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1.
Estud. pesqui. psicol. (Impr.) ; 18(4): 1118-1136, out.-dez. 2019. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos técnico-científicos | ID: biblio-994978

RESUMO

O presente artigo objetivou realizar uma análise sobre como a temática da pobreza tem historicamente comparecido nos estudos e parâmetros de atuação profissional do psicólogo brasileiro. Foi realizada uma revisão bibliográfica acerca do objeto de estudo, o resgate de produções pertinentes sobre a relação da Psicologia brasileira com a pobreza ao longo de seu desenvolvimento, bem como de documentos e parametrizações do Conselho Federal de Psicologia. Observamos um crescimento do envolvimento da Psicologia com a pobreza e demais expressões da "questão social", atrelado com a maior vinculação da profissão com as políticas públicas e sociais. O debate entre "questão social", pobreza e Psicologia, contextualizado em diferentes fases do capitalismo, face às particularidades brasileiras e atual conjuntura, evidencia as contradições: autocrítica acerca do distanciamento com a realidade brasileira e insuficiências teórico-práticas, mas com a hegemonia na Psicologia ainda se fazendo valer por meio de leituras e práticas individualizantes, psicologizantes, perpetradoras da ordem. Dessa forma, uma Psicologia compromissada com a compreensão e superação da pobreza, assim como do sistema que a forja e nela se sustenta, requer a identificação e libertação de sua própria pobreza.(AU)


The present article aims to analyze how the issue of poverty has historically appeared in studies and parameters of the professional work of Brazilian psychologists. A bibliographic review about the object of the study was elaborated, with the retrieval of relevant works about the relationship between Brazilian Psychology and poverty throughout its development, as well as documents and parametrizations of the Federal Council of Psychology. We see an increase in the involvement of Psychology with poverty and other expressions of the "social issue", linked to the greater bondage of the profession with public and social policies. The debate between "social issue", poverty and Psychology, contextualized in different phases of capitalism, in view of the Brazilian characteristics and current situation, shows the following contradictions: self-criticism about distancing from Brazilian reality and theoretical-practical insufficiencies, but with the hegemony in Psychology still being enforced through individualizing, psychologizing readings and practices, perpetrating the order. In this way, a Psychology committed to understanding and overcoming poverty, as well as the system that forges and sustains it, requires the identification and liberation of its own poverty.(AU)


El presente artículo apuntó a realizar un análisis sobre cómo la temática de la pobreza ha formado parte históricamente en los estudios y parámetros de actuación profesional del psicólogo brasileño. Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica acerca del objeto de estudio y un rescate de producciones pertinentes sobre la relación de la Psicología brasileña con la pobreza a lo largo de su desarrollo, así como de documentos del Consejo Federal de Psicología. Observamos un crecimiento de la implicación de la Psicología con la pobreza y demás expresiones de la cuestión social, vinculada con la mayor ligazón de la profesión con las políticas públicas y sociales. El debate entre "cuestión social", pobreza y Psicología, contextualizado en diferentes fases del capitalismo, frente a las particularidades brasileñas y la coyuntura actual, evidencia las siguientes contradicciones: autocrítica acerca del distanciamiento con la realidad brasileña y las insuficiencias teórico-prácticas, empero existe una hegemonía en la Psicología que todavía se hace valer por medio de lecturas y prácticas individualizantes, psicologizantes, perpetradoras del orden. Así, una Psicología comprometida con la comprensión y superación de la pobreza y con el sistema que la forja y en ella se sustenta, requiere de la identificación y liberación de su propia pobreza.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Pobreza/psicologia , Sociologia/história , Capitalismo , Psicologia , Política Pública , Brasil , História
2.
Isr Med Assoc J ; 21(11): 707-709, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31713355

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Giacomo Ceruti was a renowned painter in northern Italy during the middle third of the 18th century, although he is not well-known today. He produced pictures in several different genres but his reputation after his death was based primarily on his portrayal of beggars and poor working people; hence, his posthumous nickname, il Pitocchetto, the little beggar. Of medico-artistic interest is the realism with which he depicted the hands of his impoverished subjects, a quality that enables them to be examined for signs of pathology or trauma. The present article displays some representative examples of hand deformities in Ceruti's paintings, thus extending into the 18th century the authors' previous research on medical aspects of art works from the 15th to the 17th century.


