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2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(44): e22905, 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33126345

RESUMO

Coupled with the lowest level of social connectedness, South Korea has the highest suicide rate among the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development countries. A possible link between community and suicide is social capital imprinted in social connectedness. This study explores whether social capital is protective against suicide ideation in relation to the poverty level of communities, and whether the associations are specific to certain elements of social capital.A total of 908 participants were included to assess cross-sectional association of social capital at individual level with suicide ideation by comparing between poor (government-leased apartments) and non-poor communities (nongovernment-leased apartments). Logistic regression analyses were performed to examine various social capital dimensions in relation to suicide ideation.Suicide ideation was far higher among those living in the poor communities (poor communities 12%; non poor communities 6.3%) and the level of social capital was lower in the poor communities. Nevertheless, the protective effect of social capital, in particular, the cognitive dimension against suicide ideation was demonstrated only in the poor communities (eg, odds ratio = 0.27, 95% confidence interval: 0.12-0.58 for trust in the poor communities). Low income was significantly associated with suicide ideation only in the poor communities, but depression and resilience were associated with suicide ideation both in the poor and non-poor communities.To increase the reliability of the results, established measures based on relevant literature were utilized, but measures on bridging social capital and social network might have relatively low reliability.As to protection against suicide ideation, the extent of reliance on social capital was higher in poor communities than in non-poor communities, in particular, the cognitive dimension was likely to activate in this regard.


Assuntos
Relações Interpessoais , Pobreza/psicologia , Capital Social , Condições Sociais , Ideação Suicida , Suicídio , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Proteção , Sistemas de Apoio Psicossocial , Saúde Pública , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Características de Residência , Resiliência Psicológica , Condições Sociais/economia , Condições Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos , Suicídio/economia , Suicídio/prevenção & controle , Suicídio/psicologia , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos
3.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238947, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32915875

RESUMO

The paper explores the travelling behaviour of migrant groups using Facebook audience estimates. Reduced geographical mobility is associated with increased risk of social exclusion and reduced socio-economic and psychological well-being. Facebook audience estimates are timely, openly available and cover most of the countries in the world. Facebook classifies its users based on multiple attributes such as the country of their previous residence, and whether they are frequent travellers. Using these data, we modelled the travelling behaviour of Facebook users grouped by countries of previous and current residence, gender and age. We found strong indications that the frequency of travelling is lower for Facebook users migrating from low-income countries and for women migrating from or living in countries with high gender inequality. Such mobility inequalities impede the smooth integration of migrants from low-income countries to new destinations and their well-being. Moreover, the reduced mobility of women who have lived or currently live in countries with conservative gender norms capture another aspect of the integration which is referring to socio-cultural norms and gender inequality. However, to provide more solid evidence on whether our findings are also valid for the general population, collaboration with Facebook is required to better understand how the data is being produced and pre-processed.


Assuntos
Mídias Sociais , Migrantes/psicologia , Viagem/psicologia , Comportamento , Feminino , Humanos , Renda , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Masculino , Modelos Psicológicos , Pobreza/psicologia , Análise de Regressão , Sexismo/psicologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Migrantes/classificação , Viagem/economia
5.
Am Psychol ; 75(5): 655-667, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32673009

