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1.
Nutrients ; 13(12)2021 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34959792

RESUMO

This research describes the development and preliminary feasibility of iByte4Health, a mobile health (mHealth) obesity prevention intervention designed for parents with a low-income of children 2-9 years of age. Study 1 (n = 36) presents findings from formative work used to develop the program. Study 2 (n = 23) presents a 2-week proof-of-concept feasibility testing of iByte4Health, including participant acceptability, utilization, and engagement. Based on Study 1, iByte4Health was designed as a text-messaging program, targeting barriers and challenges identified by parents of young children for six key obesity prevention behaviors: (1) snacking; (2) physical activity; (3) sleep; (4) sugary drinks; (5) fruit and vegetable intake; and (6) healthy cooking at home. In Study 2, participants demonstrated high program retention (95.7% at follow-up) and acceptability (90.9% reported liking or loving the program). Users were engaged with the program; 87.0% responded to at least one self-monitoring text message; 90.9% found the videos and linked content to be helpful or extremely helpful; 86.4% found text messages helpful or extremely helpful. iByte4Health is a community-informed, evidenced-based program that holds promise for obesity prevention efforts, especially for those families at the increased risk of obesity and related disparities. Future work is warranted to test the efficacy of the program.


Assuntos
Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Pais/psicologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle , Telemedicina/métodos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dieta Saudável/métodos , Dieta Saudável/psicologia , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Estudos de Viabilidade , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pobreza/psicologia , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Estudo de Prova de Conceito , Sono , Lanches/psicologia , Envio de Mensagens de Texto
2.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258417, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34637477

RESUMO

Our study takes advantage of unique data to quantify deficits in the psychosocial and cognitive resources of an extremely vulnerable subpopulation-those experiencing housing vulnerability-in an advanced, high-income country (Australia). Groups such as these are often impossible to study using nationally representative data sources because they make up a small share of the overall population. We show that those experiencing housing vulnerability sleep less well, have more limited cognitive functioning, and less social capital than do those in the general population. They are also less emotionally stable, less conscientious, more external, and more risk tolerant. Collectively, these deficits in psychosocial and cognitive resources account for between 24-42% of their reduced life satisfaction and their increased mental distress and loneliness. These traits also account for a large proportion of the gap in mental wellbeing across different levels of housing vulnerability.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Pobreza/psicologia , Angústia Psicológica , Adulto , Austrália , Humanos , Solidão/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Sono , Capital Social
3.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(39)2021 09 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34544863

RESUMO

Lower socioeconomic status (SES) harms psychological well-being, an effect responsible for widespread human suffering. This effect has long been assumed to weaken as nations develop economically. Recent evidence, however, has contradicted this fundamental assumption, finding instead that the psychological burden of lower SES is even greater in developed nations than in developing ones. That evidence has elicited consternation because it suggests that economic development is no cure for the psychological burden of lower SES. So, why is that burden greatest in developed nations? Here, we test whether national religiosity can explain this puzzle. National religiosity is particularly low in developed nations. Consequently, developed nations lack religious norms that may ease the burden of lower SES. Drawing on three different data sets of 1,567,204, 1,493,207, and 274,393 people across 156, 85, and 92 nations, we show that low levels of national religiosity can account for the greater burden of lower SES in developed nations. This finding suggests that, as national religiosity continues to decline, lower SES will become increasingly harmful for well-being-a societal change that is socially consequential and demands political attention.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Países em Desenvolvimento/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Global , Pobreza/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida , Religião e Psicologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Humanos , Renda
4.
Sch Psychol ; 36(5): 422-426, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34591590

