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1.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev ; 21(3): 707-714, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32212797

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In our earlier study, we reported the anticancer effect of methanolic extracts of, I. cylindrica leaf (ICL) against human oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines SCC-9. The cytotoxic effect of ICL methanolic extract was specific to the cancer cells and not to the normal cells. The present study aimed to fractionate the ICL methanolic extract to derive anticancer bioactives. METHODS: The ICL methanolic extract was subjected to a bioactivity guided fractionation. Cytotoxic, cell cycle inhibitory, apoptosis and caspase gene expression inducing activity of the active fractions were evaluated using MTT assay, FACS analysis, Annexin V binding assay and RT-PCR respectively. RESULTS: The hexane fraction of ICL methanolic extract (ICLH) was observed to be the most bioactive fraction. It was shown to possess effective cytotoxic and cell cycle inhibitory activities against SCC-9 cells. The hexane fraction also induced apoptosis in SCC-9 cells which was further established at the level of caspase 3 and 8 gene expressions. CONCLUSION: Overall, the results clearly establish the potential of ICLH extract to inhibit cell proliferation and induce apoptosis in the SCC-9 cells. Further analysis of the ICLH fraction could result in development of effective anticancer therapeutics. The natural abundance of I. cylindrica with its wide geographic distribution could make it a preferred natural resource for obtaining novel, cost-effective, anticancer therapeutics with minimal systemic side effects.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Poaceae/química , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/genética , Caspase 3/genética , Caspase 8/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Folhas de Planta/química
2.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(3): 202, 2020 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32107648

RESUMO

Heavy metal-polluted wetlands could be remediated by harvesting metal accumulating plants, i.e., using phytoextraction. We studied a macrophyte Phragmites australis and assessed its potential to be utilized in the phytoremediation of heavy metal-polluted wetlands, specifically in wadis in the Arabian Peninsula. We sampled six polluted wadi sites and measured Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb concentrations in the roots, rhizomes, stems, and leaves of P. australis, as well as in sediment and water. We analyzed the correlations between different plant organs, water, and sediment, and calculated the accumulation and translocation of the metals to the plant organs. We found indications for the accumulation of Cd, Zn, and Pb into P. australis and somewhat contradictory indications for the accumulation of Cu. We suggest that P. australis is a good candidate to be utilized in the phytoremediation of heavy metal-polluted wadis in the Arabian Peninsula where the few wadis offer many valuable ecosystem services for urban citizens.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poaceae , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Biodegradação Ambiental , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Metais Pesados/análise , Metais Pesados/farmacocinética , Poaceae/química , Áreas Alagadas
3.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(3): 1174-1184, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31696525

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Appropriate combinations of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains should be selected to optimize the ensiling process, and the additives should be adjusted to the ensiled forage crops. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of inoculation with three Lactobacillus species on the chemical parameters and microbiological quality (beneficial and harmful microbiota) of grass silage. RESULTS: Three species: L. paracasei (LPa), L. brevis (LB) and L. plantarum (LPl), isolated from sugar beet silage and characterized based on 16S rDNA sequences and biochemical parameters, were analyzed in the study. Single strains and their combinations were used as silage inoculants. The basic chemical and microbiological (qPCR) parameters of silages were determined. Based on the results of agglomerative hierarchical clustering (AHC) and principal component analysis (PCA) it was determined that silages inoculated with single LAB strains and LPa + LB and commercial additive (0+) were the best quality ones, particularly with regard to microbiological parameters and they effectively lowered the pH value. A consortium of three Lactobacillus species had no influence on silage quality, whereas LPa + LB and LPl + LB combinations as well as a commercial additive exerted positive effects. Inoculation inhibited the growth of toxin-producing fungi. CONCLUSION: Only the appropriate LAB composition can improve the quality of the ensiled material (antagonistic relationship). Only the LPa + LB combination was able to improve the value of low dry silage; nevertheless, almost all combinations were able to reduced concentrations of toxin-producing fungi. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/microbiologia , Lactobacillus/metabolismo , Poaceae/microbiologia , Silagem/microbiologia , Ração Animal/análise , Beta vulgaris/microbiologia , Fermentação , Aditivos Alimentares/análise , Fungos/genética , Fungos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Poaceae/química , Silagem/análise
4.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 135: 110941, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31697970