RESUMO

This article describes the history, inspiration, goals, and outputs of the 2019 APA Presidential Initiative on Deep Poverty. Historically, psychologists have contributed to understanding the causes and consequences of poverty, as well as in interventions to ameliorate its effects. Less attention has been paid, however, to psychologists' unique contributions to studying and ending deep poverty, despite psychology's obvious relevance to the topic. As such, a working group was formed to develop the Deep Poverty Initiative (DPI), which had 3 main goals to engage psychologists in the fight against deep poverty: (a) change attitudes and perceptions about people living in deep poverty, (b) change policy to increase support for safety-net programs, and (c) change practices by increasing the use of psychological science and practice to build the capacity of poverty-serving organizations. First, 5 main themes from the psychological literature on deep poverty were identified by the DPI working group as crucial to changing attitudes. Compared to poverty, deep poverty was found to be especially dehumanizing, difficult to exit, and complex to solve, while also causing additional physical and psychological harm and obscuring human strengths. With this information as a basis, the working group mobilized psychologists to use the psychological science, along with their skills and positions within communities, to achieve the remaining goals of the initiative. Specific outputs, lessons learned, and suggestions for future work to continue to bring psychologists to the fight against deep poverty are given. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Pobreza/prevenção & controle , Pobreza/psicologia , Humanos , Psicologia , Política Pública
6.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 28(10): 1802-1805, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32589788

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the impact of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic on patronage to unhealthy eating establishments in populations with obesity. METHODS: Anonymized movement data accounting for roughly 10% of devices in the United States at 138,989 unhealthy eating locations from December 1, 2019, through April 2020 and the percentage of adults with obesity, the poverty rate, and the food environment index in 65% of United States counties were collected and merged. A cluster corrected Poisson spline regression was performed predicting patronage by day, the percentage of adults with obesity in the establishment's county, the county's poverty rate, and its food environment index, as well as their interactions. RESULTS: Patronage to unhealthy eating establishments was higher where there was a higher percentage of the adult population with obesity. A similar pattern was observed for counties with a lower food environment index. These disparities appear to have increased as the COVID-19 pandemic spread. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest unhealthy eating patterns during the COVID-19 pandemic are higher in already at-risk populations. Policy makers can use these findings to motivate interventions and programs aimed at increasing healthy food intake in at-risk communities during crises.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Dieta Saudável/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Obesidade/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Quarentena/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Análise por Conglomerados , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Dieta Saudável/psicologia , Feminino , Abastecimento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/virologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Distribuição de Poisson , Pobreza/psicologia , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , Quarentena/psicologia , Análise de Regressão , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(25): 14084-14093, 2020 06 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32513745

RESUMO

Lower-income individuals are frequently criticized for their consumption decisions; this research examines why. Eleven preregistered studies document systematic differences in permissible consumption-interpersonal judgments about what is acceptable (or not) for others to consume-such that lower-income individuals' decisions are subject to more negative and restrictive evaluations. Indeed, the same consumption decisions may be deemed less permissible for a lower-income individual than for an individual with higher or unknown income (studies 1A and 1B), even when purchased with windfall funds. This gap persists among participants from a large, nationally representative sample (study 2) and when testing a broad array of "everyday" consumption items (study 3). Additional studies investigate why: The same items are often perceived as less necessary for lower- (versus higher-) income individuals (studies 4 and 5). Combining both permissibility and perceived necessity, additional studies (studies 6 and 7) demonstrate a causal link between the two constructs: A purchase decision will be deemed permissible (or not) to the extent that it is perceived as necessary (or not). However, because-for lower-income individuals-fewer items are perceived as necessary, fewer are therefore socially permissible to consume. This finding not only exposes a fraught double standard, but also portends consequential behavioral implications: People prefer to allocate strictly "necessary" items to lower-income recipients (study 8), even if such items are objectively and subjectively less valuable (studies 9A and 9B), which may result in an imbalanced and inefficient provision of resources to the poor.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor , Pobreza/psicologia , Normas Sociais , Adolescente , Adulto , Atitude , Feminino , Humanos , Renda/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Psicológicos , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos
8.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(27): 15546-15553, 2020 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32581121