Assuntos
Deformidades da Mão , Pinturas , História do Século XVII , História do Século XVIII , Humanos , Itália , Pobreza
3.
JAMA ; 322(17): 1713-1714, 2019 11 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31688877
4.
JAMA ; 322(17): 1714-1715, 2019 11 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31688881
7.
Rev Sci Tech ; 38(1): 135-144, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564734

RESUMO

Infectious diseases are known to disproportionately affect the poorer sectors of society, particularly those living in low- and middle-income countries. These vulnerable populations battle disease, debt, loss of livelihood and reduced economic well-being with consequences that extend to their families, communities, livestock and the environment. A strong One Health approach is acknowledged as a successful way of enhancing current capacity for the prevention and control of emerging infectious diseases. Furthermore, it is also an effective way to address the multifaceted nuances of poverty. In recognising the interconnectedness of human and animal health with the health of our shared environment, One Health offers a valuable framework to prevent and control emerging infectious diseases through collaboration, coordination and communication across the various sectors involved. In recent years, as examples of One Health implementation have been documented and assessed, the linkages between One Health interventions and poverty alleviation have become more obvious. One Health interventions have the potential to reduce the economic burden of disease and create more efficient systems and approaches that generate higher savings, both direct and indirect, at the human-animal-environment interface. This paper describes aspects of this potential in detail. Although, at present, examples of the relationship between One Health and poverty alleviation are few, they are compelling. The authors believe that they provide persuasive evidence to encourage governments and policy-makers to employ the One Health approach in their efforts to alleviate poverty. Measuring the impact of this link between One Health and poverty alleviation has its constraints since appropriate metrics are still evolving. However, this paper hopes to establish the wisdom of recognising the role that One Health can play in reducing poverty, as well as its capacity to enhance existing policy frameworks.


Assuntos
Política de Saúde , Saúde Única , Pobreza , Animais , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Países em Desenvolvimento/economia , Política de Saúde/tendências , Humanos , Gado , Pobreza/prevenção & controle
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(39): e17376, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31574887

RESUMO

This study aimed to compare the catastrophic health expenditure (CHE) and impoverishment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients between 2 ethnic groups and explore the contribution of associated factors to ethnic differences in CHE and impoverishment in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, China.A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2 public hospitals from October 2016 to June 2017. Data were collected by interviewing eligible Hui and Han T2DM inpatients and reviewing the hospital electronic records. Both CHE and impoverishment were measured by headcount and gap. The contributions of associated factors to ethnic differences were analyzed by the Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition technique.Both the CHE and impoverishment of Hui patients before and after reimbursement were significantly higher than those of Han patients. The ethnic differences in CHE and impoverishment headcount after reimbursement were 11.9% and 9.8%, respectively. The different distributions of associated factors between Hui and Han patients contributed to 60.5% and 35.7% of ethnic differences in CHE and impoverishment, respectively. Household income, occupation, and region were significant contributing factors.Hui T2DM patients suffered greater CHE and impoverishment than Han patients regardless of reimbursements from health insurance. Differences in socioeconomic status between Hui and Han patients were the main factors behind the ethnic differences.


Assuntos
Doença Catastrófica/economia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/economia , Gastos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Seguro Saúde/economia , Pobreza/economia , Idoso , China , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etnologia , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Socioeconômicos
9.
Rev Med Suisse ; 15(669): 1987-1990, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31663699

RESUMO

This article addresses the issue of health inequalities and the measures allowing to reduce them. Starting from the observation that, in Switzerland like in the rest of the world, health gaps between the riches and the poorest are still very marked, this article questions the role that health promotion and prevention can play in the fight against this phenomenon. The main approaches allowing to reduce inequalities are presented and illustrated with examples : the universal approach, the targeted approach and proportionate universalism. This last approach appears as the ideal towards which all health promotion and prevention actions should converge in order to reduce health inequalities all along the social gradient. However, its translation into prevention measures remains subject to interpretation. Therefore, the article ends with a set of recommendations for the elaboration of measures aiming to reduce health inequalities.