RESUMO

Bamboo leaves soups were subjected to in vitro digestion (including separated oral, gastric and small intestinal digestions, and complete digestion containing above three stages), and their phenolics and antioxidant activities were determined. Compared to control groups, total phenolic content (TPC) in treated groups (including undigested and digested groups) increased at gastric digestion stage but decreased at other digestion stages, and the decrease in small intestinal digestion stage (19.97%) was nearly the same with that in complete digestion stage (19.39%). The antioxidant activity in digested groups almost changed accordingly to their TPC but with no significant difference (p > 0.05) as compared with undigested groups; similar results were found in four main individual phenolics including cryptochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid, neochlorogenic acid and isoorientin, and their contents were negatively correlated to the pH value of digestion buffers (-0.68 < r < -0.80, p < 0.01). These results indicated that the change of phenolic content and antioxidant activity in digested bamboo leaves soups mainly resulted from the pH of digestion buffers rather than digestive enzymes. In addition, the decrease of phenolics may mainly occur at small intestinal digestion stage where the pH value is the highest in the digestive system.


Assuntos
Digestão , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/química , Fenóis/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Poaceae/química , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/análise , Fenóis/análise , Extratos Vegetais/análise
5.
J Chem Ecol ; 46(2): 138-149, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31853816

RESUMO

Chemosensory proteins (CSPs) are thought to play roles in the insect olfactory system by binding and carrying hydrophobic odorants across the aqueous sensillar lymph. The band-winged grasshopper, Oedaleus asiaticus Bei-Bienko, is one of the most important grasshopper pests in northern China, but there is little information about its olfactory system. In order to investigate the olfactory functions of CSPs in this pest, three CSP genes (OasiCSP4, OasiCSP11 and OasiCSP12) were expressed in Escherichia coli, and the binding affinities of the three recombinant CSP proteins were measured for 16 volatiles from the host plant (Stipa krylovii), fecal material and body of live adult O. asiaticus using fluorescence competitive binding assays. To further verify their olfactory functions, RNA interference (RNAi) and electrophysiological recording were conducted. The three recombinant proteins displayed different degrees of binding to various volatiles in ligand-binding assays, with OasiCSP12 having higher binding affinities for more volatiles than OasiCSP4 and OasiCSP11. OasiCSP12 exhibited strong binding affinities (Ki < 20 µΜ) for five host plant volatiles and one volatile from the live body of adult O. asiaticus. The transcript levels of the three OasiCSP genes were significantly lower after silencing the individual genes by RNAi, which in turn reduced the EAG responses in adults of both sexes to most tested compounds. Our study indicates that these three OasiCSPs are involved in the detection of volatile semiochemicals, and may play important roles in finding host plants and in aggregation in O. asiaticus.


Assuntos
Gafanhotos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Receptores Odorantes/metabolismo , Animais , Ligação Competitiva , Feminino , Proteínas de Insetos/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Masculino , Poaceae/química , Poaceae/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Interferência de RNA , RNA de Cadeia Dupla/metabolismo , Receptores Odorantes/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores Odorantes/química , Proteínas Recombinantes/biossíntese , Proteínas Recombinantes/química , Proteínas Recombinantes/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo
6.
Chemosphere ; 240: 124965, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31726610

