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1.
Rev Sci Tech ; 38(1): 135-144, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564734

RESUMO

Infectious diseases are known to disproportionately affect the poorer sectors of society, particularly those living in low- and middle-income countries. These vulnerable populations battle disease, debt, loss of livelihood and reduced economic well-being with consequences that extend to their families, communities, livestock and the environment. A strong One Health approach is acknowledged as a successful way of enhancing current capacity for the prevention and control of emerging infectious diseases. Furthermore, it is also an effective way to address the multifaceted nuances of poverty. In recognising the interconnectedness of human and animal health with the health of our shared environment, One Health offers a valuable framework to prevent and control emerging infectious diseases through collaboration, coordination and communication across the various sectors involved. In recent years, as examples of One Health implementation have been documented and assessed, the linkages between One Health interventions and poverty alleviation have become more obvious. One Health interventions have the potential to reduce the economic burden of disease and create more efficient systems and approaches that generate higher savings, both direct and indirect, at the human-animal-environment interface. This paper describes aspects of this potential in detail. Although, at present, examples of the relationship between One Health and poverty alleviation are few, they are compelling. The authors believe that they provide persuasive evidence to encourage governments and policy-makers to employ the One Health approach in their efforts to alleviate poverty. Measuring the impact of this link between One Health and poverty alleviation has its constraints since appropriate metrics are still evolving. However, this paper hopes to establish the wisdom of recognising the role that One Health can play in reducing poverty, as well as its capacity to enhance existing policy frameworks.


Assuntos
Política de Saúde , Saúde Única , Pobreza , Animais , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Países em Desenvolvimento/economia , Política de Saúde/tendências , Humanos , Gado , Pobreza/prevenção & controle
2.
Int J Equity Health ; 18(1): 79, 2019 05 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31151447

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Illness is the leading cause (44%) of poverty in China. Since 2016, The health poverty alleviation project, an integral component of the Targeted Poverty Alleviation in China, was implemented in 2016 to strengthen financial risk protection against illness for financially backward segments of the population. However, the effects of the health poverty alleviation project on financial risk protection have not been explored in the literature, this paper aims to bridge the gap. METHODS: Using panel data on 63,426 rural households in Chishui City, China, from 2014 to 2017, the difference-in-differences with propensity score matching method was employed. RESULTS: The health poverty alleviation project reduces out-of-pocket payments by 15% on average and decreases the probability of catastrophic health expenditure (annual out-of-pocket payments exceeding 10% of annual household income) and impoverishing health spending occurrence (out-of-pocket payments are forcing a household into poverty or into deeper poverty) by 7.7 and 11.7%, respectively. Additionally, the project increases the number of annual hospitalizations per household by 0.035. CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrates that the health poverty alleviation project significantly improves financial risk protection by reducing out-of-pocket payments and decreasing the probability of incurring catastrophic or impoverishing levels of health expenditure. Our study has implications for the poverty reduction policies and reform of the Chinese health financing system.


Assuntos
Doença Catastrófica/economia , Financiamento Pessoal , Programas Governamentais/economia , Gastos em Saúde , Financiamento da Assistência à Saúde , Assistência Médica , Pobreza/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Criança , China , Características da Família , Hospitalização/economia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pontuação de Propensão , População Rural , Adulto Jovem
4.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(14): 6737-6742, 2019 04 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30877257

RESUMO

A new generation of poverty programs around the globe provides cash payments to poor and vulnerable households. Studies show that these social cash transfer programs create income and welfare benefits for poor households and the local economies where they live. However, this may come at the cost of damaging local environments if cash payments stimulate food production that conflicts with natural resource conservation. Evaluations of the economic impacts of poverty programs do not account for the welfare consequences of environmental impacts, which are potentially large for poor communities closely tied to natural resources. We use an ex-ante policy simulation tool, a bioeconomic local computable general equilibrium model parameterized with microsurvey data, to analyze the expected welfare consequences of environmental degradation caused by a cash transfer program. For a Philippine fishing community that is a net importer of fish, we show that a government cash transfer program initially increases real incomes for all households. However, increased demand for fish leads to a decline in the local fish stock that reduces program benefits. Household groups experience declines in real income benefits of 2-63%, with fishing households suffering the largest declines. Impacts on local fish stocks depend on the extent to which markets link fishing communities to outside regions through trade. Greater market integration can mitigate the fish stock decline, but this reduces the local income benefits of cash transfers.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/economia , Meio Ambiente , Pesqueiros/economia , Abastecimento de Alimentos/economia , Modelos Econômicos , Pobreza , Filipinas , Pobreza/economia , Pobreza/prevenção & controle
5.
PLoS One ; 14(3): e0214113, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30917187

RESUMO

Robust evidence underpinning the role of beekeeping in poverty alleviation is currently lacking. This study estimated the production potential for beekeepers in Northern Uganda by quantifying current production assets (equipment and knowledge) and impact on rural income streams range of proposed interventions. Intervention scenarios evaluated the economic benefits to be derived from different hive types combined with year-round provision of a nectar source (Calliandra calothyrsus) planted at varying density. Findings show that the type and number of beehive combinations used influenced the amount of revenue streams generated by the beekeepers. Addition of 20 log hives increased incomes 10 times, 20 KTBs increased revenues 16 times and Langstroth 18 times. Adding Calliandra trees as a forage source to the baseline scenario yielded revenues up to 17.6 times higher than the baseline. Implying that good management plus the introduction of a reliable nectar source, to off-set dry season challenges (absconding), could improve beekeeping productivity in Northern Uganda. Further research is required to validate in situ the impact of modelled scenarios on both honey yield and other ecosystem service benefits.