RESUMO

How can governments and nonprofits design aid programs that afford dignity and facilitate beneficial outcomes for recipients? We conceptualize dignity as a state that manifests when the stigma associated with receiving aid is countered and recipients are empowered, both in culturally resonant ways. Yet materials from the largest cash transfer programs in Africa predominantly characterize recipients as needy and vulnerable. Three studies examined the causal effects of alternative aid narratives on cash transfer recipients and donors. In study 1, residents of low-income settlements in Nairobi, Kenya (N = 565) received cash-based aid accompanied by a randomly assigned narrative: the default deficit-focused "Poverty Alleviation" narrative, an "Individual Empowerment" narrative, or a "Community Empowerment" narrative. They then chose whether to spend time building business skills or watching leisure videos. Both empowerment narratives improved self-efficacy and anticipated social mobility, but only the "Community Empowerment" narrative significantly motivated recipients' choice to build skills and reduced stigma. Given the diverse settings in which aid is delivered, how can organizations quickly identify effective narratives in a context? We asked recipients to predict which narrative would best motivate skill-building in their community. In study 2, this "local forecasting" methodology outperformed participant evaluations and experimental pilots in accurately ranking treatments. Finally, study 3 confirmed that the narrative most effective for recipients did not undermine donors' willingness to contribute to the program. Together these studies show that responding to recipients' psychological and sociocultural realities in the design of aid can afford recipients dignity and help realize aid's potential.


Assuntos
Motivação , Pobreza/psicologia , Assistência Pública/ética , Respeito , Estigma Social , Adulto , Feminino , Previsões , Humanos , Quênia , Masculino , Narração , Pobreza/economia , Assistência Pública/economia , Assistência Pública/tendências
9.
Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci ; 29: e133, 2020 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32482189

RESUMO

Abstract. AIMS: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is an important risk factor for perinatal depression (PND). But IPV's impact on the natural prognosis of PND symptoms is not well understood. We tested two hypotheses: (1) pregnant women with IPV experiences will exhibit more severe PND symptoms than women without IPV experience; (2) IPV experience will impede the recovery prognosis of PND. We also explored the contribution of IPV to PND comparing with other risk factors. METHOD: The sample is comprised of 813 pregnant women followed through perinatal period in Hunan, China. We assessed IPV experience using items from the Short Form of the Revised Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS2S), and PND symptoms via the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPSD). We conducted Linear Mixed-effects Model to compare the trajectories of PND symptoms between victims and non-victims and a multistage Generalised Estimating Equations Model to explore salient factors on the trajectory of PND symptoms. RESULTS: There were 90 participants (11.07%) who reported IPV experience in the past 12 months. With respect to physical, psychological and sexual violence, the prevalence was 4.55% (37/813), 9.23% (75/813) and 2.34% (19/813). Victims reported more severe PND symptoms (t = 5.30, p < 0.01) and slower decreasing slope of trajectories (t = 28.89, p < 0.01). The PND trajectory was associated with IPV experience (OR = 3.78; 95% CI 1.39-10.26), social support (OR = 0.93; 95% CI 0.88-0.97), positive coping strategies (OR = 0.85; 95% CI 0.80-0.91), negative coping strategies (OR = 1.25; 95% CI 1.14-1.37) and monthly income of $0.15-$298.36 (compared to no income, OR = 0.0075; 95% CI 0.00052-0.11). CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest the reported prevalence of IPV is lower in Hunan than most of the previous studies during perinatal period in other provinces of China, and IPV victimisation is associated with increased severity and slowed prognosis of PND symptoms. Future studies that screen for victimisation and establish its explicit mechanism to the poorer prognosis of PND symptoms would benefit the prevention and treatment of PND.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/estatística & dados numéricos , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Depressão Pós-Parto/diagnóstico , Depressão/diagnóstico , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/estatística & dados numéricos , Mães/psicologia , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia , Maus-Tratos Conjugais/psicologia , Adaptação Psicológica , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Depressão Pós-Parto/epidemiologia , Depressão Pós-Parto/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/etnologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Assistência Perinatal , Pobreza/psicologia , Gravidez , Prevalência , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Fatores de Risco , Delitos Sexuais/etnologia , Apoio Social , Adulto Jovem
10.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 972, 2020 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32563266

