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1.
J Sci Food Agric ; 102(1): 113-120, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34060106

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Grazed grass is an important component of the majority of beef production systems used in temperate climates. Compared to concentrate-fed beef, 'grass-fed' beef can command a premium in some markets based on perceived differences in appearance and sensory characteristics. The influence of grazed grass per se, as well as the duration of grazing, on selected sensory characteristics of beef within a heifer production system was examined. RESULTS: In general, fat from grass-fed cattle was more yellow than fat from similar cattle fed concentrates, whereas muscle from grass-fed cattle was darker than muscle from cattle fed concentrates. At the same carcass weight, muscle from grass-fed cattle had a lower fat concentration than cattle fed concentrates. In the most extreme situation examined, whereby early-maturing heifers were fed concentrates ad libitum from weaning or grazed grass/conserved grass throughout life, until slaughtered at a similar carcass weight (260 kg) and differed in age by 5 months, beef was rated similarly for tenderness and a range of flavours by a trained sensory panel. CONCLUSION: Within the range of beef heifer production systems examined, the sensory characteristics of grass-fed beef do not differ greatly from concentrate-fed beef. © 2021 The Authors. Journal of The Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Bovinos/metabolismo , Carne/análise , Músculo Esquelético/química , Poaceae/metabolismo , Matadouros , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Cor , Humanos , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Paladar
2.
J Sci Food Agric ; 102(2): 540-549, 2022 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34146349

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pasture farming in south-western Australia is challenged by nutrient-poor soils. We assessed the impact of microbial consortium inoculant (MI) and rock mineral fertiliser (MF) on growth, nutrient uptake, root morphology, rhizosphere carboxylate exudation and mycorrhizal colonisation in three pasture grasses - tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea L.), veldt grass (Ehrharta calycina Sm.) and tall wheatgrass (Thinopyrum ponticum L.) grown in low-phosphorus (P) sandy soil in a glasshouse for 30 and 60 days after sowing (DAS). RESULTS: Veldt grass produced the highest specific root length and smallest average root diameter in both growth periods, and had similar shoot weight, root surface area and fine root length (except at 30 DAS) to tall fescue. Compared with the control, MI alone or combined with MF significantly increased shoot and root biomass (except root biomass at 30 DAS), likely due to the significant increases in root surface area and fine root length. Plants supplied with MI + MF had higher shoot N and P contents than those in the MI and the control treatments at 60 DAS. Malate, citrate and trans-aconitate were the major rhizosphere carboxylates exuded at both 30 and 60 DAS. Malate exudation varied among species and treatments in both growth periods, but citrate exudation was consistently higher in the low-P treatments (control and MI) than the MF and MI + MF treatments. CONCLUSION: Microbial consortium inoculant can positively influence pasture production in low-P soil by increasing root surface area and fine root length, whereas exudation of nutrient-mobilising carboxylates (citrate) is dependent more on soil P supply than microbial consortium inoculant. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Inoculantes Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Micorrizas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fósforo/análise , Exsudatos de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Poaceae/microbiologia , Ácidos Carboxílicos/análise , Ácidos Carboxílicos/metabolismo , Fertilizantes/análise , Consórcios Microbianos , Fósforo/metabolismo , Exsudatos de Plantas/análise , Raízes de Plantas/química , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Poaceae/química , Poaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Poaceae/metabolismo , Rizosfera , Solo/química
3.
Food Chem ; 374: 131743, 2022 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34915365

RESUMO

Pleioblastus amarus (P. amarus) shoots, belong to the grass family Gramineae, a traditional green vegetable in China, are rich in nutritional properties, and can provide various health benefits. This study isolated four compounds, namely (1-4), 3-O-coumaroylquinic acid (1), 3-O-feruloylquinic acid (2), 4-O-feruloylquinic acid (3), and 5-O-feruloylquinic acid (4) from Pleioblastus amarus shoots for the first time. The structures of the extracted compounds were determined using detailed spectroscopic (1D/2D NMR), high resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HR-ESI-MS), and infrared (IR) spectroscopy. The antioxidant capacity of 3-O-feruloylquinic acid (2) was stronger than that of the other compounds, while it also exhibited anti-inflammatory activity, significantly restricting the release of nitric oxide (NO) by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 cells, displaying an inhibitory rate of 60.92 percent at a concentration of 400 µg/mL. Furthermore, 3-O-feruloylquinic acid (2) inhibited interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), interleukin-6 (IL-6), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) expression and may be useful for developing novel antioxidant and anti-inflammatory substances.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios , Antioxidantes , Animais , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos , Camundongos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Poaceae/metabolismo , Células RAW 264.7
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(19)2021 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639205

