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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33401547

RESUMO

Children from low-SES (socioeconomic status) and minority language immigrant families are at risk of vocabulary difficulties due to the less varied and complex language in the home environment. Children are less likely to be involved in home language activities (HLA) in interaction with adults in low-SES than in higher-SES families. However, few studies have investigated the HLA variability among low-SES, minority language bilingual immigrant families. This longitudinal study analyzes the frequency and duration of HLA and their predictive roles for expressive vocabulary acquisition in 70 equivalent low-SES monolingual and bilingual toddlers from minority contexts. HLA and vocabulary were assessed at 24 and 30 months in the majority language (Italian) and in total (majority+minority language) using parent and teacher reports. The frequency and duration of HLA in interaction with adults in total, but not in the majority language, at 24 months were similar for the two groups. These activities uniquely accounted for expressive vocabulary at 30 months, after accounting for total vocabulary at 24 months, in both groups. In conclusion, a minority-majority language context is not an additional risk factor for vocabulary acquisition if HLA is considered in interaction with adults in both languages. HLA are proximal environmental protective factors for vocabulary acquisition.


Assuntos
Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Idioma , Pobreza , Vocabulário , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Itália , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Multilinguismo , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos
3.
Work ; 68(1): 3-11, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33427724

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Community Health Workers (CHW) are a category of social workers described in many countries' health systems as responsible for engaging people in their residences and communities, and other non-clinical spaces to enable access to health services, especially in low-income areas. These professionals have been exposed to numerous new risks during the COVID-19 pandemic. OBJECTIVE: This study describes how the COVID-19 pandemic is perceived by CHWs who work in poor communities or slums in Brazil. METHODS: We conducted an online survey with a random sample of 775 CHWs operating in 368 municipalities of the 26 Brazilian states. At a confidence level of 95%, results of the survey were subject to a maximum sampling error of 4%. RESULTS: Our data indicate that the negationist agenda increases the challenges to the performance of CHWs within low-income communities, preventing the consensus on the necessity of social distancing, business closures and other measures to face the COVID-19 pandemic. CONCLUSION: The pandemic imposes unexpected challenges on the usual modes of interaction of public health officers with poor communities. This study provides evidence that these challenges have been ignored or minimized in Brazilian policy prescriptions for primary care in the face of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
/prevenção & controle , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde/psicologia , Percepção , Pobreza/psicologia , Adulto , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Brasil , /transmissão , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisa Qualitativa
5.
Prev Chronic Dis ; 18: E01, 2021 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33411669

RESUMO

We examined levels of very low food security (VLFS) among low-income households with children in California before and shortly after the economic downturn from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Households were randomly sampled in 2018, 2019, and 2020; 11,653 mothers were administered the US Department of Agriculture 6-item Food Security Survey Module. Post-COVID-19 (April 27 to July 21, 2020, a period when stay-at-home restrictions were eased in the state), 14.0% of mothers reported VLFS versus 19.3% pre-COVID-19 (November 21, 2019, to March 14, 2020) (P = .003), 22.2% in 2019 (P < .001), and 19.0% in 2018 (P = .004). Existing systems to quickly obtain food assistance benefits in California and new federal benefits available in response to COVID-19 may have reduced VLFS.


Assuntos
Bem-Estar da Criança , Doença Crônica , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , /epidemiologia , California/epidemiologia , Criança , Bem-Estar da Criança/economia , Bem-Estar da Criança/etnologia , Bem-Estar da Criança/estatística & dados numéricos , Doença Crônica/epidemiologia , Doença Crônica/prevenção & controle , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/organização & administração , Características da Família , Feminino , /normas , Humanos , Masculino , Mães , Autorrelato
6.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(1): e2034882, 2021 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33475757