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Korea, higher education has rapidly grown influenced by sociocultural tradition. Parents invest a significant portion of their household income in their children's education. Private education has been considered to greatly affect students' psychology and behavior. However, past research has largely neglected to study parents who pay these costs. Since household income and education level are important determinants of socioeconomic status (SES), education expenditures are likely to cause depressive symptoms. Therefore, the study aimed to investigate the correlation between private education costs and parental depression in South Korea. METHODS: Data were collected from the Korean Welfare Panel Study (KoWePS, 2015, 2018). The sample analyzed consisted of 397 and 337 fathers and 403 and 370 mothers in 2015 and 2018, respectively. The independent variable in this study was the proportion of private education cost. This proportion was calculated by dividing each household's private education costs by its equivalized household disposable income (EHDI) and multiplying this number by 100. The main dependent variable was parental responses to the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale-11 (CESD-11). Using a generalized linear model, we investigated the effects of the proportion of private education cost on parental depression. RESULTS: The results showed that fathers with higher proportions of private education cost exhibited higher CESD-11 scores compared to fathers with lower proportions cost (moderate: ß = 0.419, S. E = 0.164, p = 0.0105; high: ß = 0.476, S. E = 0.178, p = 0.0076), indicating that a higher ratio of private education cost may negatively affect depression in fathers. However, there was no discernable correlation between mothers' CESD-11 scores and the proportion of private education cost (moderate: ß = - 0.078, S. E = 0.250, p = 0.7555; high: ß = 0.003, S. E = 0.215, p = 0.9882). CONCLUSIONS: These results may be explained by the tendency for fathers to experience greater economic burdens than mothers in patriarchal Korean society.


Assuntos
Educação/economia , Pais/psicologia , Pobreza/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Transtorno Depressivo/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Classe Social
11.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 825, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32487132

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Agriculture represents the mainstay of African economies and livestock products are essential to the human population's nutritional needs. However, in many developing countries, including Ghana, livestock production fails to meet demand due to population growth and negative effects of climate change. One of the challenges to production is livestock loss affecting farmers. However, despite stressful events experienced, livestock farmers' mental health is poorly documented. This study aims to identify the root causes of livestock losses and their influence on pastoralists' mental health. METHODS: We conducted a mixed methods study in two districts in the Northern and Southern Belts of Ghana. Using the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale-21 and guided interviews, we collected quantitative and qualitative data from 287 livestock farmers and 24 key-informants respectively. Mental health scores were categorized using standard guidelines. We evaluated the factors that explained variations in mental wellbeing using general linear models (α = 0.05). RESULTS: About 85% (240/287) of the livestock farmers lost cattle within 1 year. Of these, 91% lost cattle to animal diseases, 50% to theft and 27% to pasture shortages. Qualitative findings reveal that due to poor access to veterinary services, farmers treat livestock diseases themselves with drugs from unregulated sources and often sell diseased cows for meat to recover losses. Findings showed that 60% of livestock farmers had poor mental health. Of those, 72% were depressed, 66% anxious and 59% stressed. Mental wellbeing was negatively associated with the number of adverse events experienced, proportion of livestock lost to most of the major loss factors, emotional attachment to livestock and self-reported physical illnesses in farmers, but positively associated with increasing herd size [F (8,278) = 14.18, p < 0.001, R2 = 0.29]. CONCLUSIONS: Livestock diseases are the leading cause of losses to livestock farmers, whose mental wellbeing is negatively affected by these losses. Although an adaptive strategy by farmers to compensate for poor veterinary services, the arbitrary use of veterinary drugs and sale of diseased cattle pose health risks to the public. Further research to evaluate the performance of veterinary services in Ghana, mental health problems and risk to human health due to potential high-risk meat entering the food chain, is needed.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Fazendeiros/psicologia , Gado , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Pobreza/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Bovinos , Economia , Fazendeiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Gana , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
12.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 928, 2020 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32539693

