stages. Furthermore, we chose PeMADS2 for functional analysis. Ectopic expression of PeMADS2 in Arabidopsis and rice caused early flowering, and abnormal phenotype was observed in transgenic Arabidopsis lines. RNA-seq analysis indicated that PeMADS2 integrated multiple pathways regulating floral transition to trigger early flowering time in rice. This function might be due to the interaction between PeMADS2 and homologous in rice. Therefore, we concluded that the five SQUA-like genes showed functional conservation and divergence based on sequence differences and were involved in floral transitions by forming protein complexes in P. edulis. The MADS-box protein complex model obtained in the current study will provide crucial insights into the molecular mechanisms of bamboo's unique flowering characteristics.


Assuntos
Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Domínio MADS/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Poaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Flores/genética , Flores/metabolismo , Proteínas de Domínio MADS/genética , Oryza/genética , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oryza/metabolismo , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Poaceae/genética , Poaceae/metabolismo , Homologia de Sequência , Transcriptoma
6.
J Environ Manage ; 300: 113759, 2021 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34543963

RESUMO

Fire is an important disturbance in many wetlands, which are key carbon reservoirs at both regional and global scales. However, the effects of fire on wetland vegetation biomass and plant carbon dynamics are poorly understood. We carried out a burn experiment in a Calamagrostis angustifolia wetland in Sanjiang Plain (Northeast China), which is widespread wetland type in China and frequently exposed to fire. Using a series of replicated experimental annual burns over a three-year period (spring and autumn burns carried out one, two or three times over three consecutive years), together with a control unburned treatment, we assessed the effect of burn seasonality and frequency on aboveground biomass, stem density, and carbon content of aboveground plant parts and ground litter. We found that burning promoted plant growth and hence plant biomass in burned sites compared to the unburned control, with this effect being greatest after three consecutive burn years. Autumn burns promoted higher stem density and more total aboveground biomass than spring burns after three consecutive burn years. Burning increased stem density significantly, especially in twice and thrice burned plots, with stem densities in September over 2000 N/m2, which was much higher than in the control plots (987 ± 190 N/m2). Autumn burns had a larger effect than spring burns on total plant biomass and litter accumulated (e.g. 1236 ± 295 g/m2 after thrice autumn burns compared 796.2 ± 66.6 g/m2 after thrice spring burns), except after two burn treatments. With time since burning, total biomass loads increased in spring-burned plots, while autumn-burned plots showed the opposite trend, declining towards values found at unburned plots in year three. Our results suggest that, at short fire return intervals, autumn burns lead to a more pronounced increase in aboveground biomass and carbon accumulation than spring burns; however, the effects of spring burns on biomass and carbon accumulation are longer lasting than those observed for autumn burns.


Assuntos
Incêndios , Poaceae , Estações do Ano , Biomassa , China , Poaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Áreas Alagadas
7.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5686, 2021 09 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34584090

RESUMO

Plant-soil feedbacks are shaped by microbial legacies that plants leave in the soil. We tested the persistence of these legacies after subsequent colonization by the same or other plant species using 6 typical grassland plant species. Soil fungal legacies were detectable for months, but the current plant effect on fungi amplified in time. By contrast, in bacterial communities, legacies faded away rapidly and bacteria communities were influenced strongly by the current plant. However, both fungal and bacterial legacies were conserved inside the roots of the current plant species and their composition significantly correlated with plant growth. Hence, microbial soil legacies present at the time of plant establishment play a vital role in shaping plant growth even when these legacies have faded away in the soil due the growth of the current plant species. We conclude that soil microbiome legacies are reversible and versatile, but that they can create plant-soil feedbacks via altering the endophytic community acquired during early ontogeny.