Assuntos
Criação de Abelhas/economia , Abelhas , Características da Família , Pobreza/economia , Pobreza/prevenção & controle , Animais , Humanos , Uganda
6.
Public Health Nurs ; 36(3): 303-309, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30811652

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a serious public health issue that affects many women all over the world. One of the most consistent risk factors for IPV is poverty. On the other hand, IPV is also a risk factor for continued poverty, which puts many women in a cycle of violence and poverty that is difficult to escape. Interventions are needed to help women improve their economic solvency and decrease their poverty-based risk for IPV. DESIGN: The current study is a qualitative study to examine how women who have experienced IPV would plan and execute an intervention to improve economic solvency. SAMPLE: The participants were 21 diverse women living in a women's shelter. RESULTS: The major themes that came from the women's suggestions were as follows: addressing mental health, accountability, financial management classes, job skills and education, and other resources. CONCLUSION: Implications of this study include the need for more comprehensive programs, a general desire amongst the women for mentoring and accountability, and the need to address knowledge deficits about resources. This information can help resource providers to help build interventions to improve economic solvency in women who have experienced IPV and improve their overall safety.


Assuntos
Abrigo de Emergência , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/prevenção & controle , Pobreza/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Fatores de Risco
8.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 51(2): 303-311, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30112734

RESUMO

Small ruminant production has the potential to address the global challenge of greatly increased food production in impoverished rural areas in a manner that is socioeconomically sustainable and carbon efficient. Twenty-six small ruminant landless farmers in three villages in the Kanchipuram District of the state of Tamil Nadu were surveyed with regard to their sheep farming practice and production indices, with the preliminary aim of evaluating the potential of small ruminant farming in alleviating poverty in parts of rural in southern India. The small ruminant farmers reared mostly indigenous Madras Red sheep as a means of generating primary or supplementary income. Participatory interviews were undertaken to enable the completion of a questionnaire pertaining to sheep production over the four most recent annual production cycles (referred to as instances) at the time of the study. When calculating the annual farm profits without taking into consideration the opportunity cost of labour, 83% of annual sheep production cycles over a 4-year period added to household incomes. Further, 23% of the instances that accounted for the opportunity cost of labour, household income was raised above the Indian Government's defined poverty line solely through small ruminant farming. Management practices were identified, while participating in landless farmer interviews provided an insight into the husbandry, or lack thereof, which resulted in low lambing percentages and rates of high ewe losses, perinatal lamb mortality and abortion. The study showed both the vulnerability and potential resilience of small ruminant farming to natural disaster, in this case catastrophic flooding in 2015. While small ruminant farming generated income in most instances, the way it is practiced creates opportunities for simple changes in husbandry and management that could make it more efficient in poverty alleviation.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/economia , Pobreza/prevenção & controle , Carneiro Doméstico , Animais , Índia
9.
J Health Econ ; 62: 105-120, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30339989

RESUMO

Targeting the Ultra-poor (TUP) is an integrated programme that combines the transfer of income-generating assets and multifaceted training on entrepreneurship, health-nutrition, and social awareness over a two-year period to graduate ultra-poor with mainstream poverty. While positive socioeconomic effects and spill-over effects are well-documented, this is the first paper to evaluate the effects of the programme on nutritional outcomes of under-5 children using data from a randomized control trial over a four-year period. We find notable improvements in nutritional outcomes of children in participating households. TUP is further seen to improve food-security, sanitation and duration of exclusive-breastfeeding. Nutrition status of children living in poor non-participant households are also positively affected though no effects were found on children from non-poor households. We conclude that programmes that combine asset transfer with multifaceted training such as TUP can have significant long-term positive health effects.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil/prevenção & controle , Bem-Estar da Criança , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Assistência Pública , Bangladesh , Aleitamento Materno , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Estado Nutricional , Pobreza/prevenção & controle , Saneamento , Fatores Socioeconômicos
10.
Exp Clin Psychopharmacol ; 26(6): 515-524, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30265062