RESUMO

Bamboo is one of the most important non-timber forest resources worldwide. It has considerable economic value and unique flowering characteristics. The long juvenile phase in bamboo and unpredictable flowering time limit breeding and genetic improvement and seriously affect the productivity and application of bamboo forests. Members of SQUA-like subfamily genes play an essential role in controlling flowering time and floral organ identity. A comprehensive study was conducted to explain the functions of five SQUA-like subfamily genes in Phyllostachys edulis. Expression analysis revealed that all PeSQUAs have higher transcript levels in the reproductive period than in the juvenile phase. However, PeSQUAs showed divergent expression patterns during inflorescence development. The protein-protein interaction (PPI) patterns among PeSQUAs and other MADS-box members were analyzed by yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) experiments. Consistent with amino acid sequence similarity and phylogenetic analysis, the PPI patterns clustered into two groups. PeMADS2, 13, and 41 interacted with multiple PeMADS proteins, whereas PeMADS3 and 28 hardly interacted with other proteins. Based on our results, PeSQUA might possess different functions by forming protein complexes with other MADS-box proteins at different flowering stages. Furthermore, we chose PeMADS2 for functional analysis. Ectopic expression of PeMADS2 in Arabidopsis and rice caused early flowering, and abnormal phenotype was observed in transgenic Arabidopsis lines. RNA-seq analysis indicated that PeMADS2 integrated multiple pathways regulating floral transition to trigger early flowering time in rice. This function might be due to the interaction between PeMADS2 and homologous in rice. Therefore, we concluded that the five SQUA-like genes showed functional conservation and divergence based on sequence differences and were involved in floral transitions by forming protein complexes in P. edulis. The MADS-box protein complex model obtained in the current study will provide crucial insights into the molecular mechanisms of bamboo's unique flowering characteristics.


Assuntos
Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Domínio MADS/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Poaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Flores/genética , Flores/metabolismo , Proteínas de Domínio MADS/genética , Oryza/genética , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oryza/metabolismo , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Poaceae/genética , Poaceae/metabolismo , Homologia de Sequência , Transcriptoma
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(17)2021 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502515

RESUMO

Free proline has multiple functions in plant cells, such as regulating osmotic potential and protecting both proteins and cell membranes. The expression of Δ1-Pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthase (P5CS), a key enzyme in the proline biosynthetic pathway, increases under drought, salt and cold stress conditions, causing plant cells to accumulate large amounts of proline. In this study, we cloned and identified the P5CS gene from Stipa purpurea, which has a full-length of 2196 bp and encodes 731 amino acids. A subcellular localization analysis indicated that SpP5CS localized to the cytoplasm. The ectopic overexpression of SpP5CS in Arabidopsis thaliana resulted in higher proline contents, longer roots, higher survival rates and less membrane damage under drought stress conditions compared with wild-type controls. SpP5CS-overexpressing A. thaliana was more resistant to drought stress than the wild type, whereas the deletion mutant sp5cs was less resistant to drought stress. Thus, SpP5CS may be a potential candidate target gene for increasing plant resistance to drought stress.