RESUMO

To investigate the effects of spatial expansion between native invasive species (Phragmites australis) and commom native species (Cyperus malaccensis) on variations of micro-elements (Pb, Cr, Cu, Zn, Ni, Cd and As) in decomposing litters in the Min River estuary, in situ filed decomposition experiment was conducted in P. australis (PA) community (before expansion, BE), C. malaccensis (CM) community (before expansion, BE) and P. australis-C. malaccensis (PA'-CM') community (during expansion, DE) from February 2016 to February 2017 by space-for- time substitution method. Results showed that the decomposition of C. malaccensis were faster than those of P. australis whether at BE stage or at DE stage. The decomposition rate of PA' increased by 24.40% compared to PA whereas the value of CM' decreased by 15.67% compared with CM. The concentrations of Pb, Cu, Zn, Ni, Cd and As in decomposing litters of P. australis (PA and PA') and C. malaccensis (CM and CM') generally showed increasing tendency and the values in the former were significantly lower than those in the latter (p < 0.05). The physicochemical sorption onto recalcitrant organic fractions and the substrate quality (C/N and M/C ratios) of decomposing litters were two important factors affecting the differences in As/metals variations between species. The levels of Cr in decaying litters increased initially and decreased afterward, and the values in P. australis were significantly higher than those in C. malaccensis (p < 0.05). Whether at BE stage or at DE stage, stocks of As/metals in decomposing litters of P. australis (PA and PA') were generally higher than those of C. malaccensis (CM and CM'). The lower stocks of As/metals in CM or CM' might be more dependent on its lower mass remaining. Compared with PA at BE stage, the accumulation of As/metals in decomposing litters of PA' at DE stage decreased greatly, which might be ascribed to the lower precipitation of metal sulfides in PA'. Stocks of Zn, Ni, Cd and Cr in CM' and stocks of Cr in PA' generally evidenced the export of metals from decomposing litter to environment, indicating that the potential exposure risk of Zn, Ni, Cd and Cr might be increased as CM was invading by PA. This study found that the spatial expansion between P. australis and C. malaccensis not only altered the stocks of As/metals in decomposing litters but also increased the exposure risk of Zn, Ni, Cd and Cr in ecotone. In future, as the ecological functions of ecotone was precisely evaluated during the expansion of the two plants in the Min River estuary, the alterations of litter decomposition rates and the exposure risks of Zn, Ni and Cd caused by CM' should be emphasized.


Assuntos
Arsênico/análise , Cyperus/química , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Estuários , Espécies Introduzidas , Metais Pesados/análise , Poaceae/química , China , Sedimentos Geológicos/análise , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Rios/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
7.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(12): 750, 2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31728745

RESUMO

Wetlands are important carbon (C) pools for terrestrial ecosystems, and C stored in different types of wetlands accounts for about 30% of total terrestrial C. As one of the most important ecological barriers in Shanghai, with functions of climate regulation, interception, and purification, and as a C sink, the Jiuduansha wetland has received research attention. However, little research has been done on the spatial differences in amount of average annual net C accumulation and C storage of each shoal: Jiangya Nansha, Shangsha, and Zhongxiasha. In this study, plant biomass, plant organic C, soil respiration, soil organic C content, and soil bulk density of different vegetation zones in the three shoals were analyzed to determine the spatial variability of annual net C accumulation capability and soil organic C storage of the Jiuduansha wetland. The results showed that the Zhongxiasha shoal played the most important role as a C sink, and it accumulated 77,839.44 t organic C per year. Regarding the annual C accumulation capacity per unit area, the Phragmites communis zone was higher than for all other vegetation zones, indicating that P. communis had the greatest C accumulation capacity. 7835.38 t, 46,827.41 t, and 173,623.1 t of organic C were stored in the Jiangya Nansha, Shangsha, and Zhongxiasha shoals, respectively. The C storage in soil was closely related to annual C accumulation, and there were two main reasons for the difference of spatial pattern of annual C accumulation: biomass and properties of plants and the properties of tidal water.


Assuntos
Carbono/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poaceae/química , Rios/química , Solo/química , Biomassa , China , Ecossistema , Estuários , Plantas , Áreas Alagadas
8.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(46): 12962-12971, 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31644281

RESUMO

Ferulate (FA) units esterified to grass arabinoxylans are involved in cross-linking cell wall polymers. In this work, this contention is strengthened by the identification of FA homo- and heterodimers esterified to methyl arabinofuranoside (MeAra) units after their release from the xylan by mild acidolysis in dioxane/methanol/HCl. Acidolysis of poorly lignified maize bran cell walls provided diferulate (DFA) isomers, including those from 8-5, 8-O-4, and 5-5 interunit bonding, esterified to one or two MeAra units. Acidolysis of lignified grass samples released crossed dimers esterified to one MeAra unit and derived from the ß-O-4 coupling of coniferyl alcohol to FA esters. The evaluation of these heterodimeric esters by LC-UV of their aglycones revealed that the parent structures occur in significant amounts in lignified cell walls (0.5-1 mg/g expressed as FA equivalents). The present results position mild acidolysis as an efficient strategy to obtain improved details regarding the FA-mediated cross-linking of grass cell walls.