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exploration of health information-seeking behaviour among older adults with very low incomes is critical in shaping our understanding of how health information is sought in later life. Although studies have focused on health information-seeking behaviour among older people worldwide, subjective views of older adults, especially those with very low incomes in Ghana remain scant. Thus, this study aimed to fill this significant knowledge gap by exploring health information-seeking behaviour among older adults with very low incomes in Ghana. METHODS: In-depth interviews and focus group discussions were conducted with 30 older adults with very low incomes, 15 caregivers and 15 formal healthcare providers in the Atwima Nwabiagya District of Ghana. A thematic analytical framework was used to analyse the data. RESULTS: The study revealed multiple sources of health information to include healthcare providers, family members, media and friends. The kind of health information sought by older adults with very low incomes consisted of information on diets, causes of chronic non-communicable diseases and medication dosage. The study also identified inadequate knowledge about the benefits of seeking health information, perceived poor attitude of healthcare providers and communication problems as the factors that limit older adults with very low incomes from acquiring health information. CONCLUSION: An adequate and reliable source of information is essential to promoting the health of older people. Their inability to secure the right health information could further worsen their health status. Thus, the study provides the need for appropriate health policy interventions on the sources and types of health information sought by older adults with very low incomes in Ghana. Healthcare providers are recommended to remain open, friendly and receptive to older people to allow them to seek and obtain health information as they [healthcare providers] constitute the most reliable health information source.


Assuntos
Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Comportamento de Busca de Informação , Pobreza/psicologia , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Gana , Humanos , Masculino , Pesquisa Qualitativa
13.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233359, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32421755

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Financial health, understood as one's ability to manage expenses, prepare for and recover from financial shocks, have minimal debt, and ability to build wealth, underlies all facets of daily living such as securing food and paying for housing, yet there is inconsistency in measurement and definition of this critical concept. Most social determinants research and interventions focus on siloed solutions (housing, food, utilities) rather than on a root solution such as financial health. In light of the paucity of public health research on financial health, particularly among low-income populations, this study seeks to: 1) introduce the construct of financial health into the domain of public health as a useful root term that underlies other individual measures of economic hardship and 2) demonstrate through outcomes on financial, physical and mental health among low-income caregivers of young children that the construct of financial health belongs in the canon of social determinants of health. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In order to extract features of financial health relevant to overall well-being, principal components analysis were used to assess survey data on banking and personal finances among caregivers of young children who participate in public assistance. Then, a series of logistic regressions were utilized to examine the relationship between components of financial health, depression and self-rated health. RESULTS: Components aligned with other measures of financial health in the literature, and there were strong associations between financial health and health outcomes. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: Financial health can be conceived of and measured as a key social determinant of health.


Assuntos
Saúde/economia , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde/economia , Adulto , Cuidadores/economia , Cuidadores/psicologia , Feminino , Saúde/classificação , Habitação/economia , Humanos , Renda/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Saúde Mental/economia , Saúde Mental/tendências , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pobreza/psicologia , Assistência Pública/economia , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde/classificação , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
Pain Res Manag ; 2020: 5932018, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32399128

RESUMO

Objective: The aim of this study was to uncover possible psychosocial underpinnings of pain and sleep disturbance in a safety-net primary care sample. Methods: Patients (n = 210) awaiting care in a safety-net primary care clinic waiting room completed measures of cynical hostility, social support, mental health, sleep disturbance, and pain. This study was cross-sectional and observational. Results: A structural equation model suggested that higher cynical hostility was associated with lower social support, which in turn was associated with poorer mental health, which then corresponded with higher pain and sleep disturbance. All possible indirect (mediational) effects within this model were statistically significant, suggesting a possible route through which cynical hostility may shape pain and sleep, two common presenting problems in primary care. Conclusions: These findings illustrate the interplay of psychosocial factors with chronic pain and sleep disturbance in a sample of low-income, predominantly African-American patients seeking care at a safety-net primary care clinic. The findings support integrated primary care as a way to target not only behavioral health issues but also the psychosocial factors entangled with physical health.