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is a disaster, defined as an event that suspends normal activities and threatens or causes severe, community-wide damage (Masten & Motti-Stefanidi, 2020). While all school children and their families have been impacted by COVID-19 to some degree, the burdens are disproportionately being borne by children experiencing poverty and children from minority racial and ethnic groups. In this article, we consider resilience and risk in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic by focusing on children's developing adaptive systems. When adaptive systems are functioning well, most children will demonstrate resilience to disaster. The capacity of children's adaptive systems to function well depends upon their developmental histories and the social and community resources available to them. We discuss how these factors contribute to children's adaptation and close with recommendations for communities looking to support resilience to the varied adversities of COVID-19. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , COVID-19 , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Grupos Minoritários/psicologia , Pobreza/psicologia , Resiliência Psicológica , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Criança , Humanos , Instituições Acadêmicas
5.
Int J Equity Health ; 20(1): 207, 2021 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34526016

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The importance of social and economic capital as predictors of health is widely documented, yet the complexity of interactions between them and effects on older people's health is still unclear. Combining the material and psychosocial explanations of health, this study explores the potential interactions between social and economic capital in influencing older adults' health in urban and rural China. METHODS: Using data from the China Family Panel Survey, physical and mental health in 2018 were regressed on social and economic capital indicators in 2016, controlling for sociodemographic characteristics of 3535 respondents aged 65 and older. Rothman's synergy index was calculated to investigate potential interaction effects. RESULTS: Economic hardships were significantly related to both self-reported health and mental health. Neighborhood cohesion and social participation were significantly associated with mental health for all, bonding trust was significantly associated with mental health for urban older people. We found no significant associations between social capital components and self-reported health. There was an interaction effect between low neighborhood cohesion and economic hardships, and between low social participation and economic hardships, creating an increased burden of poor mental health. The interaction effect between low bonding trust and economic hardships on mental health was apparent only among urban older people. CONCLUSIONS: Geographical settings are important factors in the complexity between social and economic capital in affecting older health. Intervention efforts directed towards reducing simultaneously multiple dimensions of deprivation, such as poverty, social exclusion, social isolation, could be helpful in improving older people's health. In materially deprived places, policies to promote health equity by improving social capital but without eliminating poverty may be less effective.


Assuntos
Autoavaliação Diagnóstica , Saúde Mental , Pobreza , Capital Social , Idoso , China , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Pobreza/psicologia , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos
6.
Int J Equity Health ; 20(1): 202, 2021 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34493298

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Low socioeconomic status deemed by income-based measures is a risk factor for depression. Material hardship is commonly used as a multidimensional socioeconomic indicator to identify the struggles that low-income households encounter that are not captured by conventional income-based measures. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of material hardship on depression. METHODS: We used wave 3 (2008) to wave 12 (2017) panel data collected by the Korea Welfare Panel Study. The material hardship measure included six dimensions: food, housing, medical care, paying utility bills, education, and financial hardship. Depression was measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CESD-11). A generalised estimating equation model was applied to test the causal association between material hardship and log transferred CESD-11. RESULTS: The first time point comprised 3,866 participants. Those who continually experienced material hardship had higher depression scores (male: ß = 2.82, female: ß = 3.98, p-value: < .0001). Food hardship was the most critical risk factor (male: ß = 3.29, female: ß = 4.05, p-value: < .0001). CONCLUSIONS: Material hardship is associated with increased risk of depression, especially food hardship. We should consider guaranteeing food security, and community and policy makers should consider material hardship in their approach when identifying low-income populations at high risk for depression.


Assuntos
Depressão , Pobreza , Adulto , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Insegurança Alimentar , Humanos , Masculino , Pobreza/psicologia , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
7.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0255596, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343215