Assuntos
Promoção da Saúde , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Humanos , Pobreza , Suíça/epidemiologia
11.
J Dent Educ ; 83(9): 1057-1064, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31477584

RESUMO

Pipeline programs aim to increase the representation of underrepresented minorities in the dental profession. At New York University College of Dentistry (NYUCD), two dental students initiated the development of a pipeline program for high school students called Saturday Academy. The purpose of the program is twofold: to mentor and coach underrepresented minority and low-income high school students through the college application process, and to expose them to the field of dentistry as a viable career option through both didactic and hands-on learning. The aim of this pilot study was to determine outcomes for the first five years (2013-17) of the Saturday Academy pipeline program at NYUCD with regard to the high school students' experience with the program and their career interests after high school graduation. Across five cohorts, a total of 82 students participated in Saturday Academy. A "where are you now?" survey sent to 72 participants who reported high school graduation years between 2013 and 2018 received a response rate of 76%. The survey results showed that all (100%) of the responding Saturday Academy participants had graduated from high school and were enrolled in college, and 71% were interested in health profession careers. Almost half (47%) of the students self-identified as being pre-dental, and 96% reported that Saturday Academy had increased their interest in the dental profession. These pilot results justified an expansion of Saturday Academy at NYUCD in both size and creation of an alumni outreach initiative. Other dental schools may benefit from the strategies used by this program in establishing or expanding their pipeline programs.


Assuntos
Escolha da Profissão , Odontologia , Educação em Odontologia , Faculdades de Odontologia , Estudantes de Odontologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/psicologia , Feminino , Ocupações em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Grupos Minoritários/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde das Minorias , New York , Projetos Piloto , Pobreza , Instituições Acadêmicas , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades
12.
Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo ; 61: e48, 2019 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31531626

RESUMO

School-age children are a social group in which blood collection for laboratory testing can be perceived as an invasive procedure, with low acceptance and tolerance of stakeholders. This problem could be circumvented by replacing serum samples with saliva. For this purpose, and to make the collection of saliva samples playful and instructive for children, educational activities on hygiene and toxoplasmosis transmission and prevention were performed using toys and audiovisual tools. The target audience consisted of 7-10 year-old children from low-income families who attended public schools in the city of São Paulo. Saliva samples were used in a previously described in-house Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISA) to detect anti- Toxoplasma gondii IgG antibodies and establish the immunological status of each of the participants. One year later, children's memory and fixation of concepts regarding hygiene habits, as well as transmission and prevention of toxoplasmosis were tested in the same schools, by means of a questionnaire application, using students who did not participate in the first intervention as controls. The prevalence of positive anti- T. gondii IgG among students was 50% (82/164). One year later, 45 children had more knowledge on toxoplasmosis (28/45 vs 29/147) and they drew the cat's involvement in the transmission of toxoplasmosis more often than controls (28/45 vs 29/147). Sorted according to the presence of specific IgG in saliva, recovered positive students presented worse memory of the above cited knowledge as did saliva-negative IgG students, but both groups had isolated higher frequency of fixed knowledge than non-intervened students. Our data show that there is a high prevalence of T. gondii infection in school-children from low-income areas; saliva is an alternative to blood for anti- T. gondii IgG detection; and a one-day educational intervention in school-children was effective in promoting knowledge fixation on hygiene and toxoplasmosis transmission and prevention after one year.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/análise , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Higiene , Imunoglobulina G/análise , Saliva/parasitologia , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Criança , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pobreza , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529186