RESUMO

Importance: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has caused major disruptions in the US health care system. Objective: To estimate frequency of and reasons for reported forgone medical care from March to mid-July 2020 and examine characteristics of US adults who reported forgoing care. Design, Setting, and Participants: This survey study used data from the second wave of the Johns Hopkins COVID-19 Civic Life and Public Health Survey, fielded from July 7 to July 22, 2020. Respondents included a national sample of 1337 individuals aged 18 years or older in the US who were part of National Opinion Research Center's AmeriSpeak Panel. Exposures: The initial period of the COVID-19 pandemic in the US, defined as from March to mid-July 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcomes were missed doses of prescription medications; forgone preventive and other general medical care, mental health care, and elective surgeries; forgone care for new severe health issues; and reasons for forgoing care. Results: Of 1468 individuals who completed wave 1 of the Johns Hopkins COVID-19 Civic Life and Public Health Survey (70.4% completion rate), 1337 completed wave 2 (91.1% completion rate). The sample of respondents included 691 (52%) women, 840 non-Hispanic White individuals (63%), 160 non-Hispanic Black individuals (12%), and 223 Hispanic individuals (17%). The mean (SE) age of respondents was 48 (0.78) years. A total of 544 respondents (41%) forwent medical care from March through mid-July 2020. Among 1055 individuals (79%) who reported needing care, 544 (52%) reported forgoing care for any reason, 307 (29%) forwent care owing to fear of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmission, and 75 (7%) forwent care owing to financial concerns associated with the COVID-19 pandemic. Respondents who were unemployed, compared with those who were employed, forwent care more often (121 of 186 respondents [65%] vs 251 of 503 respondents [50%]; P = .01) and were more likely to attribute forgone care to fear of SARS-CoV-2 transmission (78 of 186 respondents [42%] vs 120 of 503 respondents [24%]; P = .002) and financial concerns (36 of 186 respondents [20%] vs 28 of 503 respondents [6%]; P = .001). Respondents lacking health insurance were more likely to attribute forgone care to financial concerns than respondents with Medicare or commercial coverage (19 of 88 respondents [22%] vs 32 of 768 respondents [4%]; P < .001). Frequency of and reasons for forgone care differed in some instances by race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, age, and health status. Conclusions and Relevance: This survey study found a high frequency of forgone care among US adults from March to mid-July 2020. Policies to improve health care affordability and to reassure individuals that they can safely seek care may be necessary with surging COVID-19 case rates.


Assuntos
/terapia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Tempo para o Tratamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos
7.
Arch Virol ; 166(3): 905-913, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33462673

RESUMO

From 2010-2016, a total of 251 stool samples were screened for norovirus using next-generation sequencing (NGS) followed by phylogenetic analysis to investigate the genotypic diversity of noroviruses in rural and low-income urban areas in northern Brazil. Norovirus infection was detected in 19.9% (50/251) of the samples. Eight different genotypes were identified: GII.4_Sydney[P31] (64%, 32/50), GII.6[P7] (14%, 7/50), GII.17[P17] (6%, 3/50), GII.1[P33] (6%, 3/50), GII.3[P16] (4%, 2/50), GII.2[P16] (2%, 1/50), GII.2[P2] (2%, 1/50), and GII.4_New Orleans[P4] (2%, 1/50). Distinct GII.6[P7] variants were recognized, indicating the presence of different co-circulating strains. Elucidating norovirus genetic diversity will improve our understanding of their potential health burden, in particular for the GII.4_Sydney[P31] variant.


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Norovirus/genética , Norovirus/isolamento & purificação , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , Sequência de Bases , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Fezes/virologia , Gastroenterite/virologia , Variação Genética/genética , Genótipo , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Epidemiologia Molecular , Norovirus/classificação , Filogenia , RNA Viral/genética
8.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(1): e24591, 2021 01 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33351774

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Eliminating disparities in the burden of COVID-19 requires equitable access to control measures across socio-economic groups. Limited research on socio-economic differences in mobility hampers our ability to understand whether inequalities in social distancing are occurring during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess how mobility patterns have varied across the United States during the COVID-19 pandemic and to identify associations with socioeconomic factors of populations. METHODS: We used anonymized mobility data from tens of millions of devices to measure the speed and depth of social distancing at the county level in the United States between February and May 2020, the period during which social distancing was widespread in this country. Using linear mixed models, we assessed the associations between social distancing and socioeconomic variables, including the proportion of people in the population below the poverty level, the proportion of Black people, the proportion of essential workers, and the population density. RESULTS: We found that the speed, depth, and duration of social distancing in the United States are heterogeneous. We particularly show that social distancing is slower and less intense in counties with higher proportions of people below the poverty level and essential workers; in contrast, we show that social distancing is intensely adopted in counties with higher population densities and larger Black populations. CONCLUSIONS: Socioeconomic inequalities appear to be associated with the levels of adoption of social distancing, potentially resulting in wide-ranging differences in the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic in communities across the United States. These inequalities are likely to amplify existing health disparities and must be addressed to ensure the success of ongoing pandemic mitigation efforts.