Assuntos
Ornitina-Oxo-Ácido Transaminase/genética , Poaceae/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Secas , Expressão Gênica/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Ornitina-Oxo-Ácido Transaminase/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Poaceae/metabolismo , Prolina/metabolismo
6.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 436, 2021 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34563114

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nitrogen, as a limiting factor for net primary productivity in grassland ecosystems, is an important link in material cycles in grassland ecosystems. However, the nitrogen assimilation efficiency and mechanisms of grassland plants under grazing disturbance are still unclear. This study investigated Stipa breviflora desert steppe which had been grazed for 17 years and sampled the root system and leaf of the constructive species Stipa breviflora during the peak growing season under no grazing, light grazing, moderate grazing and heavy grazing treatments. The activities of enzymes related to nitrogen assimilation in roots and leaves were measured. RESULTS: Compared with no grazing, light grazing and moderate grazing significantly increased the activities of nitrate reductase (NR), glutamine synthetase (GS), glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) and glutamic pyruvate transaminase (GPT) in leaves, and GS, GOT and GPT in roots of Stipa breviflora, while heavy grazing significantly decreased the activities of GS in leaves and NR in roots of Stipa breviflora. NR, GOT and GPT activities in leaves and roots of Stipa breviflora were positively correlated with nitrogen content, soluble protein, free amino acid and nitrate content. CONCLUSIONS: Grazing disturbance changed the activities of nitrogen assimilation related enzymes of grassland plants, and emphasized that light grazing and moderate grazing were beneficial for nitrogen assimilation by grassland plants. Therefore, establishing appropriate stocking rates is of great significance for material flows in this grassland ecosystem and for the stability and sustainable utilization of grassland resources.


Assuntos
Ativação Enzimática/fisiologia , Pradaria , Herbivoria , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Poaceae/metabolismo , Alanina Transaminase/metabolismo , Aspartato Aminotransferases/metabolismo , China , Glutamato-Amônia Ligase/metabolismo , Nitrato Redutase/metabolismo
7.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5466, 2021 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34526499

RESUMO

Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) is an economically and ecologically important nontimber forestry species. Further development of this species as a sustainable bamboo resource has been hindered by a lack of population genome information. Here, we report a moso bamboo genomic variation atlas of 5.45 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from whole-genome resequencing of 427 individuals covering 15 representative geographic areas. We uncover low genetic diversity, high genotype heterozygosity, and genes under balancing selection underlying moso bamboo population adaptation. We infer its demographic history with one bottleneck and its recently small population without a rebound. We define five phylogenetic groups and infer that one group probably originated by a single-origin event from East China. Finally, we conduct genome-wide association analysis of nine important property-related traits to identify candidate genes, many of which are involved in cell wall, carbohydrate metabolism, and environmental adaptation. These results provide a foundation and resources for understanding moso bamboo evolution and the genetic mechanisms of agriculturally important traits.


Assuntos
Genoma de Planta/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Poaceae/genética , Transcriptoma , Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , China , Evolução Molecular , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Variação Genética , Genética Populacional/métodos , Genômica/métodos , Geografia , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Poaceae/classificação , Poaceae/metabolismo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma/métodos
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445464

RESUMO

The GLABROUS1 enhancer-binding protein (GeBP) gene family encodes a typical transcription factor containing a noncanonical Leucine (Leu-)-zipper motif that plays an essential role in regulating plant growth and development, as well as responding to various stresses. However, limited information on the GeBP gene family is available in the case of the Gramineae crops. Here, 125 GeBP genes from nine Gramineae crops species were phylogenetically classified into four clades using bioinformatics analysis. Evolutionary analyses showed that whole genome duplication (WGD) and segmental duplication play important roles in the expansion of the GeBP gene family. The various gene structures and protein motifs revealed that the GeBP genes play diverse functions in plants. In addition, the expression profile analysis of the GeBP genes showed that 13 genes expressed in all tested organs and stages of development in rice, with especially high levels of expression in the leaf, palea, and lemma. Furthermore, the hormone- and metal-induced expression patterns showed that the expression levels of most genes were affected by various biotic stresses, implying that the GeBP genes had an important function in response to various biotic stresses. Furthermore, we confirmed that OsGeBP11 and OsGeBP12 were localized to the nucleus through transient expression in the rice protoplast, indicating that GeBPs function as transcription factors to regulate the expression of downstream genes. This study provides a comprehensive understanding of the origin and evolutionary history of the GeBP genes family in Gramineae, and will be helpful in a further functional characterization of the GeBP genes.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Família Multigênica , Proteínas de Plantas , Poaceae , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/biossíntese , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Proteínas de Plantas/biossíntese , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Poaceae/genética , Poaceae/metabolismo
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299235