Assuntos
Dor Crônica/psicologia , Pobreza/psicologia , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/psicologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psicologia , Apoio Social
15.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 621, 2020 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32375840

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sugira Muryango is a father-engaged early child development and violence-prevention home-visiting programme delivered by trained lay workers. This cluster-randomised trial evaluates whether families living in extreme poverty (Ubudehe 1, the poorest category in the Government of Rwanda's wealth ranking) who receive Sugira Muryango in combination with a government-provided social protection programme demonstrate greater responsive, positive caregiving, nutrition, care seeking, hygiene, and father involvement compared with control families receiving usual care (UC). METHODS: Using detailed maps, we grouped closely spaced villages into 284 geographic clusters stratified by the type of social protection programmes operating in the village clusters; 198 clusters met all enrolment criteria. Sugira Muryango was delivered to n = 541 families in 100 treatment clusters with children aged 6-36 months living in extreme poverty. We assessed changes in outcomes in intervention and n = 508 UC control families using structured surveys and observation. Analyses were intent to treat using mixed models to accommodate clustering. RESULTS: Families receiving Sugira Muryango improved on core outcomes of parent-child relationships assessed using the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (Cohen's d = 0.87, 95% CI: 0.74, 0.99) and the Observation of Mother-Child Interaction (Cohen's d = 0.29, 95% CI: 0.17, 0.41). We also saw reductions in harsh discipline on items from the UNICEF MICS (OR = 0.30: 95% CI: 0.19, 0.47) and in violent victimisation of female caregivers by their partners (OR = 0.49, 95% CI: 0.24, 1.00) compared with UC. Moreover, children in families receiving SM had a 0.45 higher increase in food groups consumed in the past 24 h (Cohen's d = 0.35, 95% CI: 0.22, 0.47), increased care seeking for diarrhoea (OR = 4.43, 95% CI: 1.95, 10.10) and fever (OR = 3.28, 95% CI: 1.82, 5.89), and improved hygiene behaviours such as proper treatment of water (OR = 3.39, 95% CI: 2.16, 5.30) compared with UC. Finally, Sugira Muryango was associated with decreased caregiver depression and anxiety (OR = 0.58, 95% CI: 0.38, 0.88). CONCLUSIONS: Sugira Muryango led to improvements in caregiver behaviours linked to child development and health as well as reductions in violence. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT02510313.


Assuntos
Pai/psicologia , Visita Domiciliar , Relações Pais-Filho , Pobreza/psicologia , Política Pública , Violência/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Agressão/psicologia , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Cuidadores/psicologia , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Análise por Conglomerados , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Ruanda/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Violência/psicologia
16.
J Consult Clin Psychol ; 88(6): 504-515, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32406724

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study tested the Adaptation to Poverty-Related Stress (APRS) model's proposed relationships between poverty-related stress (PRS), ethnic identity affirmation (EI), social support, engagement coping, and depression in a racial/ethnically diverse sample of low-income parents. METHOD: Path analysis was used to test the APRS model in a sample of 602 parents living at or below 200% of the federal poverty line (50% male, mean age = 32.55 years, SD = 8.78, 34.8% White). Multigroup path analysis tested moderation by gender and race/ethnicity. RESULTS: Path analysis revealed that PRS was indirectly associated with higher depressive symptoms through less social support and less use of engagement coping operating in parallel and sequentially in a three-path mediated sequence. Conversely, EI was indirectly associated with lower depressive symptoms through greater social support and greater use of engagement coping operating in parallel and sequentially. However, PRS remained a direct predictor of higher depressive symptoms. Moderation by gender and race/ethnicity was not found. CONCLUSION: Overall, the findings provide empirical support for the APRS model. This study suggests that clinical and preventive interventions targeting depression in low-income parents could benefit from focusing on improving low-income parent's use of engagement coping and perceived social support. Ethnic identity is a promising target as it to protects against PRS' negative impact on coping and social support. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica/fisiologia , Depressão/prevenção & controle , Pais/psicologia , Pobreza/psicologia , Identificação Social , Apoio Social , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adulto , Depressão/psicologia , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Psicológicos , Adulto Jovem
17.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 602, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32357872