Assuntos
Arabinose/química , Parede Celular/química , Ácidos Cumáricos/química , Poaceae/química , Ácidos/química , Dimerização , Ésteres/química , Hidrólise , Lignina/química , Fenóis/química , Zea mays/química
9.
Mikrochim Acta ; 186(10): 678, 2019 09 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31515633

RESUMO

Nanosheets of a porous layered double hydroxide were directionally arranged on boehmite nanowires and porous carbon and used as a coating for solid-phase microextraction (SPME) method. Porous carbon tubes were prepared from goat grass and then coated with layered double hydroxide nanosheets and boehmite nanowires. The nanomaterial was placed on a stainless-steel wire which then was used for the extraction of fifteen agrochemicals from aqueous sample solutions. The extraction temperature, extraction time, ionic strength, stirring rate, and desorption temperature and time were optimized. Following thermal desorption of the agrochemicals in the injector of the gas chromatograph, they were quantified by GC/MS. Under optimum conditions, the repeatability for one fiber, expressed as relative standard deviation, was between 2.9 and 11.1%. The detection limits for the agrochemicals are between 2-29 ng L-1. The method is simple, fast, and inexpensive (in terms of equipment). The fiber is thermally stable, and the relative recoveries from spiked samples are better compared to conventional methods of extraction. Graphical abstract Schematic illustration of the preparation of three-dimensional hierarchical boehmite/ layered double hydroxides/ porous carbon (Boeh/LDH/pC) SPME fibers and application for the extraction of fifteen agrochemicals from aqueous sample solutions following quantification by GC/MS.


Assuntos
Agroquímicos/química , Nanocompostos/química , Praguicidas/análise , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Microextração em Fase Sólida/instrumentação , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Hidróxido de Alumínio/química , Óxido de Alumínio/química , Carbono/química , Hidróxidos/química , Poaceae/química , Aço Inoxidável/química
10.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 184: 109654, 2019 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31522059

RESUMO

The persistence of soil contamination after cessation of oil activities remains a major environmental issue in tropical regions. The assessment of the contamination is particularly difficult on vegetated sites, but promising advances in reflectance spectroscopy have recently emerged for this purpose. This study aimed to exploit vegetation reflectance for estimating low concentrations of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) in soils. A greenhouse experiment was carried out for 42 days on Cenchrus alopecuroides (L.) under realistic tropical conditions. The species was grown on oil-contaminated mud pit soils from industrial sites, with various concentrations of TPH. After 42 days, a significant decrease in plant growth and leaf chlorophyll and carotenoid contents was observed for plants exposed to 5-19 g kg-1 TPH in comparison to the controls (p < 0.05). Conversely, pigment contents were higher for plants exposed to 1 g kg-1 TPH (hormesis phenomenon). These modifications proportionally affected the reflectance of C. alopecuroides at leaf and plant scales, especially in the visible region around 550 and 700 nm. 33 vegetation indices were used for linking the biochemical and spectral responses of the species to oil using elastic net regressions. The established models indicated that chlorophylls a and b and ß-carotene were the main pigments involved in the modifications of reflectance (R2 > 0.7). The same indices also succeeded in estimating the concentrations of TPH using random forest regression, at leaf and plant scales (RMSE = 1.46 and 1.63 g kg-1 and RPD = 5.09 and 4.44, respectively). Four out of the 33 indices contributed the most to the models (>75%). This study opens up encouraging perspectives for monitoring the cessation of oil activities in tropical regions. Further researches will focus on the application of our approach at larger scale, on airborne and satellite imagery.