RESUMO

The allergenic and inflammatory potential of proteins can be enhanced by chemical modification upon exposure to atmospheric or physiological oxidants. The molecular mechanisms and kinetics of such modifications, however, have not yet been fully resolved. We investigated the oligomerization and nitration of the grass pollen allergen Phl p 5 by ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and peroxynitrite (ONOO-). Within several hours of exposure to atmospherically relevant concentration levels of O3 and NO2, up to 50% of Phl p 5 were converted into protein oligomers, likely by formation of dityrosine cross-links. Assuming that tyrosine residues are the preferential site of nitration, up to 10% of the 12 tyrosine residues per protein monomer were nitrated. For the reaction with peroxynitrite, the largest oligomer mass fractions (up to 50%) were found for equimolar concentrations of peroxynitrite over tyrosine residues. With excess peroxynitrite, the nitration degrees increased up to 40% whereas the oligomer mass fractions decreased to 20%. Our results suggest that protein oligomerization and nitration are competing processes, which is consistent with a two-step mechanism involving a reactive oxygen intermediate (ROI), as observed for other proteins. The modified proteins can promote pro-inflammatory cellular signaling that may contribute to chronic inflammation and allergies in response to air pollution.


Assuntos
Phleum/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Rinite Alérgica Sazonal/metabolismo , Alérgenos/química , Cinética , Nitratos/metabolismo , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/química , Óxidos de Nitrogênio , Oxidantes , Ozônio/química , Ácido Peroxinitroso/química , Proteínas de Plantas/análise , Poaceae/metabolismo , Pólen/metabolismo , Proteínas/química , Rinite Alérgica Sazonal/fisiopatologia
10.
J Microbiol ; 59(8): 718-728, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34302620

RESUMO

Achnatherum inebrians, a perennial grass, is widely distributed in China. When infected by the endophyte Epichloë gansuensis, A. inebrians produces an abundance of alkaloids that enhance plant survival but are toxic to animals. Here we used in vitro fermentation to study the impact of endophyte- infected A. inebrians (E+) addition on rumen fermentation characteristics and on microbial community and diversity as assessed with amplicon sequencing technology. We examined E+ addition at five levels, E0, E25, E50, E75, and E100, corresponding to 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% of the fermentation substrate, respectively. Both the fermentation characteristics and rumen microbial community structure differed significantly among treatments. E100 resulted in the highest values for pH, the Shannon index, Kiritimatiellaeota, and Lentisphaerae levels relative to the other treatments. In contrast, E25 was associated with higher levels of ammonia nitrogen, total volatile fatty acid, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate, valerate, of the phyla Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, and of the genus Prevotella_1, Succiniclasticum, Family_XIII_AD3011_group, Rikenellaceae_RC9_gut_group, Prevotellaceae_UCG-001, and Pyramidobacter as compared with other treatments. E50 resulted in the greatest values for the abundance-based coverage estimator (ACE) and the Chao1 index as compared with other treatments. E0 resulted in the greatest values for digestibility of dry matter, gas production, acetate, and Ruminobacter as compared with other treatments. This approach avoided animal toxicity experiments and confirmed that rumen fermentation characteristics and rumen microbiota were affected by E+ toxin. Therefore, E25 showed higher abundance in Prevotella_1, Prevotellaceae_ UCG-001, and Lachnospiraceae_XPB1014_group that implied they should play significant roles in E+ alkaloids degradation. And then, we can infer that rumen microorganisms should function as an antidote with respect to this poisoning reaction at moderate dietary percentages of E+.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Epichloe/fisiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Poaceae/microbiologia , Rúmen/microbiologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Endófitos/classificação , Endófitos/genética , Endófitos/isolamento & purificação , Endófitos/metabolismo , Epichloe/genética , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Fermentação , Poaceae/metabolismo , Rúmen/metabolismo , Ovinos
11.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 533, 2021 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34256690