Assuntos
Endófitos/fisiologia , Microbiota/fisiologia , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Poaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Microbiologia do Solo , Biologia Computacional , Pradaria , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Poaceae/microbiologia
8.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 15053, 2021 07 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34301980

RESUMO

Urochloa (syn. Brachiaria) is the most popular fodder of livestock farmers in Cameroon for hay and seed productions. Farmers in Cameroon have been producing Brachiaria seeds for decades for own uses and surplus are sold to neighbours, and to traders from Cameroon and neighbouring countries. However, there is no information available about qualities of these seeds. Fifteen Urochloa seeds samples were collected from farmers and/or government stations in five regions (Adamaoua, East, North, North West, and West) and analysed for major seed quality parameters along with seeds of improved Urochloa cultivar Basilisk imported from Brazil as a check. Study showed significant differences among treatments for various seed quality parameters tested (P < 0.0001). The highest thousand grains weight was recorded in Basilisk (5.685 g), followed by W12 (3.555 g), A05 (3.153 g) and N01 (2.655 g). Caryopsis number and caryopsis weight were highest in Basilisk followed by E09, A06, and W12. Of three conditions tested for seed germination, mean germination was the highest in greenhouse (7.39%) where Basilisk had the highest germination (25.5%) followed by N01 (18.50%), A05 (14.50%) and W12 (12.75%). The seed viability ranged from 18% (E09) to 81% (N01), and there were a positive and highly significant relationships between seed germination and viability traits (r = 0.883; P < 0.0001). This study showed a marked difference in seed quality parameters of Urochloa grass seeds produced in Cameroon, and the potential of developing Urochloa grass seed business in the Northern, Adamaoua and Western regions of Cameroon.


Assuntos
Brachiaria/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Germinação , Poaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Camarões , Fenótipo
9.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 13799, 2021 07 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34226609

RESUMO

The research was conducted to determine the effects of cutting interval and fertilization on the nutritional quality, nutrient uptake, and biomass production of King grass. The experimental design was a randomized complete block, using 4 blocks and 8 treatments per block; treatments consisted of 4 ages of cutting (30, 45, 60, and 90 days), with fertilization and without fertilization. The results showed increases of up to 72,000 kg ha-1 year-1 of dry matter (DM) when fertilization was implemented. There was a significant reduction in with an increase in the cutting days (12.70-6.53% protein). Fiber increased (48.79-72.99% NDF) when fertilization treatments were included and cutting days increased. The elements that were included in fertilization (N, P, K) showed a higher foliar content and also presented a reduction in foliar content with growth of the plant. Treatments with fertilization showed a nutrient uptake increase for all the elements up to 60 days, where a reduction in uptake capacity was observed. King grass is a plant with a high nutrient uptake capacity and, therefore, with high biomass and nutrient production. This is an advantage since it can be used in multiple applications, such as animal feed, biofuel production, and as a substrate for biodigestion, among others.


Assuntos
Biomassa , Fertilização , Valor Nutritivo/efeitos dos fármacos , Poaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ração Animal , Animais , Biocombustíveis , Ingestão de Alimentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Nutrientes , Pennisetum/efeitos dos fármacos , Pennisetum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Poaceae/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199611

RESUMO

Temperature influences the physiological processes and ecology of both hosts and endophytes; however, it remains unclear how long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) modulate the consequences of temperature-dependent changes in host-pathogen interactions. To explore the role of lncRNAs in culm gall formation induced by the smut fungus Ustilago esculenta in Zizania latifolia, we employed RNA sequencing to identify lncRNAs and their potential cis-targets in Z. latifolia and U. esculenta under different temperatures. In Z. latifolia and U. esculenta, we identified 3194 and 173 lncRNAs as well as 126 and four potential target genes for differentially expressed lncRNAs, respectively. Further function and expression analysis revealed that lncRNA ZlMSTRG.11348 regulates amino acid metabolism in Z. latifolia and lncRNA UeMSTRG.02678 regulates amino acid transport in U. esculenta. The plant defence response was also found to be regulated by lncRNAs and suppressed in Z. latifolia infected with U. esculenta grown at 25 °C, which may result from the expression of effector genes in U. esculenta. Moreover, in Z. latifolia infected with U. esculenta, the expression of genes related to phytohormones was altered under different temperatures. Our results demonstrate that lncRNAs are important components of the regulatory networks in plant-microbe-environment interactions, and may play a part in regulating culm swelling in Z. latifolia plants.