Assuntos
Poluição por Petróleo/análise , Petróleo/análise , Poaceae/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Solo/química , Clorofila/metabolismo , Aprendizado de Máquina , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Poaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Microbiologia do Solo , Análise Espectral , Clima Tropical
11.
Poult Sci ; 98(11): 5820-5830, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31392330

RESUMO

The addition of fiber in chick feeds is known to dilute nutrients; as a result, this may reduce nutrient digestibility and performance. However, recent studies suggest that moderate inclusion of insoluble fibers (2 to 3%) may stimulate gizzard development, which could result in better nutrient utilization and chick growth. The previous fiber sources evaluated were subject to wide fluctuation in their nutritional and chemical composition due to variation in processing. Miscanthus giganteus is a C4 grass purposefully grown for its fiber content which has a consistent fiber composition compared to food process residues. The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of dietary fiber source and particle size on day-old chick performance and nutrient digestibility. Day-old chicks (8 chicks per cage, 5 cages per treatment) were fed diets containing 3% of either sepiolite (SEP), cellulose (CEL), coarse beet pulp (BP), fine BP, coarse Miscanthus grass (MG), and fine MG. At the end of days 7, 14, and 21, chicks and experimental diets were weighed to compute average daily gain and feed intake. In addition, excreta from the previous 48 h of each data capture point was collected to determine nutrient digestibility. In general, chicks fed diets containing fiber consumed more feed, gained more weight, and had better feed conversion rate than birds fed the SEP diet. Particle size of the fiber had no effect on chick performance; however, nutrient utilization was higher (P < 0.05) for chicks fed coarse fiber particles compared to these fed fine fiber particles. Birds fed diets containing MG performed similar to chicks fed CEL (P > 0.05), but digestibility coefficients of birds fed BP diets were generally higher than chicks fed MG diets. In conclusion, chicks performed better with fiber in their diet and MG was comparable to CEL.


Assuntos
Galinhas/fisiologia , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Nutrientes/fisiologia , Tamanho da Partícula , Poaceae/química , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Beta vulgaris/química , Celulose/administração & dosagem , Celulose/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Fibras na Dieta/classificação , Silicatos de Magnésio/administração & dosagem , Silicatos de Magnésio/metabolismo , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória
12.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(28): 29379-29387, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31396877

RESUMO

It aimed to investigate and evaluate the soil amelioration process of bauxite residues with the amendments of organic materials from different sources. Wheat straw, poultry manure compost, and biosolids were chosen as the added organic materials. A series of essential soil properties were analyzed to evaluate the effects of organic materials on the soil amelioration of bauxite residue. The results indicated that organic amendments could obviously improve the texture of bauxite residues by increasing large aggregates contents, and elevating its organic matter content and fertility level (such as TN and TP). At the same time, organic additions were effective in reducing bauxite residues' salinity as pH, electrical conductivity and sodium content were obviously decreased in all rehabilitated treatments in comparison with control treatment. These improvements created sufficient conditions for a quick recovery of microbial communities in bauxite residues matrix. The maximum microbial biomass C increased to 0.642 g-C·kg-1, and the activities of urease, catalase, and invertase were massively elevated, especially for those after a year of rehabilitation, although alkali-phosphatase was kept a less level compared with other biological parameters. The further principal analysis and cluster analysis indicated that after 1 year of organic amendment, the improved bauxite residues matrix was very close to the reference soil based on the measured soil microbial properties. All the results suggested that organic amendment is an effective way to stimulate the soil amelioration of bauxite residues, and among the three amended organic materials, wheat straw and biosolid were better in improving the abiotic environmental conditions as well as biotic function recovery in soil amelioration of bauxite residue.


Assuntos
Óxido de Alumínio/química , Poaceae/química , Solo/química , Biomassa , Compostagem , Esterco , Microbiologia do Solo
13.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(34): 9460-9467, 2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31381328

RESUMO

Understanding the water isotopes in feed products derived from grass is fundamental for tracing domestic animal products. Grass silage water was reported to have fewer heavy isotopes than fresh grass, but it is still unknown whether dew formation (either dewfall or dewrise), exchange with soil water, or other processes override the expected enrichment of heavy isotopes due to wilting. The isotopic variations of water (δ2H, δ18O) in fresh grass and cut grass during wilting on soil and on plastic were compared in this study. Drying enriched heavier isotopes, but this was overridden by three processes that finally caused low δ2H and δ18O values: (i) the adsorption of humidity from the surroundings, (ii) the exchange with humidity, and (iii) the depletion of heavy water isotopes close to organic surfaces, called the surface effect, which was the most dominant effect at the end of drying when the water content became low.