Assuntos
/economia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , /epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Densidade Demográfica , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , Salários e Benefícios/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
9.
Health Commun ; 36(1): 109-115, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33222539

RESUMO

Aotearoa New Zealand's public health crisis communication approach amidst the COVID-19 pandemic effectively mobilized the nation into swift lockdown, significantly reducing community transmission. This communication approach has been applauded around the world. How did communities situated amongst the "margins of the margins" in Aotearoa New Zealand navigate through the existing structural barriers to health during the pandemic? In this study, we use a culture-centered analysis to foreground the structural context of disenfranchisement amidst the COVID-19 lockdown. Drawing on in-depth interviews with participants in a larger ethnographic project on poverty and health across three communities in Aotearoa New Zealand, we attend to the ways in which health is negotiated amidst the COVID-19 outbreak and lockdown response at the "margins of the margins." The narratives point out that health communication interventions to prevent COVID-19 in the context of Aotearoa New Zealand furthered the marginalization of communities at the margins, and community voices were largely erased from the enactment of interventions. With the extant structures failing to recognize these aspects of everyday struggles of health at the margins, the health and access challenges were further magnified during COVID-19. Our attention to communication situated in relationship to structures builds a register for health communication scholarship in the context of COVID-19 that is committed to disrupting the behaviorally based hegemonic health communication literature and transforming the unequal terrains of health experiences.


Assuntos
/etnologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Pobreza/psicologia , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antropologia Cultural , Comunicação , Competência Cultural , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Negociação , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos , Pandemias , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Populações Vulneráveis , Adulto Jovem
10.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0242803, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33326451

RESUMO

Not everybody is benefiting equally from rising mean incomes. We discuss the mean-income population share (MPS), the population percentage of earners below mean income, whose evolution can capture how representative rising mean values are for middle income households. Tracking MPS and its associated income share MIS over time indicates to what extent economic growth is inclusive of both the middle and the bottom of the income distribution. We characterize MPS and MIS analytically under different growth scenarios and compare their parametric estimation using micro-level and grouped income data. Our empirical application with panel data of 16 high- and middle-income countries shows that in the last decades rising mean incomes have mostly not favored middle income households in relative perspective, while the overall welfare effects of the changes in MPS and the correlation structure with the Gini coefficient are mixed.


Assuntos
Renda/estatística & dados numéricos , Países em Desenvolvimento/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , Seguridade Social/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Tempo
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33327578

RESUMO

Historical and enduring maternal health inequities and injustices continue to grow in Aotearoa New Zealand, despite attempts to address the problem. Pregnancy increases vulnerability to poverty through a variety of mechanisms. This project qualitatively analysed an open survey response from midwives about their experiences of providing maternity care to women living with social disadvantage. We used a structural violence lens to examine the effects of social disadvantage on pregnant women. The analysis of midwives' narratives exposed three mechanisms by which women were exposed to structural violence, these included structural disempowerment, inequitable risk and the neoliberal system. Women were structurally disempowered through reduced access to agency, lack of opportunities and inadequate meeting of basic human needs. Disadvantage exacerbated risks inequitably by increasing barriers to care, exacerbating the impact of adverse life circumstances and causing chronic stress. Lastly, the neoliberal system emphasised individual responsibility that perpetuated inequities. Despite the stated aim of equitable access to health care for all in policy documents, the current system and social structure continues to perpetuate systemic disadvantage.


Assuntos
Tocologia , Pobreza , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Feminino , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Nova Zelândia , Pobreza/psicologia , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal/economia , Cuidado Pré-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Vergonha , Violência
13.
Prev Chronic Dis ; 17: E119, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33006541

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Little is known about the social needs of low-income households with children during the coronavirus-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Our objective was to conduct a cross-sectional quantitative and qualitative descriptive analysis of a rapid-response survey among low-income households with children on social needs, COVID-19-related concerns, and diet-related behaviors. METHODS: We distributed an electronic survey in April 2020 to 16,435 families in 4 geographic areas, and 1,048 responded. The survey asked families enrolled in a coordinated school-based nutrition program about their social needs, COVID-19-related concerns, food insecurity, and diet-related behaviors during the pandemic. An open-ended question asked about their greatest concern. We calculated descriptive statistics stratified by location and race/ethnicity. We used thematic analysis and an inductive approach to examine the open-ended comments. RESULTS: More than 80% of survey respondents were familiar with COVID-19 and were concerned about infection. Overall, 76.3% reported concerns about financial stability, 42.5% about employment, 69.4% about food availability, 31.0% about housing stability, and 35.9% about health care access. Overall, 93.5% of respondents reported being food insecure, a 22-percentage-point increase since fall 2019. Also, 41.4% reported a decrease in fruit and vegetable intake because of COVID-19. Frequency of grocery shopping decreased and food pantry usage increased. Qualitative assessment identified 4 main themes: 1) fear of contracting COVID-19, 2) disruption of employment status, 3) financial hardship, and 4) exacerbated food insecurity. CONCLUSION: Our study highlights the compounding effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on households with children across the spectrum of social needs.