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Differences in the health status and health behavior of children and adolescents are analyzed, taking the income situation of the family into account. METHOD: The data is based on the second wave of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS Wave 2, 2014-2017). Health outcomes are the subjective health, chronic health limitations, mental disorders, ADHD, consumption of fresh fruit, consumption of sugary soft drinks, physical activity, sports activity during leisure time, overweight, and obesity. The income situation is recorded using the equivalized household income. RESULTS: Poor children and adolescents are more likely to have health problems than their peers from the middle- and, especially, the high-income group; their health behavior is less favorable. The biggest relative income-related differences are found in subjective health. With statistical control for parental education and occupational status, income-related differences in health status remain consistent while being significantly reduced for health behavior. DISCUSSION: The results confirm that low family income has a significant impact on the health of children and adolescents. Partly, this also applies to their health behavior, whereby the observed differences between the income groups can be attributed mainly to parental education and occupational status. This shows once again that children and adolescents growing up in poverty should be a key target group for prevention and health promotion.


Assuntos
Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Nível de Saúde , Pobreza , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Alemanha , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos
14.
Rev Saude Publica ; 53: 62, 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483004

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the " Energía, la justa " program, aimed at reducing energy poverty in the city of Barcelona, from the point of view of the target population and the workers involved in the intervention. METHODS: A qualitative, descriptive and exploratory pilot study was carried out, with a phenomenological approach. Twelve semi-structured interviews were conducted: to three users, three energy agents who performed interventions in the homes, and six professionals who participated in the program coordination. A thematic content analysis was carried out using Atlas-ti software . Interviews were conducted between October 2016 and March 2017. RESULTS: Trust in a contact person (e.g. social workers) facilitated the participation, although there were difficulties reaching people who had illegal energy supplies, immigrant women or immigrants who subrent properties. Regarding implementation, home visits, energy efficiency advice and the relationship with energy agents were the best assessed aspects. However, not being able to carry out reforms in deteriorated dwellings was considered a limitation. The program also contributed to raise awareness on energy rights, to save on utility bills and to generate tranquility and social support. CONCLUSIONS: Programs such as this one can promote energy empowerment and improve psychosocial status. However, strategies with a gender and equity perspective should be considered to reach other vulnerable groups.


Assuntos
Fontes Geradoras de Energia , Assistência à Saúde , Eletricidade , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Fontes Geradoras de Energia/economia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Pobreza , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Espanha , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde, LIS-bvsms | ID: lis-LISBR1.1-46737

RESUMO

Tungíase é uma parasitose causada por fêmeas grávidas de uma espécie de pulga, Tunga penetrans, que habita o solo de zonas arenosas.


Assuntos
Tungíase , Tunga , Sifonápteros , Parasitos , Saneamento de Residências , População Indígena , Áreas de Pobreza , Zonas Remotas , Pobreza
18.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1155: 273-282, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31468406

RESUMO

Taurine has been reported to play a key role in the growth and development of children's brains and nerves. Incorrect dietary habits and unbalanced nutrient intakes may be caused by socio-environmental and economic factors in low-income children. This study was conducted to investigate changes in blood lipid profiles, nutrition knowledge, dietary attitudes, and intakes of dietary taurine and nutrients after an 8-week nutrition education program (NEP) in low-income Korean children. In this intervention study, nutrition education, exercise, and nutrition counseling were conducted for 8-weeks in 22 low-income children (11-13 years old, 9 males and 13 females) at community child center located in Incheon, Korea. Changes after the NEP were evaluated using a one group pretest-posttest design. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 20.0. After the 8-week NEP, there was a significant decrease in the blood triglyceride level of female students (p < 0.01). As for nutrition knowledge, there were significant increases in the subscore of sugars and sodium in foods consumed by male students (p < 0.05), total score of nutrition knowledge (p < 0.01), subscore of sugars and sodium in foods (p < 0.01), and fat content of foods and adequate dietary intake in female students (p < 0.05). Dietary attitudes did not change. There were significant increases in intakes of dietary taurine, vitamin B6 (p < 0.01), and dietary fiber (p < 0.05) in female students after the NEP. There were significantly positive correlations between changes in dietary taurine intake and dietary attitudes as well as between changes in carbohydrate intake and total cholesterol level among all the subjects. Therefore, nutrition education to promote balanced nutrient intake and dietary attitudes for optimal growth and development of low-income children is needed.