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Infection is a leading cause of maternal and newborn mortality in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). Clean birthing practices are fundamental to infection prevention efforts, but these are inadequate in LMIC. This scoping study reviews the literature on studies that describe determinants of clean birthing practices of healthcare workers or mothers during the perinatal period in LMIC. METHODS: We reviewed literature published between January 2000 and February 2018 providing information on behaviour change interventions, behaviours or behavioural determinants during the perinatal period in LMIC. Following a multi-stage screening process, we extracted key data manually from studies. We mapped identified determinants according to the COM-B behavioural framework, which posits that behaviour is shaped by three categories of determinants - capability, opportunity and motivation. RESULTS: Seventy-eight studies were included in the review: 47 observational studies and 31 studies evaluating an intervention. 51% had a household or community focus, 28% had a healthcare facility focus and 21% focused on both. We identified 31 determinants of clean birthing practices. Determinants related to clean birthing practices as a generalised set of behaviours featured in 50 studies; determinants related specifically to one or more of six predefined behaviours - commonly referred to as "the six cleans" - featured in 31 studies. Determinants of hand hygiene (n = 13) and clean cord care (n = 11) were most commonly reported. Reported determinants across all studies clustered around psychological capability (knowledge) and physical opportunity (access to resources). However, greater heterogeneity in reported behavioural determinants was found across studies investigating specific clean birthing practices compared to those studying clean birthing as a generalised set of behaviours. CONCLUSIONS: Efforts to combine clean birthing practices into a single suite of behaviours - such as the "six cleans"- may simplify policy and advocacy efforts. However, each clean practice has a unique set of determinants and understanding what drives or hinders the adoption of these individual practices is critical to designing more effective interventions to improve hygiene behaviours and neonatal and maternal health outcomes in LMIC. Current understanding in this regard remains limited. More theory-grounded formative research is required to understand motivators and social influences across different contexts.


Assuntos
Parto Obstétrico/psicologia , Parto Obstétrico/normas , Higiene/normas , Controle de Infecções/normas , Mães/psicologia , Pobreza/psicologia , Gestantes/psicologia , Adulto , Países em Desenvolvimento/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Controle de Infecções/estatística & dados numéricos , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Gravidez
18.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0229840, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32231372

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hunger frequently and persistently occur in older populations in low-income countries especially in sub-Sahara Africa. The aim of this study was to examine the associations between food insecurity with hunger and psychological distress among older people in Ghana. METHODS: A total of 1200 individuals aged ≥50 years were recruited during 2016/2017 Ageing, Health, Psychological Well-being and Health-seeking Behavior Study. Associations between psychological distress (assessed with the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale) and hunger (assessed with a 30-day subjective scale) were evaluated using linear regression modeling. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of food insecurity was 36% with approximately 27% and 9% respectively for moderate and severe levels of hunger whilst the mean score of psychological distress was 9.5 (±4.10). Persons experiencing moderate hunger (ß = 0.71, SE = 0.160, p < 0.001) and severe hunger (ß = 1.81, SE = 0.280, p < 0.001) significantly reported increased psychological distress outcome compared to those without hunger. These associations varied between women (ß = 1.59, SE = 0.359 p < 0.001) and men (ß = 2.33, SE = 0.474, p < 0.001) as well as 50-64 age group (ß = 1.48, SE = 0.368, p < 0.005) and 65+ age group (ß = 2.51, SE = 0.467, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that experiencing hunger is associated with psychological distress and the effect may be aggravated with advancing age and in men. These findings may inform social policy initiatives and health programmatic interventions for older people exposed to food insecurity.