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As epidemiological data on child mental health in low- and middle-income countries are limited, a large-scale survey was undertaken to estimate the prevalence and amount of child emotional and behavioral problems (EBP) in Nepal as reported by the parents. METHODS: 3820 schoolchildren aged 6-18 years were selected from 16 districts of the three geographical regions of Nepal, including rural, semi-urban and urban areas. We used the Nepali version of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL)/6-18 years as screening instrument. Comparisons of child problems between genders and between the seven largest castes and ethnic groups were carried out by analysis of variance. Prevalence was computed based on American norms. RESULTS: Adjusted prevalence of Total Problems was 18.3% (boys: 19.1%; girls:17.6%). The prevalence of internalizing problems was higher than externalizing problems. The mean scores of Total, Externalizing, and Internalizing problems were 29.7 (SD 25.6), 7.7 (SD 8.0), and 9.1 (SD 8.1), respectively. The Khas Kaami (Dalit) group scored the highest, and the indigenous Tharu group scored the lowest on all scales. In the Mountains and Middle Hills regions, problem scores were higher in the rural areas, whereas in the Tarai region, they were higher in the urban areas. CONCLUSION: The prevalence and magnitude of emotional and behavioral problems in Nepali children were found to be high compared to findings in meta-analyses worldwide. Problem scores varied according to gender, castes /ethnic groups, and living areas. Our findings highlight the need for a stronger focus on child mental problems in a low-and middle-income country like Nepal.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/epidemiologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Pais , Pobreza/psicologia , Comportamento Problema/psicologia , Adolescente , Criança , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/economia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nepal/epidemiologia , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos
8.
Health Psychol ; 40(7): 468-471, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34435798

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the individual and cumulative impact of childhood and adulthood adversity on allostatic load (AL) burden. METHOD: Retrospective cross-sectional study design involving 4,165 participants from the first wave of The Irish Longitudinal study on Ageing (TILDA). AL was operationalized using 12 biomarkers across four physiological systems (cardiovascular, metabolic, renal, and immune). Measures of psychosocial adversity included poverty, abuse, loss, and illness. Negative binomial regression models estimated the relationship of individual adversities and a cumulative count of adversities with AL burden, controlling for age and sex. Multivariable models adjusted additionally for a range of other sociodemographic and lifestyle factors. RESULTS: Childhood poverty, childhood physical abuse, and having a spouse/partner/child experience a life-threatening illness/accident were associated with 10% (95% CI [1.04, 1,16]), 10% (95% CI [1.01, 1.18]), and 6% (95% CI [1.01, 1.11]) greater AL burden, respectively. Cumulative adversity was associated with 3% (95% CI [1.01, 1.04]) higher AL burden. Adjusting for sociodemographic and lifestyle covariates rendered the association of childhood poverty (IRR= 1.04, 95% CI [.98, 1.09]; p = .190) and childhood physical abuse (IRR= 1.07, 95% CI [.99, 1.15]; p = .081) with AL burden nonsignificant, while the association of having an ill spouse/partner/child on AL persisted (IRR= 1.06, 95% CI [1.01, 1.11]; p = .021). CONCLUSIONS: This study provided limited support for the idea that psychosocial stress leads to higher AL, with just three out of 11 adversities associated with AL. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Experiências Adversas da Infância/psicologia , Experiências Adversas da Infância/estatística & dados numéricos , Alostase , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Irlanda , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pobreza/psicologia , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia
9.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444854

RESUMO

How best to deliver healthy-eating education through social media among a low-income population remains understudied. To assess the impact of the Cooking Matters (CM) Facebook page on healthy eating behaviors among low-income caregivers, we conducted a pre-post survey of new CM Facebook followers in early 2020. A convenience sample was recruited at baseline from WICShopper app users and the CM Facebook page. The recruited sample included 397 low-income caregivers of a child younger than 6 who never followed CM Facebook. Among the baseline caregivers, 184 completed the follow-up survey. Paired t-test and McNemar-Bowker tests were conducted to compare the outcomes pre- and post-following CM Facebook. A binary indicator was developed to measure whether the outcomes were improved (1 = Improved; 0 = Not improved). Multi-variable logistic regressions were applied to examine the relationship between whether the outcome was improved with reference to the baseline socio-demographics. No significant differences were detected between pre and post outcomes overall (p > 0.05), except improvement in feeding healthy meals within the budget available (p < 0.05). However, improvement in select outcomes was more significant in men and single-parent households. The CM Facebook page could be an important platform to influence low-income caregivers of young children.