Assuntos
Doenças das Plantas/genética , Poaceae/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Transcriptoma/genética , Endófitos/genética , Endófitos/patogenicidade , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia , Poaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Temperatura , Ustilago/genética , Ustilago/patogenicidade
11.
Molecules ; 26(14)2021 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299647

RESUMO

The application of municipal sewage sludge as fertilizer in the production of non-food energy crops is an environmentally and economically sustainable approach to sewage sludge management. In addition, the application of municipal sewage sludge to energy crops such as Miscanthus x giganteus is an alternative form of recycling nutrients and organic material from waste. Municipal sewage sludge is a potential source of heavy metals in the soil, some of which can be removed by growing energy crops that are also remediation agents. Therefore, the objective of the research was to investigate the effect of municipal sewage sludge applied at three different rates of 1.66, 3.22 and 6.44 t/ha on the production of Miscanthus. Based on the analyses conducted on the biomass of Miscanthus fertilized with sludge from the wastewater treatment plant in three fertilization treatments, it can be concluded that the biomass of Miscanthus is a good feedstock for the process of direct combustion. Moreover, the application of the largest amount of municipal sewage sludge during cultivation had no negative effect on the properties of Miscanthus biomass. Moreover, the cellulose and hemicellulose content of Miscanthus is ideal for the production of second-generation liquid biofuels. Fertilizer treatments had no effect on the content of cellulose and lignin, while a significant statistical difference was found for hemicellulose.


Assuntos
Biomassa , Fertilizantes , Poaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Esgotos , Agricultura
12.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0252371, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34125836

RESUMO

In response to national policy obligations, many mining companies in Ghana have restored/reclaimed degraded mined out sites through revegetation. The area extent of such restored areas is unknown and there is also paucity of data on success of restoration, species diversity and compositional dynamics of such restored landscapes, particularly using mixed species. This study assessed stand structure, diversity and composition dynamics of sites restored with mixed species and models species abundance distribution on these sites. Three reclaimed and one control site (adjacent natural forest) were inventoried using 27, 30 x 30 m plots on the Hwini-Butre and Benso concession of the Golden Star Wassa Limited. Overall 3057 (per 24 plots) and 150 (per 3 plots) individual trees were recorded in the overstorey of the reclaimed and control sites, respectively. In all, 31 species in 13 families occurred on the reclaimed site while 61 species in 29 families occurred on the control. Species richness, abundance and diversity were significantly lower in the reclaimed sites than the control in the overstorey (p≤0.018), mid-storey (p ≤ 0.032), and understorey (p≤ 0.031). Species composition of the reclaimed and control sites were mostly dissimilar in the overstorey, midstorey, and understorey. However, the midstorey and overstorey of the reclaimed sites showed high similarity in composition (Jaccard's index = 0.817). Pioneer and shade-tolerant species were most dominant in the understorey of the control while only shade-tolerant species (mostly herbs and grasses) dominated the reclaimed sites. Species abundance distribution of both reclaimed and control sites followed the geometric series model, indicating that both sites are disturbed but at different intensities. It is concluded that reclamation with mixed species does not necessarily lead to rapid restoration of indigenous climax species on mine spoils. Nonetheless, it may lead to accomplishments of short-term goals of stabilizing and protecting landscapes while conditioning the sites for colonisation of the climax species.


Assuntos
Florestas , Solo/química , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Gana , Mineração/métodos , Poaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Árvores/crescimento & desenvolvimento
13.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0252983, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34138923

RESUMO

A premise of stream restoration theory and practice is that it is often futile to attempt to restore a stream at the reach scale (101-103 metres) until catchment scale problems have been addressed. This study considers reach scale restoration actions undertaken in Bryan Creek, a sand bed river in south east Australia impacted by a sediment pulse, after catchment sediment sources have been addressed. Local scale interventions, which were in-stream sand extraction, fencing to exclude stock and riparian revegetation, were evaluated by quantifying cross-section and thalweg variability, mapping in-stream and riparian vegetation and by classifying the morphology that emerged following each intervention. Following intervention channel reaches moved to one of three distinct states: simple clay bed, eroding reaches dominated by Juncus acutus, and reaches with deep pools and Phragmites australis. Boundaries between the intervention reaches were sharp, suggesting local scale interventions dominate over catchment scale processes. The magnitude and spread of variability metrics were similar between all reaches and differences in variability bore no relation to intervention type, despite the stark difference in post-intervention morphology. These findings suggest that cross-section and thalweg variability metrics are an inadequate proxy for the effectiveness of local scale interventions in accelerating the recovery of sand bed reaches from a bedload pulse. The most important implications for river managers is that local scale interventions can lead to substantial and rapid improvements in condition, and the change in condition of these reaches is almost independent of other reaches. In this case, the key to the pattern of reach scale geomorphic recovery is excluding stock from waterways so that a specific macrophyte can establish, trap sediment and develop pools.