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The BBX (B-box) family are zinc finger protein (ZFP) transcription factors that play an essential role in plant growth, development and response to abiotic stresses. Although BBX genes have been characterized in many model organisms, genome-wide identification of the BBX family genes have not yet been reported in Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis), and the biological functions of this family remain unknown. RESULT: In the present study, we identified 27 BBX genes in the genome of Moso bamboo, and analysis of their conserved motifs and multiple sequence alignments revealed that they all shared highly similar structures. Additionally, phylogenetic and homology analyses indicated that PeBBX genes were divided into three clusters, with whole-genome duplication (WGD) events having facilitated the expansion of this gene family. Light-responsive and stress-related cis-elements were identified by analyzing cis-elements in the promoters of all PeBBX genes. Short time-series expression miner (STEM) analysis revealed that the PeBBX genes had spatiotemporal-specific expression patterns and were likely involved in the growth and development of bamboo shoots. We further explored the downstream target genes of PeBBXs, and GO/KEGG enrichment analysis predicted multiple functions of BBX target genes, including those encoding enzymes involved in plant photosynthesis, pyruvate metabolism and glycolysis/gluconeogenesis. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, we analyzed the PeBBX genes at multiple different levels, which will contribute to further studies of the BBX family and provide valuable information for the functional validation of this family.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas , Poaceae , Família Multigênica , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Poaceae/genética , Poaceae/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
12.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 221: 112445, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34182199

RESUMO

Miscanthus sinensis is a C4 perennial grass species that is widely used as forage, ornamental grass and bioenergy crop due to its broad adaption and great biological traits. Recent studies indicated that M. sinensis could also grow in marginal lands which were contaminated with heavy metals, and exhibited important ecological restoration potential. In this study, transcriptome characterization of candidate genes related to chromium (Cr) uptake, transport and accumulation in M. sinensis were employed to investigate the molecular mechanism of plant tolerance to heavy metal stress. The result showed that following treatment of 200 mg/L of Cr, plant roots could accumulate most Cr and localize mainly in cell walls and soluble fractions, whereas Cr in stems and leaves was primarily in soluble fractions. A total of 83,645 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were obtained after the treatment. Many genes involved in heavy metal transport, metal ion chelation and photosynthesis were found to be Cr-induced DEGs. Co-expression and weighted correlation network analysis revealed that Glutathion metabolism and ABC transporters pathways play an important role in Cr tolerance of M. sinensis. A hypothesis schematic diagram for the Cr uptake, transport and accumulation of M. sinensis cells were suggested, which could provide a molecular and genetic basis for future candidate genes validation and breeding of such crops.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Cromo/metabolismo , Genes de Plantas/genética , Poaceae/genética , Poaceae/metabolismo , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenótipo , Fotossíntese , Melhoramento Vegetal , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Transcriptoma/genética
13.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 12714, 2021 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34135403

RESUMO

Bamboo is an anisotropic, hierarchical, and hygroscopic material. Moisture transport in bamboo is one of the most fundamental properties affecting almost all other physical and mechanical properties of the material. This study investigated the water vapor sorption behaviors of bamboo at various structural levels: cell walls, cells (with pits) and bamboo blocks. The specimens with two sorption directions, longitudinal (L) and transverse (T), were measured by saturated salt solution method and dynamic vapor sorption. The parallel exponential kinetics model was used to analyze the sorption kinetics. The results showed that at the cell wall level, the sorption rate and equilibrium moisture content (EMC) of cell wall in the L specimens were larger than those in the T specimens. The differences were probably caused by the looser cell wall layers in the L specimens. At the cellular scale, pits in the cell wall resulted in an enhanced sorption rate and EMC of the T specimens compared with the L specimens where the pits in the parenchyma cells were only distributed in the lateral walls but not in end walls. At the macro scale, the sorption rate and moisture content of bamboo blocks were largely controlled by the vessel cells. As a hierarchically-structured plant, bamboo performs the biological function of moisture transport at all these scales. This work helps improve the understanding of water transport behavior in bamboo, which may lead to better bamboo drying and impregnation processes.