Assuntos
Isótopos de Oxigênio/análise , Poaceae/química , Água/química , Deutério/análise , Pradaria , Umidade , Silagem/análise , Solo/química
14.
Talanta ; 205: 120126, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31450397

RESUMO

Inspired by the porous and fibrous structure of commercially available bamboo, herein we created an l-glutaminase enzyme reactor based on bamboo sticks. The enzyme was immobilized onto the bamboo sticks through a glutaraldehyde modification to achieve covalent bonding. The enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency of the prepared l-glutaminase@bamboo sticks based porous enzyme reactor was evaluated by chiral ligand exchange capillary electrochromatography using l-glutamine as the substrate. l-glutaminase@bamboo exhibited improved enzymatic hydrolysis performances, including high hydrolysis efficiency (maximum rate Vmax: two fold higher than the free enzyme), prolonged stability (14 days) and good reusability. l-Glutaminase@bamboo sticks also expanded application capability in pharmaceutical industry in enzyme inhibitor screening. These excellent properties could be attributed to the micropores of bamboo sticks, which led to the fast enzymatic kinetics. The results suggest that the pores of bamboo sticks played an important role in the proposed enzyme reactor during the hydrolysis of l-glutamine and l-glutaminase inhibitor screening.


Assuntos
Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos/métodos , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Glutaminase/antagonistas & inibidores , Glutaminase/metabolismo , Poaceae/química , Estabilidade Enzimática , Enzimas Imobilizadas/antagonistas & inibidores , Enzimas Imobilizadas/química , Enzimas Imobilizadas/metabolismo , Glutaminase/química , Glutaral/metabolismo , Cinética , Porosidade , Propriedades de Superfície
15.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 146: 671-677, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426208

RESUMO

This research attempted to investigate the plant/soil concentration ratios (CRs) of 137Cs and 40K in plants that grow on the Anzali Lagoon of the Caspian coast, Iran. The activity concentrations of 137Cs and 40K were measured in soil samples, annual plants (Echinochloa crus-galli, Digitaria sanguinalis, and Trifolium repens), and perennial plants (Phragmites australis, and Cynodon dactylon). The relationship of activity concentration with soil particle density, and pH of soil samples, CR, and 137Cs/40K discrimination factor (DF) were determined. The activity concentration of 137Cs in the soil, annual plants, and perennial plants ranged between 12- and 124 (Bq/kg dry weight), 2- and 17 (Bq/kg dw), and 2 - and 14 (Bq/kg dw), respectively. The geometric mean (GM) values of DF in annual and perennial plants were 0.57 and 0.55, respectively. The CR for 137Cs and 40K varied as a non-linear relation in annual plants and perennial plants. This study showed that the CRs for 137Cs in annual plants were higher than the CRs for perennial plants.


Assuntos
Radioisótopos de Césio/análise , Poaceae/química , Radioisótopos de Potássio/análise , Poluentes Radioativos do Solo/análise , Cynodon/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Irã (Geográfico) , Solo/química
16.
Mol Biol Rep ; 46(5): 4843-4860, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31297714