Assuntos
Cuidadores/psicologia , Culinária/métodos , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Pobreza/psicologia , Mídias Sociais , Adulto , Cuidadores/educação , Pré-Escolar , Dieta Saudável/métodos , Dieta Saudável/psicologia , Educação não Profissionalizante , Características da Família , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Estados Unidos
10.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444910

RESUMO

Context-appropriate nutrition education interventions targeting middle school students have the potential to promote healthy dietary patters that may help prevent unnecessary weight gain at a point in childhood development when youth experience increasing agency over their food choices. The aim of this review was to identify and synthesize themes in train-the-trainer approaches, intervention content and delivery, and youth receptivity across teacher, mentor, and peer-led nutrition education interventions that targeted middle school-age youth in urban, primarily low-income settings. A systematic, electronic literature search was conducted in seven electronic databases, PubMed/Medline, CINAHL, ERIC, PsycINFO, Scopus, SPORTDiscus, and Cochrane CENTRAL, using fixed inclusion and exclusion criteria. A total of 53 papers representing 39 unique interventions were selected for data extraction and quality assessment. A framework synthesis approach was used to organize the interventions into six categories and identify themes according to whether the intervention was classroom-based or out-of-school-based and whether adults, cross-age peers or same-age peers delivered the intervention. Ten of the interventions contained multiple components such that they were included in two of the categories. The review findings indicated that trainings should be interactive, include opportunities to role-play intervention scenarios and provide follow-up support throughout intervention delivery. Interventions targeting middle school youth should include positive messaging and empower youth to make healthy choices within their specific food environment context.


Assuntos
Dieta Saudável/psicologia , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Terapia Nutricional/métodos , Serviços de Saúde Escolar , Capacitação de Professores/métodos , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pobreza/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , População Urbana
11.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34067617

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adolescence is a critical transition period in the course of human development. Although food insecurity (FI) has been shown to be associated with adverse mental health and sleep outcomes in US adolescents, there is a paucity of research examining the relationships between FI, mental health, and sleep outcomes in Taiwanese adolescents. Furthermore, it is unknown how the change of FI over time (i.e., the trajectory of FI) is related to health outcomes. METHODS: The data come from the Taiwan Database of Children and Youth in Poverty, which is a national longitudinal project measuring FI in five survey waves (2009-2017). We employed group-based trajectory modeling to classify various FI trends over the five waves using STATA. Furthermore, a generalized estimating equation analysis was conducted with FI trajectories as the independent variable to see how FI trajectory is related to mental health and sleep outcomes. RESULTS: In total, 1921 participants aged 12-18 years in the first wave were deemed valid for the analysis. We classified the participants into four FI trajectory groups: persistently low FI (24.8%), persistently moderate FI (64.7%), declining from high to low FI (4.1%), and food-secure groups (6.4%). As compared to food-secure adolescents, the persistently moderate FI group was more likely to have mental problems (ß = 0.30, [95% confidence interval 0.21-0.38]), while the other FI groups were only marginally associated with mental health problems. Moreover, adolescents in the persistently low FI group (ß = 0.13, [0.02-0.23]) and persistently moderate FI group (ß = 0.39, [0.29-0.48]) were found to have more sleep problems than those in the food-secure group. CONCLUSIONS: Our study describes the FI profile of adolescents from economically disadvantaged families and the difficulties they might encounter. With this information, healthcare providers can aid adolescents in the early stages of mental health problems and provide guidance when appropriate.


Assuntos
Insegurança Alimentar/economia , Transtornos Mentais/economia , Pobreza/psicologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/economia , Populações Vulneráveis/psicologia , Adolescente , Criança , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , Sono , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/epidemiologia , Taiwan/epidemiologia
12.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0252268, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34081712