Assuntos
Poaceae/citologia , Poaceae/metabolismo , Vapor , Adsorção , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Difusão , Cinética , Água/metabolismo
14.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 13175, 2021 06 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34162969

RESUMO

The aim of the current study was to determine the ability of the Lactobacillus buchneri M B/00077 strain to degrade xylan, its impact on the quality of silage made from the lignocellulosic biomass of Spartina pectinata L., as well as the efficiency of biogas production. In the model in vitro conditions the L. buchneri M B/00077 strain was able to grow in a medium using xylan as the sole source of carbon, and xylanolytic activity was detected in the post-culture medium. In the L. buchneri M B/00077 genome, genes encoding endo-1,4-xylanase and ß-xylosidase were identified. The silages prepared using L. buchneri M B/00077 were characterized by a higher concentration of acetic and propionic acids compared to the controls or the silages prepared with the addition of commercial xylanase. The addition of bacteria increased the efficiency of biogas production. From the silages treated with L. buchneri M B/00077, 10% and 20% more biogas was obtained than from the controls and the silages treated with commercial xylanase, respectively. The results of the current study indicated the strain L. buchneri M B/00077 as being a promising candidate for further application in the field of pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass.


Assuntos
Biocombustíveis , Lactobacillus/metabolismo , Poaceae/microbiologia , Silagem , Xilanos/metabolismo , Ácido Acético/análise , Biocombustíveis/microbiologia , Biomassa , Ácido Butírico/análise , Fermentação , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Ácido Láctico/análise , Lignina/metabolismo , Poaceae/metabolismo , Propionatos/análise , Silagem/análise , Silagem/microbiologia , Açúcares/metabolismo
15.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 87(17): e0089521, 2021 08 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34161142

RESUMO

Grasslands represent a critical ecosystem important for global food production, soil carbon storage, and water regulation. Current intensification and expansion practices add to the degradation of grasslands and dramatically increase greenhouse gas emissions and pollution. Thus, new ways to sustain and improve their productivity are needed. Research efforts focus on the plant-leaf microbiome, or phyllosphere, because its microbial members impact ecosystem function by influencing pathogen resistance, plant hormone production, and nutrient availability through processes including nitrogen fixation. However, little is known about grassland phyllospheres and their response to environmental stress. In this study, globally dominant temperate and tropical forage grass species were grown in a greenhouse under current climate conditions and drought conditions that mimic future climate predictions to understand if (i) plant host taxa influence microbial community assembly, (ii) microbial communities respond to drought stress, and (iii) phyllosphere community changes correlate to changes in plant host traits and stress-response strategies. Community analysis using high-resolution sequencing revealed Gammaproteobacteria as the dominant bacterial class, which increased under severe drought stress on both temperate and tropical grasses while overall bacterial community diversity declined. Bacterial community diversity, structure, and response to drought were significantly different between grass species. This community dependence on plant host species correlated with differences in grass species traits, which became more defined under drought stress conditions, suggesting symbiotic evolutionary relationships between plant hosts and their associated microbial community. Further understanding these strategies and the functions microbes provide to plants will help us utilize microbes to promote agricultural and ecosystem productivity in the future. IMPORTANCE Globally important grassland ecosystems are at risk of degradation due to poor management practices compounded by predicted increases in severity and duration of drought over the next century. Finding new ways to support grassland productivity is critical to maintaining their ecological and agricultural benefits. Discerning how grassland microbial communities change in response to climate stress will help us understand how plant-microbe relationships may be useful to sustainably support grasslands in the future. In this study, phyllosphere community diversity and composition were significantly altered under drought conditions. The significance of our research is demonstrating how severe climate stress reduces bacterial community diversity, which previously was directly associated with decreased plant productivity. These findings guide future questions about functional plant-microbe interactions under stress conditions, greatly enhancing our understanding of how bacteria can increase food security by promoting grassland growth and resilience.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Microbiota , Poaceae/microbiologia , Água/metabolismo , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/metabolismo , Secas , Ecossistema , Pradaria , Poaceae/classificação , Poaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Poaceae/metabolismo , Solo/química , Microbiologia do Solo , Água/análise
16.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0250880, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33939720