Assuntos
Abastecimento de Alimentos , Fome , Pobreza/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Gana , Humanos , Vida Independente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
19.
Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci ; 29: e123, 2020 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32345393

RESUMO

AIMS: The few available studies on early-onset depression and future earnings offer ambiguous findings, and potential sources of heterogeneity are poorly understood. We examined the differences in adult earnings of males and females with and without a history of depressive disorder in adolescence, with specific focuses on (1) future earnings in clinical subtypes of adolescent depression; (2) the growth and distribution of earnings over time within these subgroups and (3) the mediating role of subsequent depressive episodes occurring in early adulthood. METHODS: Data were drawn from the Uppsala Longitudinal Adolescent Depression Study, a community-based cohort study initiated in Uppsala, Sweden, in the early 1990s. Comprehensive diagnostic assessments were conducted at age 16-17 and in follow-up interviews 15 years later, while consecutive data on earnings for the years 1996 to 2016 (ages 20-40) were drawn from population-based registries. The current study included participants with a history of persistent depressive disorder (PDD) (n = 175), episodic major depressive disorder (MDD) (n = 82), subthreshold depression (n = 64) or no depression (n = 218) in adolescence. The association of adolescent depression with earnings in adulthood was analysed using generalised estimating equations. Estimates were adjusted for major child and adolescent psychiatric comorbidities and parental socioeconomic status. The indirect (mediated) effect of depression in early adulthood (ages 19-30) on earnings in mid-adulthood (31-40) was estimated in mediation analysis. The study followed the 'STrengthening the Reporting of OBservational studies in Epidemiology' (STROBE) guidelines. RESULTS: Earnings across early to middle adulthood were lower for participants with a history of a PDD in adolescence than for their non-depressed peers, with an adjusted ratio of mean earnings of 0.85 (0.77-0.95) for females and 0.76 (0.60-0.95) for males. The differences were consistent over time, and more pronounced in the lower percentiles of the earnings distributions. The association was partially mediated by recurrent depression in early adulthood (48% in total; 61% for females, 29% for males). No reduction in earnings was observed among participants with episodic MDD in adolescence, while results for subthreshold depression were inconclusive. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that future earnings of adolescents with depressive disorders are contingent on the duration and natural long-term course of early-onset depression, emphasising the need for timely and effective interventions to avoid loss of human capital.


Assuntos
Depressão/epidemiologia , Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Renda/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pobreza/psicologia , Classe Social , Suécia/epidemiologia , Desemprego/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Ann Epidemiol ; 45: 47-53.e6, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32336654

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Tipped workers, primarily women of reproductive-age, can be paid a "subminimum wage" 71% lower than the federal minimum wage, contributing to economic hardship. Poverty-related antenatal stress has deleterious health effects for women and their children. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of increasing the state-level subminimum wage (currently $2.13 per hour) on poverty-related antenatal stress for women in the United States. METHODS: Utilizing a difference-in-differences approach comparing state wage policies over time, we estimated the impact of increases in the subminimum wage on poverty-related antenatal stress using data from 35 states participating in the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System between 2004 and 2014, linked to state-level wage laws, census, and antipoverty policy data. RESULTS: The effect of increasing the subminimum wage on poverty-related stress differed by year and sociodemographics. Wage increases in 2014 were associated with the largest decreases in stress for unmarried women of color with less than a college degree, a population that we estimated would have experienced a 19.7% reduction in stress from 2004 to 2014 if subminimum wage was equivalent to the federal minimum wage. CONCLUSIONS: Increasing the subminimum wage can reduce poverty-related stress and may be a potential intervention for reducing poor health outcomes.


Assuntos
Pobreza/psicologia , Política Pública , Salários e Benefícios , Estresse Psicológico , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Renda , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Angústia Psicológica , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos
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