RESUMO

Stereotypes and stigma associated with living on welfare or a low income can be a psychological threat that hampers performance and undermines aspirations. Our paper explores the potential of a novel self-affirmation intervention to mitigate such adverse impacts. The intervention comprises a verbal self-affirmation exercise for applicants during their first meeting with a caseworker. We conduct a cluster-randomised trial among a sample of 174 applicants for social assistance benefits in a Social Services office in Maastricht, the Netherlands. We measure outcomes on feelings of self-worth, stress, societal belonging, job search behaviour self-efficacy and cognitive performance immediately after the meeting. In our full sample, the intervention has a negative impact on feelings of societal belonging, but no effect on other outcomes. Effects, however, vary by subgroups. Our treatment increases negative feelings of self-worth and negatively affects societal belonging, but also improves cognitive performance among the group that had paid work in the previous two years. By contrast, self-affirmation positively impacts job search behaviour self-efficacy and cognitive performance for individuals who face increased challenges to (re)integrate into the labour market, proxied by lower levels of education or social assistance receipt in the previous two years. Since our intervention gives rise to testing more than one null hypothesis, we control the false discovery rate using the Benjamini-Hochberg approach. Our findings are sobering. Effects only remain significant for negative feelings of self-worth and improved cognitive performance for one particular subgroup: individuals with paid work in the past two years. This suggests self-affirmation may have reminded them of the time they still had a job, hence creating a backlash effect on feelings of self-worth. At the same time, they may have felt a need to distinguish themselves from others on social assistance benefits resulting in better cognitive performance. These interpretations are consistent with theory and empirical evidence on social identity and self-categorisation. We discuss the implications of our results and outline avenues for future work.


Assuntos
Pobreza/psicologia , Autoeficácia , Estigma Social , Seguridade Social/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adulto , Análise por Conglomerados , Cognição/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Países Baixos
13.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 19(1): 167, 2021 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34147118

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Social deprivation has been shown to affect access to health care services, and influences outcomes for a variety of physical and psychological conditions. However, the impact on patient satisfaction remains less clear. The objective of this study was to determine if social deprivation is an independent predictor of patient satisfaction, as measured by the Press Ganey® Outpatient Medical Practice Survey (PGOMPS). METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed unique new adult patient (≥ 18 years of age) seen at a tertiary academic hospital and rural/urban outreach hospitals/clinics between January 2014 and December 2017. Satisfaction was defined a priori as achieving a score above the 33rd percentile. The 2015 Area Deprivation Index (ADI) was used to determine social deprivation (lower score signifies less social deprivation). Univariate and multivariable binary logistic regression were used to determine the impact of ADI on PGOMPS total and provider sub-scores while controlling for variables previously shown to impact scores (wait time, patient age, sex, race, specialty type, provider type, and insurance status). RESULTS: Univariate analysis of PGOMPS total scores revealed a 4% decrease in odds of patient satisfaction per decile increase in ADI (p < 0.001). Patients within the most deprived quartile were significantly less likely to report satisfaction compared to the least deprived quartile (OR 0.79, p < 0.001). Multivariable analysis revealed that the odds of achieving satisfaction decreased 2% for each decile increase in ADI on the Total Score (p < 0.001), independent of other variables previously shown to impact scores. For PGOMPS Provider Sub-Score, univariate analysis showed that patients in the lowest ADI quartile were significantly less likely be satisfied, as compared to the least deprived quartile (OR 0.77; 95% CI 0.70-0.86; p < 0.001). A 5% decrease in a patient being satisfied was observed for each decile increase in ADI (OR 0.95; 95% CI 0.94-0.96; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Social deprivation was an independent predictor of outpatient visit dissatisfaction, as measured by the Press Ganey® Outpatient Medical Practice Survey. These results necessitate consideration when developing health care delivery policies that serve to minimize inequalities between patients of differing socioeconomic groups.


Assuntos
Atenção à Saúde/normas , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde/instrumentação , Pacientes Ambulatoriais/psicologia , Satisfação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pobreza/psicologia , Carência Psicossocial , Estudos Retrospectivos , Meio Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Utah/epidemiologia
15.
Nurs Res ; 70(5): 325-333, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33935214