Assuntos
Dieta , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Lipídeos/sangue , Ciências da Nutrição/educação , Estado Nutricional , Taurina/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Criança , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pobreza , República da Coreia
19.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1133, 2019 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31420030

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Approximately one billion children experience violence every year. Violence against children is an urgent global public health concern and violation of children's rights. It is also a risk factor for serious negative health and social outcomes and is therefore addressed within the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Children with disabilities, who make up one in 20 children worldwide, are particularly vulnerable to violence although good quality data are lacking on causes and means of prevention of violence against children with disabilities. Key challenges exist in the measurement of disability and violence, which in part explains the dearth in evidence. IMPROVING RESEARCH ON VIOLENCE AGAINST CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES: This paper provides guidance on how to conduct good quality, ethical, and inclusive research on violence against children with disabilities, particularly in low-income settings. The lack of an international agreed 'gold standard' frustrates efforts to measure violence across settings and time. Careful consideration must be given to the design of survey tools. Qualitative and participatory research methods also offer important opportunities to explore children's subjective understanding and experiences of violence. Challenges also exist around the measurement of disability. Disability may be measured by asking directly about disability, through self-reported functioning, or through the presence of impairments or health conditions. These approaches have strengths and limitations and should build on what children are able to do and include appropriate adaptations for specific impairments where necessary. Ethical research also requires adherence to ethical guidelines and approvals, obtaining informed consent, appropriate child protection responses, and careful consideration of interviewer-related issues including their selection, training, and welfare. Key methodological gaps remain - how to include children with severe communication challenges in research; how to respond in instances of weak child protection systems; designing sampling procedures that adequately represent children with disabilities in large-scale violence surveys; and determining how best to ask about violence safely in large-scale surveys and monitoring data. This paper further advocates for the dissemination of research results in inclusive and accessible formats. CONCLUSION: With careful planning, challenges in collecting data on disability and violence can be overcome to generate evidence in this neglected area.


Assuntos
Crianças com Deficiência , Ética em Pesquisa , Projetos de Pesquisa , Sujeitos da Pesquisa , Violência/ética , Criança , Humanos , Pobreza/ética
20.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1132, 2019 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31420035

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The mortality rate in children under 5 years old (U5MR) has decreased considerably in Ecuador in the last decade; however, thousands of children continue to die from causes related to poverty. A social program known as Bono de Desarrollo Humano (BDH) was created to guarantee a minimum level of consumption for families and to reduce chronic malnutrition and preventable childhood diseases. We sought to evaluate the effect of the BDH program on mortality of children younger than 5 years, particularly from malnutrition, diarrheal diseases, and lower respiratory tract infections. METHODS: Mortality rates and BDH coverage from 2009 to 2014 were evaluated from the 144 (of 222) Ecuadorian counties with intermediate and high quality of vital information. A multivariable regression analyses for panel data was conducted by using a negative binomial regression model with fixed effects, adjusted for all relevant demographic and socioeconomic covariates. RESULTS: Our research shows that for each 1% increase in BDH county coverage there would be a decrease in U5MR from malnutrition of 3% (RR 0.971, 95% CI 0.953-0.989). An effect of BDH county coverage on mortality resulting from respiratory infections was also observed (RR 0.992, 95% CI 0.984-0.999). The BDH also reduced hospitalization rates in children younger than 5 years, overall and for diarrhea. CONCLUSIONS: A conditional cash transfer program such as BDH could contribute to the reduction of mortality due to causes related to poverty, such as malnutrition and respiratory infections. The coverage should be maintained -or increased in a period of economic crisis- and its implementation strengthened.


Assuntos
Saúde da Criança/economia , Mortalidade da Criança/tendências , Pobreza/economia , Assistência Pública/economia , Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil/economia , Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil/mortalidade , Pré-Escolar , Diarreia/economia , Diarreia/mortalidade , Equador/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hospitalização/tendências , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Análise de Regressão , Infecções Respiratórias/economia , Infecções Respiratórias/mortalidade
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