RESUMO

Wetlands are vulnerable to plant invasions and the decomposition of invasive plant litter could make impacts on the ecosystem services of wetlands including nutrient cycle and carbon sequestration. However, few studies have explored the effects of nutrient enrichment and water level change on the decomposition of invasive plant litter. In this study, we conducted a control experiment using the litterbag method to compare the decomposition rates and nutrient release in the litter of an invasive plant Alternanthera philoxeroides in three water levels and two nutrient enrichment treatments. This study found that the water level change and nutrient enrichment showed significant effects on the litter decomposition and nutrient dynamic of A. philoxeroides. The increase of water level significantly reduced the decomposition rate and nutrient release of litter in the nutrient control treatment, whereas no clear relationship was observed in the nutrient enrichment treatment, indicating that the effect of water level change on litter decomposition might be affected by nutrient enrichment. At the late stage of decomposition, the increase of phosphorus (P) concentration and the decrease of the ratio of carbon to P suggested that the decomposition of invasive plant litter was limited by P. Our results suggest that controlling P enrichment in water bodies is essential for the management of invasive plant and carbon sequestration of wetlands. In addition, the new index we proposed could provide a basis for quantifying the impact of invasive plant litter decomposition on carbon cycle in wetlands.


Assuntos
Nutrientes/metabolismo , Poaceae/metabolismo , Água/metabolismo , Carbono/metabolismo , Sequestro de Carbono/fisiologia , Ecossistema , Espécies Introduzidas , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Fósforo/metabolismo , Áreas Alagadas
17.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0251089, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33956866

RESUMO

Remnants of native tallgrass prairie experience elevated atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition in urban areas, with potential effects on species traits that are important for N cycling and species composition. We quantified bulk (primarily wet) inorganic N (NH4+-N + NO3--N) deposition at six sites along an urban development gradient (6-64% urban) in the Dallas-Fort Worth metropolitan area from April 2014 to October 2015. In addition, we conducted a phytometer experiment with two common native prairie bunchgrass species--one well studied (Schizachyrium scoparium) and one little studied (Nasella leucotricha)--to investigate ambient N deposition effects on plant biomass and tissue quality. Bulk inorganic N deposition ranged from 6.1-9.9 kg ha-1 yr-1, peaked in spring, and did not vary consistently with proportion of urban land within 10 km of the sites. Total (wet + dry) inorganic N deposition estimated using bulk deposition measured in this study and modeled dry deposition was 12.9-18.2 kg ha-1 yr-1. Although the two plant species studied differ in photosynthetic pathway, biomass, and tissue N, they exhibited a maximum 2-3-fold and 2-4-fold increase in total biomass and total plant N, respectively, with 1.6-fold higher bulk N deposition. In addition, our findings indicate that while native prairie grasses may exhibit a positive biomass response to increased N deposition up to ~18 kg ha-1 yr-1, total inorganic N deposition is well above the estimated critical load for herbaceous plant species richness in the tallgrass prairie of the Great Plains ecoregion and thus may negatively affect these plant communities.


Assuntos
Pradaria , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Poaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Biomassa , Poaceae/metabolismo , Texas , Reforma Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos
18.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 164: 205-221, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34004558