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exposure to chronic stressors may contribute to the development of psychoneurological symptoms (i.e., fatigue, cognitive dysfunction, sleep disturbance, depressed mood, and pain) that can compromise maternal function. OBJECTIVES: In two studies of low-income mothers, we investigated the presence of psychoneurological symptoms and explored associations between mothers' stressors and psychoneurological symptoms as well as between symptoms and function. We also considered the possible mediating role of the symptoms between stressors and function. METHODS: We conducted secondary analyses of psychoneurological symptoms in two studies of low-income mothers of infants and toddlers in the United States. Study 1 sampled Latina women with limited English proficiency, whereas Study 2 was conducted with English-speaking women from diverse backgrounds. In both studies, symptoms were measured using items from the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale and the Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form Health Survey. Maternal function was measured through self-report and researcher observation. In Study 2, stressors were measured using the Everyday Stressors Index. Multiple linear regressions were used to investigate associations while controlling for relevant covariates. RESULTS: In both studies, mothers endorsed a wide range of psychoneurological symptoms. In Study 1, psychoneurological symptoms had significant negative associations with role function, social function, and developmental stimulation. In Study 2, psychoneurological symptoms had significant negative associations with role function, social function, and physical function. Using Aroian test for mediation, we found that psychoneurological symptoms mediated all significant relationships between stressors and maternal functions in Study 2. DISCUSSION: In two samples of low-income mothers, psychoneurological symptoms were prevalent and associated with chronic stressors and with maternal function and may mediate the association between those two factors. These findings extend prior research on depressive symptoms in mothers by investigating pain as an additional key symptom. The studies advance symptom science by highlighting psychoneurological symptoms in a heterogeneous sample without known health conditions.


Assuntos
Mães/psicologia , Pobreza/psicologia , Adolescente , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/psicologia , Intervenção Educacional Precoce/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , /estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , Psicometria/instrumentação , Psicometria/métodos , Estresse Psicológico/complicações , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia
16.
J Genet Psychol ; 182(4): 252-268, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33949281

RESUMO

The authors examined the association of maternal mental health symptoms and symptom clusters with the sleeping behaviors of toddlers living in low-income homes. The sample is comprised of 174 racially diverse mother and toddler (15-19 months old) dyads who were participating in a longitudinal birth cohort study. Dyads were initially recruited from Women, Infant, and Children clinics in a Midwestern county of the United States. Maternal mental health symptoms were measured with self-reports of depression (Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression), parenting stress (Parenting Stress Index Very Short Form), and parenting self-efficacy. Toddler sleeping behaviors were measured with an adaptation of the Tayside Children's Sleep Questionnaire that assessed toddler difficulties in initiating or maintaining sleep (DIMS). Maternal mental health symptom clusters were identified with latent profile analysis and toddler DIMS were regressed on maternal mental health symptoms. We found that 1 SD worse maternal depression, parenting stress, or parenting self-efficacy predicted 0.18-0.24 SD worse toddler DIMS (p < .05). Moreover, we found that the cluster of adverse maternal mental health symptoms predicted nearly 0.75 SD worse toddler DIMS as compared with the cluster of good maternal mental health symptoms (p < .05). These findings provide insight into how maternal mental health symptom clusters may be important in understanding sleep behaviors in early toddlerhood, a sensitive period of sleep development, and underscore the need to support mothers with co-occurring adverse mental health symptoms, as their children may be at higher risk for DIMS.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Relações Mãe-Filho/psicologia , Mães/psicologia , Pobreza/psicologia , Sono , Adulto , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Comportamento Materno , Poder Familiar , Polissonografia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
18.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0248478, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33878103