Assuntos
Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental/métodos , Magnoliopsida/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Rios , Austrália , Área Programática de Saúde , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Sedimentos Geológicos , Poaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento
14.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 87(17): e0089521, 2021 08 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34161142

RESUMO

Grasslands represent a critical ecosystem important for global food production, soil carbon storage, and water regulation. Current intensification and expansion practices add to the degradation of grasslands and dramatically increase greenhouse gas emissions and pollution. Thus, new ways to sustain and improve their productivity are needed. Research efforts focus on the plant-leaf microbiome, or phyllosphere, because its microbial members impact ecosystem function by influencing pathogen resistance, plant hormone production, and nutrient availability through processes including nitrogen fixation. However, little is known about grassland phyllospheres and their response to environmental stress. In this study, globally dominant temperate and tropical forage grass species were grown in a greenhouse under current climate conditions and drought conditions that mimic future climate predictions to understand if (i) plant host taxa influence microbial community assembly, (ii) microbial communities respond to drought stress, and (iii) phyllosphere community changes correlate to changes in plant host traits and stress-response strategies. Community analysis using high-resolution sequencing revealed Gammaproteobacteria as the dominant bacterial class, which increased under severe drought stress on both temperate and tropical grasses while overall bacterial community diversity declined. Bacterial community diversity, structure, and response to drought were significantly different between grass species. This community dependence on plant host species correlated with differences in grass species traits, which became more defined under drought stress conditions, suggesting symbiotic evolutionary relationships between plant hosts and their associated microbial community. Further understanding these strategies and the functions microbes provide to plants will help us utilize microbes to promote agricultural and ecosystem productivity in the future. IMPORTANCE Globally important grassland ecosystems are at risk of degradation due to poor management practices compounded by predicted increases in severity and duration of drought over the next century. Finding new ways to support grassland productivity is critical to maintaining their ecological and agricultural benefits. Discerning how grassland microbial communities change in response to climate stress will help us understand how plant-microbe relationships may be useful to sustainably support grasslands in the future. In this study, phyllosphere community diversity and composition were significantly altered under drought conditions. The significance of our research is demonstrating how severe climate stress reduces bacterial community diversity, which previously was directly associated with decreased plant productivity. These findings guide future questions about functional plant-microbe interactions under stress conditions, greatly enhancing our understanding of how bacteria can increase food security by promoting grassland growth and resilience.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Microbiota , Poaceae/microbiologia , Água/metabolismo , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/metabolismo , Secas , Ecossistema , Pradaria , Poaceae/classificação , Poaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Poaceae/metabolismo , Solo/química , Microbiologia do Solo , Água/análise
15.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0242035, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34106919

RESUMO

To achieve global ambitions in large scale ecological restoration, there is a need for approaches that improve the efficiency of seed-based interventions, particularly in overcoming the bottleneck in the transition from germination to seedling establishment. In this study, we tested a novel seed-based application of the plant stress modulator compound salicylic acid as a means to reduce seedling losses in the seed-to-seedling phase. Seed coating technology (encrusting) was developed as a precursor for optimising field sowing for three grass species commonly used in restoration programs, Austrostipa scabra, Microlaena stipoides, and Rytidosperma geniculatum. Salicylic acid (SA, 0.1mM) was delivered to seeds via imbibition and seed encrusting. The effects of SA on seed germination were examined under controlled water-limited conditions (drought resilience) in laboratory setting and on seed germination, seedling emergence, seedling growth and plant survival in field conditions. Salicylic acid did not impact germination under water stress in controlled laboratory conditions and did not affect seedling emergence in the field. However, seedling survival and growth were improved in plants grown from SA treated seeds (imbibed and encrusted) under field conditions. When SA delivery methods of imbibing and coating were compared, there was no significant difference in survival and growth, showing that seed coating has potential to deliver SA. Effect of intraspecific competition as a result of seedling density was also considered. Seedling survival over the dry summer season was more than double at low seedling density (40 plants/m2) compared to high seedling density (380 plants/m2). Overall, adjustment of seeding rate according to expected emergence combined with the use of salicylic acid via coating could improve seed use efficiency in seed-based restoration.