RESUMO

Gastric ulcer is a common problem affecting the gastrointestinal tract. Spirulina and wheatgrass are natural substances that have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. The aim of the Work was to elucidate the possible protective role of spirulina and wheatgrass versus standard treatment esomeprazole on indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer in adult male albino rats. Eighty adult male albino rats were divided into eight groups: group I (the control group), group II that received indomethacin (100 mg/kg orally), group III that received esomeprazole (20 mg/kg orally), group IV that received spirulina (1000 mg/kg orally), group V that received wheatgrass (1000 mg/kg orally), group VI that received indomethacin (100 mg/kg) + esomeprazole (20 mg/kg), group VII that received indomethacin (100 mg/kg) + spirulina (1000 mg/kg) and group VIII that received indomethacin (100 mg/kg) + wheatgrass (1000 mg/kg). Six hours after indomethacin treatment, all rats were anesthetized and their stomachs obtained for measures of gastric acidity, pepsin activity, mucin content, gastrin, ulcer index, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), tumor necrosis factor -α (TNF-α), interleukin-8 (IL8), proapoptotic protein (Bax). Histological (using H&E stain, PAS reaction) and immunohistochemical (using anti Ki67 immunostain) techniques were performed. Western immunoblot analysis for heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) was also done. Moreover, a morphometric study was done for area% of positive immunoreactive cells for Ki67 and optical density and area% of PAS reaction. All performed measurements were followed by statistical analysis. Indomethacin induced loss of normal architecture of gastric mucosa with sloughing of surface epithelium and inflammatory cellular infiltration. It also led to a significant increase in gastric acidity, inflammatory mediators (TNF-α, IL-8), pro-apoptotic protein Bax and a significant decrease in TAC levels and HSP-70 expression. There was also a significant decrease in area% of Ki67 immunoreactivity and area% and optical density of PAS reaction as compared with the control group and other pre-treated rats. These disturbed parameters were associated with increased ulcer index. In pre-treatment groups, the structure of the mucosa was similar to control with marked improvement in the biochemical assay. In conclusion, Spirulina and wheatgrass can partly protect the gastric mucosa against indomethacin-induced damage to a degree similar to that of the classical treatment esomeprazole.


Assuntos
Esomeprazol/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Poaceae/química , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Spirulina/química , Úlcera Gástrica/tratamento farmacológico , Úlcera Gástrica/etiologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Biomarcadores , Biópsia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Esomeprazol/química , Imuno-Histoquímica , Indometacina/efeitos adversos , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Masculino , Fenótipo , Extratos Vegetais/química , Substâncias Protetoras/química , Ratos , Úlcera Gástrica/metabolismo , Úlcera Gástrica/patologia
17.
Chemosphere ; 235: 849-857, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31284133

RESUMO

China has considered different environmental management measures (EMMs) in mining areas. However, their effects remain unclarified. In this study, the achievements and limitations of different EMMs of a typical mining area-Huangchang realgar mine-located in Hunan province were explored. The variations in the arsenic concentrations in the soil, agricultural products, drinking water, and atmosphere in 25 years of EMM implementation were investigated. Source control measures, such as ceasing mining and smelting activities, disposal of waste residues, and purifying wastewater, significantly reduced the arsenic concentrations in the atmosphere and surface water by more than 99%-from 68 µg m-3 and 0.42 mg L-1 to 3.63 ng m-3 and 4.31 µg L-1, respectively. The arsenic concentrations in agricultural products decreased by more than 78.8%-from 1.32 mg kg-1 in wheat to 0.28 mg kg-1 in vegetable and 0.13 mg kg-1 in maize-after the planting structure adjustment (PSA). However, the chronic daily intake of arsenic via product ingestion was 1.5 times higher than the benchmark dose lower confidence limit. Natural attenuation measures exerted limited effects on soil remediation; the arsenic concentration in the soil decreased insignificantly from 291.9 mg kg-1 to 213.3 mg kg-1. With the current attenuation rate, decreasing the soil arsenic concentration to under 30 mg kg-1 would require 47,900 years. The exceeding contaminant concentration in the resuspended dust, surface runoff, and agricultural products from the contaminated soil must be considered. China's EMMs in mining areas have achieved significant results, but the contaminated soil requires more attention and the PSA should accommodate the dietary habits and economic limits.