Assuntos
Economia/estatística & dados numéricos , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Pobreza , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Betacoronavirus , Criança , Infecções por Coronavirus/economia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Características da Família , Feminino , Abastecimento de Alimentos/métodos , Abastecimento de Alimentos/normas , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias/economia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/economia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pobreza/economia , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Saúde Escolar/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
14.
Obstet Gynecol ; 136(5): 1006-1015, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33030866

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the result of an inpatient postpartum human papillomavirus (HPV) immunization pilot program in a diverse, low-income patient population from an urban, hospital-based obstetrics and gynecology clinic. METHODS: In this cohort study, we present results from the first 2 years of the inpatient postpartum HPV immunization program, in which vaccine-eligible postpartum women were identified and immunized during their hospital stays. The program was implemented after educational outreach with prenatal and postpartum clinicians and nurses. Associations between receipt of the HPV vaccine as an inpatient and the characteristics of patients, and the likelihood of and missed opportunities for receiving a subsequent dose of the HPV vaccine as an outpatient were determined using logistic regression, time-to-event analyses, chi-squared tests and t-tests. RESULTS: From April 11, 2017, to April 10, 2019, 394 (59.2%) of 666 postpartum women were eligible for the inpatient postpartum HPV immunization program. The majority (265/394, 67.3%) received the immunization pilot program HPV dose; 36 of those 265 (13.6%) completed the series with that dose. Among women due for additional doses after hospital discharge, those who received the inpatient dose were more likely to receive a subsequent outpatient dose (138/229) than were those who did not receive an inpatient dose (39/129; hazard ratio 2.51, 95% CI 1.76-3.58). On average, there were 30.7 fewer (95% CI 5.8-55.6, P<.02) missed opportunities for subsequent outpatient doses for every 100 eligible visits among women who received the inpatient dose, compared with women who did not. By the end of the study, the proportion of women who had completed the vaccine series was higher among women who received the inpatient dose (95/265, 35.8%) than in those who did not (12 out 129, 9.3%; odds ratio 5.45, 95% CI 2.86-10.38). CONCLUSION: The inpatient postpartum HPV immunization program was associated with increased rates of immunization and addressed a previously missed opportunity. Inpatient immunization programs can serve as a critical way to address gaps in vaccine uptake.


Assuntos
Programas de Imunização/estatística & dados numéricos , Pacientes Internados/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/administração & dosagem , Cuidado Pós-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Feminino , Hospitais Urbanos , Humanos , Programas de Imunização/métodos , Programas de Imunização/normas , Modelos Logísticos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Cuidado Pós-Natal/métodos , Cuidado Pós-Natal/normas , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Melhoria de Qualidade , Adulto Jovem
16.
Cien Saude Colet ; 25(suppl 2): 4099-4120, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027347

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has been most severe in the poorest regions of Brazil, such as the states of the Northeast Region. The lack of national policies for pandemic control forced state and municipal authorities to implement public health measures. The aim of this study is to show the effect of these measures on the epidemic. The highest incidence of COVID-19 among the nine states in the Northeast was recorded in Sergipe, Paraíba and Ceará. Piauí, Paraíba and Ceará were the states that most tested. Factors associated with transmission included the high proportion of people in informal work. States with international airports played an important role in the entry of the virus and the initial spread, especially Ceará. All states applied social distancing measures, banned public events and closed schools. The response was a significant increase in social distancing, especially in Ceará and Pernambuco, a decline in the reproduction rate (Rt), and a separation of the curve of observed cases versus expected cases if the non-pharmacological interventions had not been implemented in all states. Poverty, inequality, and the high rates of informal work provide clues to the intensity of COVID-19 in the region. On the other hand, the measures taken early by the governments mitigated the effects of the pandemic.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Política Pública , Brasil/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , Quarentena , Governo Estadual , Abastecimento de Água
17.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 39(10): 1752-1761, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33017237