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Abortions remain one of the highest contributors to maternal deaths in Ghana. In 2003, a policy on post-abortion care was introduced to help reduce abortion-related mortality and morbidity. However, depending on the method of pregnancy termination; women encounter varying experiences. This study examines the experiences of women seeking post-abortion care services in a Regional Hospital in Ghana. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In-depth interview technique was used to collect data from 20 purposively selected post-abortion care clients at the Volta Regional Hospital. Data were analysed manually using a qualitative content analysis technique. RESULTS: The study found that medical abortion was the main method of pregnancy termination used by women who participated in the study to induce abortion. Spontaneous abortion, however, was attributed mainly to engaging in activities that required the use of excessive energy and travelling on bad roads by pregnant women. The study also revealed that, women do not seek early post-abortion care services due to stigma and poverty. CONCLUSIONS: We found that severity of pain from complications, stigma and financial constraints were factors that influenced women's decision to seek post-abortion care services. Our findings also suggest that women who experienced spontaneous abortion mainly received financial and emotional support from partners and other family members. To encourage women to seek early post-abortion care services, the Ministry of Health and the Ghana Health Service should take pragmatic steps to educate women on the dangers associated with delay in seeking post-abortion care services and the factors that expose women to spontaneous abortions.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido/psicologia , Assistência ao Convalescente/psicologia , Assistência ao Convalescente/tendências , Aborto Induzido/mortalidade , Aborto Induzido/tendências , Adolescente , Adulto , Assistência ao Convalescente/métodos , Tomada de Decisões/ética , Feminino , Gana/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pobreza/psicologia , Pobreza/tendências , Gravidez , Gravidez não Desejada/psicologia , Estigma Social , Adulto Jovem
19.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0250511, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33891648

RESUMO

Although many researchers and policy makers have argued that social mixing could contribute to sustainable communities, most people still prefer to live in a homogeneous rather than a diverse community. Considering the large gap between the political need for social mixing and people's preference, it is essential to understand residents' perceptions and preferences regarding socially-mixed neighborhoods in order to promote sustainable community development. This study explorers residents' willingness to accept living in mixed-income communities in Korea, with attention to various levels of income mix. This study conducted an online survey of 2,000 respondents living in seven metropolitan cities in Korea, including Seoul. The study aimed to investigate residents' comfortability and willingness to move into different mixed-income communities. The results showed that residents with higher openness to diversity are more likely to accept mixed-income communities, but frequent interaction with low-income people reduces higher-income people's willingness to accept mixed-income communities. As both personal attitudes and experience are important determinants of individuals' social mix preference, a more systematic community development strategy is required to achieve successful social mixing.


Assuntos
Atitude , Características de Residência , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto , Idoso , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Feminino , Humanos , Renda/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Política , Pobreza/psicologia , República da Coreia , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
20.
Nutrients ; 13(4)2021 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33923756

RESUMO

Existing empirical evidence suggests that the prevalence of undernutrition in remote and poor, rural areas is still high among Chinese children. While evidence reveals that undernutrition may detrimentally affect child development, studies focusing on rural Chinese preschoolers are sparse. Using the baseline survey of a preschool's free nutritious lunch pilot program, this study examined the relationship between child undernutrition and developmental outcomes among a preschool-aged sample in poor, rural areas of China. We conducted the baseline survey in Hunan province in south central China in September 2018. A total of 1293 preschoolers living in two (then) nationally designated poverty counties in rural Hunan served as our study sample. Children's nutritional statuses were measured using height-for-age z-score, weight-for-age z-score, and anemia, while their cognitive and socio-emotional skills were assessed using the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI) and Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), respectively. We find that 33% of sample preschoolers were anemic, whereas the incidences of stunting and wasting were 11% and 2%, respectively. About 54% of the sample children had delay in at least one of the developmental domains measured in this study. Our findings provide suggestive evidence supporting that children from certain backgrounds tend to experience worse nutritional and developmental outcomes than their counterparts. After controlling for socioeconomic status, we observed that both anemia and stunting were negatively associated with children's cognitive performance; however, they were not associated with socio-emotional performance. As such, this study suggests that free lunch programs have the potential to change children's developmental trajectory in preschool. We believe that our results will contribute to the debate surrounding whether the nutritious lunch program in China should be expanded to the preschool education level.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil/psicologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Infantil , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/etiologia , Pobreza/psicologia , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Anemia/etiologia , Anemia/psicologia , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil/etiologia , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Cognição , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/psicologia , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Dieta/psicologia , Emoções , Feminino , Assistência Alimentar , Transtornos do Crescimento/etiologia , Transtornos do Crescimento/psicologia , Humanos , Testes de Inteligência , Almoço , Masculino , Desnutrição/etiologia , Desnutrição/psicologia , Estado Nutricional , Projetos Piloto , Prevalência , Interação Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos
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