Assuntos
Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental/métodos , Poaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ácido Salicílico/farmacologia , Sementes/efeitos dos fármacos , Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento
16.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 12381, 2021 06 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34117332

RESUMO

Zoysia japonica is a commonly used turfgrass species around the world. Seed germination is a crucial stage in the plant life cycle and is particularly important for turf establishment and management. Experiments have confirmed that melatonin can be a potential regulator signal in seeds. To determine the effect of exogenous melatonin administration and explore the its potential in regulating seed growth, we studied the concentrations of several hormones and performed a transcriptome analysis of zoysia seeds after the application of melatonin. The total antioxidant capacity determination results showed that melatonin treatment could significantly improve the antioxidant capacity of zoysia seeds. The transcriptome analysis indicated that several of the regulatory pathways were involved in antioxidant activity and hormone activity. The hormones concentrations determination results showed that melatonin treatment contributed to decreased levels of cytokinin, abscisic acid and gibberellin in seeds, but had no significant effect on the secretion of auxin in early stages. Melatonin is able to affect the expression of IAA (indoleacetic acid) response genes. In addition, melatonin influences the other hormones by its synergy with other hormones. Transcriptome research in zoysia is helpful for understanding the regulation of melatonin and mechanisms underlying melatonin-mediated developmental processes in zoysia seeds.


Assuntos
Genes de Plantas , Germinação , Melatonina/farmacologia , Poaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Citocininas/genética , Citocininas/metabolismo , Giberelinas/metabolismo , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Poaceae/genética , Poaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Transcriptoma
17.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0251089, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33956866

RESUMO

Remnants of native tallgrass prairie experience elevated atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition in urban areas, with potential effects on species traits that are important for N cycling and species composition. We quantified bulk (primarily wet) inorganic N (NH4+-N + NO3--N) deposition at six sites along an urban development gradient (6-64% urban) in the Dallas-Fort Worth metropolitan area from April 2014 to October 2015. In addition, we conducted a phytometer experiment with two common native prairie bunchgrass species--one well studied (Schizachyrium scoparium) and one little studied (Nasella leucotricha)--to investigate ambient N deposition effects on plant biomass and tissue quality. Bulk inorganic N deposition ranged from 6.1-9.9 kg ha-1 yr-1, peaked in spring, and did not vary consistently with proportion of urban land within 10 km of the sites. Total (wet + dry) inorganic N deposition estimated using bulk deposition measured in this study and modeled dry deposition was 12.9-18.2 kg ha-1 yr-1. Although the two plant species studied differ in photosynthetic pathway, biomass, and tissue N, they exhibited a maximum 2-3-fold and 2-4-fold increase in total biomass and total plant N, respectively, with 1.6-fold higher bulk N deposition. In addition, our findings indicate that while native prairie grasses may exhibit a positive biomass response to increased N deposition up to ~18 kg ha-1 yr-1, total inorganic N deposition is well above the estimated critical load for herbaceous plant species richness in the tallgrass prairie of the Great Plains ecoregion and thus may negatively affect these plant communities.


Assuntos
Pradaria , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Poaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Biomassa , Poaceae/metabolismo , Texas , Reforma Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(7)2021 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33805287

RESUMO

Flowering plants develop new organs throughout their life cycle. The vegetative shoot apical meristem (SAM) generates leaf whorls, branches and stems, whereas the reproductive SAM, called the inflorescence meristem (IM), forms florets arranged on a stem or an axis. In cereal crops, the inflorescence producing grains from fertilized florets makes the major yield contribution, which is determined by the numbers and structures of branches, spikelets and florets within the inflorescence. The developmental progression largely depends on the activity of IM. The proper regulations of IM size, specification and termination are outcomes of complex interactions between promoting and restricting factors/signals. Here, we focus on recent advances in molecular mechanisms underlying potential pathways of IM identification, maintenance and differentiation in cereal crops, including rice (Oryza sativa), maize (Zea mays), wheat (Triticum aestivum), and barley (Hordeum vulgare), highlighting the researches that have facilitated grain yield by, for example, modifying the number of inflorescence branches. Combinatorial functions of key regulators and crosstalk in IM determinacy and specification are summarized. This review delivers the knowledge to crop breeding applications aiming to the improvements in yield performance and productivity.