Assuntos
Arsênico/análise , Produtos Agrícolas/química , Água Potável/química , Mineração , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Solo/química , Agricultura , China , Poeira/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Poaceae/química , Eliminação de Resíduos
18.
Molecules ; 24(13)2019 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31284563

RESUMO

The aroma profiles of bread crusts made from intermediate wheatgrass (Thinopyrum intermedium) and whole wheat (Triticum aestivum) flours were compared. Based on gas chromatography/mass spectrometry/olfactometry analysis, twenty-four odorants were identified and further quantified. The concentrations of seventeen compounds were significantly different between intermediate wheatgrass and whole wheat bread crusts, of which sixteen compounds were higher in the whole wheat sample. The aroma profiles of the bread samples were subsequently characterized using sensory descriptive analysis (DA) and indicated that the roasted attribute was perceived at a significantly higher intensity in the whole wheat sample due to a greater amount of Maillard reaction compounds. Alternatively, bran and green notes were perceived at higher intensities in the intermediate wheatgrass sample, however they were not attributed to the presence of specific compounds but rather to a change in the aroma composition. Aroma recombination DA of the whole wheat and intermediate wheatgrass aroma models was similar to the original aroma profiles of the bread samples, demonstrating the sensory relevance of the identified odorants.


Assuntos
Pão/análise , Odorantes/análise , Poaceae/química , Triticum/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Olfatometria , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
19.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 84: 133-143, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31284905

RESUMO

In this study, raw Arundo donax (A. donax) pieces were applied as carbon source and biofilm carriers for denitrification in a lab-scale moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) for the treatment of reverse osmosis concentrate gathered from local wastewater reuse plant. At stable phase (about 60 days), efficient denitrification performance was obtained with 73.2% ±â€¯19.5% NO3--N average removal and 8.10 ±â€¯3.45 g N/(m3·day) NO3--N average volumetric removal rate. Mass balance analysis showed that 4.84 g A. donax was required to remove 1 g TN. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis results showed that the copy numbers of 16S r-RNA, narG, nirS, nosZ and anammox gene of carrier biofilm and suspended activated sludge in the declination phase (BF2 and AS2) were lower than those of samples in the stable phase (BF1 and AS1), and relatively higher copy numbers of nirS and nirK genes with lower abundance of narG and nosZ genes were observed. High-throughput sequencing analysis was conducted for BF2 and AS2, and similar dominant phyla and classes with different abundance were obtained. The class Gammaproteobacteria affiliated with the phylum Proteobacteria was the most dominant microbial community in both BF2 (52.6%) and AS2 (41.7%). The PICRUSt prediction results indicated that 33 predictive specific genes were related to denitrification process, and the relative abundance of 18 predictive specific genes in BF2 were higher than those in AS2.


Assuntos
Reatores Biológicos/microbiologia , Desnitrificação , Consórcios Microbianos , Nitrogênio/isolamento & purificação , Poaceae/química , Poaceae/microbiologia , Purificação da Água
20.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 182: 109428, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31302331

RESUMO

Field coupled samples in soil and grass were collected to determine the concentrations and identify the uptake pathways of PCBs into the grass at a pasture from Scotland, UK. Concentrations of indicator PCBs (∑7PCBs) in soils ranged from 0.20 to 0.88 ng g-1 dw (dry weight), with a mean of 0.33 ng g-1 dw, and in grass ranged from 0.20 to 2.14 ng g-1 dw, with a mean of 0.48 ng g-1 dw. The comprehensive factors of low concentrations and detection rate (PCB28: 18.8%; PCB52: 37.5%) of PCBs in soil, as well as continuously declined air concentrations of PCBs in the UK since the 1990s suggested that the secondary emission from the soil is becoming the supplied source of PCBs to air and grass. The significant correlations between bioconcentration factor (BCF) values and the log KOW (R = -0.850, p < 0.05) and log KOA (R = -0.860, p < 0.05) of indicator PCB congeners were found in the present study, indicating that these two parameters are likely to affect the bioaccumulation and uptake of grass. A generic one-compartment model was employed to identify uptake pathways of grass and evaluate the uptake amounts for PCBs. This suggested that the most important pathway for uptake of PCBs by grass was at the aerial part, and the difference of PCBs concentrations between leaves and roots was about four orders of magnitude. Removing and risk transfer of PCBs or other organic pollutants by grass need to be investigated and assessed further.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Poaceae/química , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Solo/química , Poluentes Ambientais/análise
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