RESUMO

Plant monovalent cation/proton antiporters (CPAs), types of transmembrane transporters, play important roles in resistance to salt stress. In this study, 37 CPA genes from moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) were identified and characterised. The expression profiles of 10 CPA1 genes (PheNHXs) of moso bamboo were detected by qRT-PCR, which showed that they were specifically expressed in six tissues. In addition, the expression of 10 PheNHXs in leaves and roots changed significantly under 150/200 mM NaCl and 100 µM ABA treatments. In particular, the expression of PheNHX2 in leaves and roots was significantly upregulated under NaCl treatment, thus, we cloned PheNHX2 and analysed its function. Subcellular localisation analysis showed that PheNHX2 was located on the vacuolar membrane. Overexpression of PheNHX2 reduced seed germination and root growth of Arabidopsis thaliana under salt stress, as well as severely affecting cellular Na+ and K+ content, which in turn reduced the salt tolerance of transgenic Arabidopsis. Measurements of physiological indicators, including chlorophyll content, malondialdehyde content, peroxidase and catalase enzyme activities and relative electrical conductivity, all supported this conclusion. Under salt stress, PheNHX2 also inhibited the expression of some stress-related and ion transport-related genes in transgenic Arabidopsis. Overall, these results indicate that overexpression of PheNHX2 reduces the salt tolerance of transgenic Arabidopsis. This investigation establishes a foundation for subsequent functional studies of moso bamboo CPA genes, and it provides a deeper understanding of PheNHX2 regulation in relation to the salt tolerance of moso bamboo.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Antiporters/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Cátions Monovalentes , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Poaceae/genética , Poaceae/metabolismo , Prótons
19.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0249445, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33793653

RESUMO

This study investigated the effect of restoration management of a weed-infested area, previously used as cattle resting place, on herbage production and nutrient concentrations in the soil and herbage. The experiment was undertaken from 2004 to 2011 at the National Park of Nízké Tatry, Slovakia. Three treatments were applied: (i) cutting twice per year, (ii) herbicide application, followed after three weeks by reseeding with a mixture of vascular plant species and then cut twice per year, and (iii) unmanaged. Treatments had significant effect on biomass production and concentration of nutrients in the soil and in herbage. Nutrient concentrations in herbage and in soil declined progressively under the cutting treatments and reached optimum ranges for dairy cattle at the end of the experiment when herbage N was less than 15 g kg-1 and herbage P was 3.4 g kg-1. There was also a strong positive relationship under the cutting treatments between soil nutrient concentrations and herbage nutrient concentrations for N, P, K, Mg and Ca. Although the cutting management as well as the combination of herbicide application with cutting management reduced nutrient concentrations in the soil and in herbage, the nutrient concentrations remained relatively high. We can conclude that restoration of grassland covered with weedy species like Urtica dioica and Rumex obtusifolius, with excessive levels of soil nutrients, cannot be achieved just by cutting and herbicide application.


Assuntos
Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental/métodos , Pradaria , Animais , Biomassa , Bovinos , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Poaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Poaceae/metabolismo , Potássio/metabolismo , Eslováquia , Solo/química
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(7)2021 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33805287

RESUMO

Flowering plants develop new organs throughout their life cycle. The vegetative shoot apical meristem (SAM) generates leaf whorls, branches and stems, whereas the reproductive SAM, called the inflorescence meristem (IM), forms florets arranged on a stem or an axis. In cereal crops, the inflorescence producing grains from fertilized florets makes the major yield contribution, which is determined by the numbers and structures of branches, spikelets and florets within the inflorescence. The developmental progression largely depends on the activity of IM. The proper regulations of IM size, specification and termination are outcomes of complex interactions between promoting and restricting factors/signals. Here, we focus on recent advances in molecular mechanisms underlying potential pathways of IM identification, maintenance and differentiation in cereal crops, including rice (Oryza sativa), maize (Zea mays), wheat (Triticum aestivum), and barley (Hordeum vulgare), highlighting the researches that have facilitated grain yield by, for example, modifying the number of inflorescence branches. Combinatorial functions of key regulators and crosstalk in IM determinacy and specification are summarized. This review delivers the knowledge to crop breeding applications aiming to the improvements in yield performance and productivity.


Assuntos
Grão Comestível , Inflorescência/genética , Meristema/genética , Poaceae/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Hordeum/genética , Hordeum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Hordeum/metabolismo , Inflorescência/anatomia & histologia , Inflorescência/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Inflorescência/metabolismo , Meristema/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Meristema/metabolismo , Meristema/fisiologia , Oryza/genética , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oryza/metabolismo , Poaceae/genética , Poaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum/genética , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum/metabolismo , Zea mays/genética , Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Zea mays/metabolismo
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