RESUMO

Safety-net programs improve health for low-income children over the short and long term. In September 2018 the Trump administration announced its intention to change the guidance on how to identify a potential "public charge," defined as a noncitizen primarily dependent on the government for subsistence. After this change, immigrants' applications for permanent residence could be denied for using a broader range of safety-net programs. We investigated whether the announced public charge rule affected the share of children enrolled in Medicaid, the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, and the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children, using county-level data. Results show that a 1-percentage-point increase in a county's noncitizen share was associated with a 0.1-percentage-point reduction in child Medicaid use. Applied nationwide, this implies a decline in coverage of 260,000 children. The public charge rule was adopted in February 2020, just before the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic began in the US. These results suggest that the Trump administration's public charge announcement could have led to many thousands of eligible, low-income children failing to receive safety-net support during a severe health and economic crisis.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde da Criança/organização & administração , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Assistência Alimentar/estatística & dados numéricos , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/economia , Medicaid/economia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Criança , Saúde da Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Medo , Feminino , Política de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Cobertura do Seguro/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Inovação Organizacional , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Formulação de Políticas , Estudos Retrospectivos , Provedores de Redes de Segurança/organização & administração , Estados Unidos
18.
BMC Med ; 18(1): 316, 2020 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33012285

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many low- and middle-income countries have implemented control measures against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, it is not clear to what extent these measures explain the low numbers of recorded COVID-19 cases and deaths in Africa. One of the main aims of control measures is to reduce respiratory pathogen transmission through direct contact with others. In this study, we collect contact data from residents of informal settlements around Nairobi, Kenya, to assess if control measures have changed contact patterns, and estimate the impact of changes on the basic reproduction number (R0). METHODS: We conducted a social contact survey with 213 residents of five informal settlements around Nairobi in early May 2020, 4 weeks after the Kenyan government introduced enhanced physical distancing measures and a curfew between 7 pm and 5 am. Respondents were asked to report all direct physical and non-physical contacts made the previous day, alongside a questionnaire asking about the social and economic impact of COVID-19 and control measures. We examined contact patterns by demographic factors, including socioeconomic status. We described the impact of COVID-19 and control measures on income and food security. We compared contact patterns during control measures to patterns from non-pandemic periods to estimate the change in R0. RESULTS: We estimate that control measures reduced physical contacts by 62% and non-physical contacts by either 63% or 67%, depending on the pre-COVID-19 comparison matrix used. Masks were worn by at least one person in 92% of contacts. Respondents in the poorest socioeconomic quintile reported 1.5 times more contacts than those in the richest. Eighty-six percent of respondents reported a total or partial loss of income due to COVID-19, and 74% reported eating less or skipping meals due to having too little money for food. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 control measures have had a large impact on direct contacts and therefore transmission, but have also caused considerable economic and food insecurity. Reductions in R0 are consistent with the comparatively low epidemic growth in Kenya and other sub-Saharan African countries that implemented similar, early control measures. However, negative and inequitable impacts on economic and food security may mean control measures are not sustainable in the longer term.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Infecções por Coronavirus , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Relações Interpessoais , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/organização & administração , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/economia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Quênia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Pandemias/economia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/economia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , Isolamento Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239778, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33085685

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Heightened obesity risk among food-insecure food pantry clients is a health equity issue because the co-occurrence of obesity and hunger is deeply-rooted in systematic social disadvantage and historical oppression. This qualitative study examined key stakeholders' perspectives of the relationship between the U.S. food banking system and obesity disparities among food insecure clients. METHODS: We conducted in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 10 key stakeholders (e.g., food bank director, food bank board member, advocate) who are familiar with food bank operations. Data were transcribed verbatim, coded in NVivo [v11], and analyzed using thematic analysis. RESULTS: Multiple themes emerged drawing linkages between structural characteristics of the food banking system and disparities in the dual burden of food insecurity and obesity: [a] access to unhealthy food from donors; [b] federal emergency food policy and programming; [c] state-level emergency food policy and programming; [d] geography-based risk profiles; and [e] inadequate food supply versus client need. Interviewees also identified social challenges between system leaders and clients that maintain disparities in obesity risk among individuals with very low food security including: [a] media representation and stereotypes about food pantry clients; [b] mistrust in communities of color; [c] lack of inclusion/representation among food bank system leaders; and [d] access to information. CONCLUSION: Future efforts to alleviate obesity inequities among clients chronically burdened by food insecurity, especially among certain subpopulations of clients, should prioritize policy, systems, and environmental strategies to overcome these structural and social challenges within the food banking system.


Assuntos
Assistência Alimentar/normas , Abastecimento de Alimentos/normas , Fome , Obesidade , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Política Nutricional , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos
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