Assuntos
Grão Comestível , Inflorescência/genética , Meristema/genética , Poaceae/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Hordeum/genética , Hordeum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Hordeum/metabolismo , Inflorescência/anatomia & histologia , Inflorescência/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Inflorescência/metabolismo , Meristema/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Meristema/metabolismo , Meristema/fisiologia , Oryza/genética , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oryza/metabolismo , Poaceae/genética , Poaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum/genética , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum/metabolismo , Zea mays/genética , Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Zea mays/metabolismo
19.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0249445, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33793653

RESUMO

This study investigated the effect of restoration management of a weed-infested area, previously used as cattle resting place, on herbage production and nutrient concentrations in the soil and herbage. The experiment was undertaken from 2004 to 2011 at the National Park of Nízké Tatry, Slovakia. Three treatments were applied: (i) cutting twice per year, (ii) herbicide application, followed after three weeks by reseeding with a mixture of vascular plant species and then cut twice per year, and (iii) unmanaged. Treatments had significant effect on biomass production and concentration of nutrients in the soil and in herbage. Nutrient concentrations in herbage and in soil declined progressively under the cutting treatments and reached optimum ranges for dairy cattle at the end of the experiment when herbage N was less than 15 g kg-1 and herbage P was 3.4 g kg-1. There was also a strong positive relationship under the cutting treatments between soil nutrient concentrations and herbage nutrient concentrations for N, P, K, Mg and Ca. Although the cutting management as well as the combination of herbicide application with cutting management reduced nutrient concentrations in the soil and in herbage, the nutrient concentrations remained relatively high. We can conclude that restoration of grassland covered with weedy species like Urtica dioica and Rumex obtusifolius, with excessive levels of soil nutrients, cannot be achieved just by cutting and herbicide application.


Assuntos
Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental/métodos , Pradaria , Animais , Biomassa , Bovinos , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Poaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Poaceae/metabolismo , Potássio/metabolismo , Eslováquia , Solo/química
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(5)2021 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33800824

RESUMO

A new copper complex, trans-diaqua-trans-bis [1-hydroxy-1,2-di (methoxycarbonyl) ethenato] copper (abbreviation Cu(II) complex), was synthesized and its plant growth regulation properties were investigated. The results show a sharp dependence of growth regulation activity of the Cu(II) complex on the type of culture and its concentration. New plant growth regulator accelerated the development of the corn root system (the increase in both length and weight) but showed a smaller effect on the development of the wheat and barley root systems. Stimulation of corn growth decreased with increasing Cu(II) complex concentration from 0.0001% to 0.01% (inhibition at high concentrations-0.01%). The development of corn stems was also accelerated but to a lesser extent. Chitosan-coated calcium alginate microcapsules suitable for delivery of Cu(II) complex to plants were prepared and characterized. Analysis of the FTIR spectrum showed that complex molecular interactions between functional groups of microcapsule constituents include mainly electrostatic interactions and hydrogen bonds. Microcapsules surface exhibits a soft granular surface structure with substructures consisting of abundant smaller particles with reduced surface roughness. Release profile analysis showed Fickian diffusion is the rate-controlling mechanism of Cu(II) complex releasing. The obtained results give new insights into the complexity of the interaction between the Cu(II) complex and microcapsule formulation constituents, which can be of great help in accelerating product development for the application in agriculture.


Assuntos
Alginatos/administração & dosagem , Quitosana/administração & dosagem , Portadores de Fármacos/administração & dosagem , Composição de Medicamentos/métodos , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/síntese química , Varredura Diferencial de Calorimetria , Cápsulas , Difusão , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Ligação de Hidrogênio , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Caules de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Caules de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Poaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Poaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Espectrometria por Raios X , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Eletricidade Estática , Propriedades de Superfície
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