RESUMO

Poverty is associated with poor health and affects many United States residents. The therapeutic workplace, an operant intervention designed to treat unemployed adults with histories of drug addiction, could form the basis for an effective antipoverty program. Under the therapeutic workplace, participants receive pay for work. To promote drug abstinence or medication adherence, participants must provide drug-free urine samples or take scheduled doses of medication, respectively, to maintain maximum pay. Therapeutic workplace participants receive job-skills training in Phase 1 and perform income-producing jobs in Phase 2. Many unemployed, drug-addicted adults lack skills they would need to obtain high-skilled and high-paying jobs. Many of these individuals attend therapeutic workplace training reliably, but only when offered stipends for attendance. They also work on training programs reliably, but only when they earn stipends for performance on training programs. A therapeutic workplace social business can promote employment, although special contingencies may be needed to ensure that participants are punctual and work entire work shifts, and social businesses do not reliably promote community employment. Therapeutic workplace participants work with an employment specialist to seek community employment, but primarily when they earn financial incentives. Reducing poverty is more challenging than promoting employment, because it requires promoting employment in higher paying, full-time and steady jobs. Although a daunting challenge, promoting the type of employment needed to reduce poverty is an important goal, both because of the obvious benefit in reducing poverty itself and in the potential secondary benefit of reducing poverty-related health disparities. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Pobreza/prevenção & controle , Desemprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Comércio , Humanos , Adesão à Medicação , Local de Trabalho
14.
East Mediterr Health J ; 24(6): 598-603, 2018 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30079956

RESUMO

Background: There is an urgent need to promote innovative partnerships, community leadership and commitment toward strengthening coherent and sustainable community support, resilience programmes, engagement and social mobilization for resiliency. Aims: This paper aims to strengthen coherent, scalable and sustainable community participation, resilience policies and innovative programmes to accelerate elimination and eradication of infectious diseases of poverty. Methods: An unstructured and retrospective review approach was used to determine and to define full papers, reviewed publications, and grey literature on the topics of community resilience, infectious diseases of poverty elimination and eradication, and the global health security agenda. Results: Little is documented on individual and community responsibility cooperation in elimination of infectious diseases of poverty through surveillance and resilience, eradication programmes and interventions. Hence, it is essential to develop joint ownership of community infectious diseases, or emerging outbreaks projects, that can play an important role in research and policy decisions, and advance new cultural and psychobehavioural public health directions. Such an enabling environment is imperative to improve accessibility and availability to essential medical and pharmaceutical commodities in the supply chain management. Conclusions: It is essential to strengthen effective community-based access to drugs and vaccine coverage and effectiveness procurement systems. This is required to improve access to and uptake of care service delivery and management, monitoring and evaluation of integrated and cost-effective programmes, Sustainable Development Goals, and upholding global health security.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária , Participação da Comunidade , Pobreza , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/economia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/organização & administração , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/métodos , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/organização & administração , Participação da Comunidade/métodos , Assistência à Saúde/métodos , Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos , Pobreza/prevenção & controle
15.
Br J Nurs ; 27(15): 849, 2018 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30089038
16.
PLoS One ; 13(8): e0201803, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30089159

RESUMO

It is widely recognized that increasing agricultural production to the levels needed to feed an expanding world population requires sharply increased public investment in research and development and widespread adoption of new technologies, but funding for national and international agricultural research has rather declined in recent years. In this situation, priority setting has become increasingly important for allocating scarce research resources among competing needs to achieve greater impacts. Using partial equilibrium economic surplus models and poverty impact simulations, this paper assesses cassava research priorities in Africa, Latin America and Caribbean, and Asia based on the potential economic and poverty reduction impacts of alternative research and technology options. The results showed that efficient planting material production and distribution systems and sustainable crop and soil fertility management practices have the greatest expected economic and poverty reduction impacts in the three regions. Lack of clean planting materials is a major constraint to adoption and it is envisaged that efficient production and distribution systems for planting material can accelerate technology adoption by farmers. Similarly, sustainable crop and soil fertility management practices play a key role in closing the observed yield gaps, especially in Africa. The paper discusses the results of the priority assessment for key cassava research options and concludes with the implications for cassava research priorities.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Produtos Agrícolas , Manihot , Pobreza/prevenção & controle , Projetos de Pesquisa , Pesquisa , África , Agricultura/economia , Ásia , Simulação por Computador , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Análise Custo-Benefício , Produtos Agrícolas/economia , Humanos , América Latina , Manihot/economia , Modelos Econométricos , Pesquisa/economia , Alocação de Recursos
17.
J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol ; 47(6): 1023-1038, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30052089

RESUMO

This article aims to integrate theory and empirical findings about understanding and fostering the process of resilience and adaptation in children and families who live in poverty. In this article, we draw from multiple, somewhat distinct, scholarly streams to identify sources of protection, integrating across the literatures on stress and coping, psychophysiology, cultural identity development, and empowerment theory. Because living in poverty cuts across other dimensions of social differentiation and structural inequality, intersectionality theory frames our discussion of how to leverage poverty-affected youths' diverse experiences. We present a framework to guide intervention and research on resiliency promotion, describe the Building a Strong Identity and Coping Skills intervention stemming from the framework, and suggest possible avenues and next steps for both interventions and research.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/tendências , Pobreza/prevenção & controle , Pobreza/tendências , Adaptação Psicológica/fisiologia , Adolescente , Pesquisa Biomédica/métodos , Criança , Aconselhamento/métodos , Aconselhamento/tendências , Previsões , Humanos , Fatores Socioeconômicos
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