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1.
Global Health ; 16(1): 96, 2020 10 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33036622

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The outbreak of Coronavirus Disease is causing considerable acute risk to public health and might also have an unanticipated impact on the mental health of children and adolescents in the long run. This study collected data during the national lockdown period in China and aims to understand whether there is a clinically significant difference in anxiety, depression, and parental rearing style when comparing adolescents from Wuhan and other cities in China. This study also intends to examine whether gender, grade in school, single child status, online learning participation, parents' involvement in COVID-19 related work, and parents being quarantined or infected due to the disease would lead to clinically significant differences in anxiety and depression. Beyond that, this study explored the pathways among the different variables in order to better understand how these factors play a part in impacting adolescents' mental health condition. RESULTS: Results showed that there was a statistically significant difference in anxiety symptoms between participants who were from Wuhan compared to other urban areas, but not in depressive symptoms. In addition, participants' grade level, gender, relative being infected, and study online have direct positive predictive value for depressive and anxiety symptoms, whereas location and sibling status have indirect predictive value. Having relatives who participated in COVID-19 related work only had positive direct predictive value toward depression, but not anxiety. CONCLUSIONS: This study discovered several risk factors for adolescents' depression and anxiety during the pandemic. It also called for a greater awareness of Wuhan parents' mental wellbeing and recommended a systematic approach for mental health prevention and intervention.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Fatores de Risco
2.
Prax Kinderpsychol Kinderpsychiatr ; 69(5): 443-462, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886045

RESUMO

Supporting Children of Parents With a Mental Illness: State of Research and Two Practice Approaches and Claims for the Government Children of parents with a mental illness (COPMI) are at an increased risk to develop (severe) mental disorders (SMI) themselves. Estimates for Germany result in about 25 % of COPMI. This is thus a large and high risk group. On the other hand, prevention programs for COPMI are still scarce, especially in Germany, and central features of the transgenerational transmission of mental disorders have not been studied in conjunction to shed light on potential transmission mechanisms. The current article presents two current research projects on COPMI focusing on preventive approaches. The BMBF funded project "Children of Parents with a Mental Illness At Risk Evaluation" (COMPARE) targets parents of children aged 1.5 to 16 years of age. Parents need to fulfil a current DSM-5 based diagnosis of a mental disorder and then receive either 25-45 sessions gold standard cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) or CBT plus 10 sessions Positive Parenting Program (PPP) to test the effects of parental therapy on the children and whether an additional parent training results in incremental effects above and beyond CBT alone. The project "The Village" is a model project in the region Tyrol, Austria, targeting the improved identification and collaborative care of COPMI.


Assuntos
Filho de Pais Incapacitados/psicologia , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Governo , Transtornos Mentais/prevenção & controle , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Pais/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Áustria , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Alemanha , Humanos , Lactente , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Poder Familiar/psicologia
3.
Prax Kinderpsychol Kinderpsychiatr ; 69(5): 463-480, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886047

RESUMO

Mental Disorders and Parenting: Challenges and Opportunities for Adult Mental Health Services Parenting can be a key element in the psychiatric rehabilitation process, but it may come with many challenges for parents with mental health problems. Illness symptoms, together with social and sociocultural factors, can have adverse effects on family life or parenting behaviors and entail severe consequences for a child's psychosocial development. Bidirectional interactions can increase parental burden and thus worsen a parent's course of illness. This vicious circle can be broken by the provision of early and adequate support of mothers and fathers with mental health problems. Adult mental health services can make an important yet often underestimated contribution here. This article refers to parents' resources and needs and introduces both opportunities and challenges for adult mental health services when it comes to dealing with parenting needs. Mental health professionals are in a pivotal position for extending adequate support to clients on their parental needs. These professionals' skills and knowledge regarding parenting are essential for the successful implementation of family-focused practices in adult mental health services. Beyond the individual level, there is a need for policies and guidelines stipulating the integration of family and child perspectives in adult mental health services. In a broader view, a program from Finland shows how mental health professionals as well as peers can support parents and their families during the treatment process.


Assuntos
Filho de Pais Incapacitados/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Serviços de Saúde Mental , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Adulto , Criança , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/prevenção & controle , Transtornos Mentais/reabilitação
4.
Prax Kinderpsychol Kinderpsychiatr ; 69(5): 416-425, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886051

RESUMO

Early Childhood Intervention for Children of Parents with Mental Health Issues - Results of the Research Program of the National Center for Early Prevention In Germany, networks and measures of early childhood intervention (ECI) have been implemented nationwide. By specifically targeting families with multiple psychosocial challenges, ECI contributes to the enhancement of families' parenting skills, in order to promote equal opportunities for all children to grow up healthy and safe. In many families supported by ECI measures at least one parent shows symptoms of a mental health disorder, which poses a major challenge to ECI practitioners. Nevertheless, there is a lack of valid scientific knowledge about the proportion of young families living with symptoms of mental disorders, the degree to which parents' psychic burdens affect care in ECI measures and about the cooperation of different care providing systems. The National Center for Early Prevention (NCEP) monitors and evaluates the scaling up of ECI networks and measures in Germany. The present article compiles results of different NCEP studies focusing on parents with mental illness in Early Childhood Intervention. Results are discussed with regard to their relevance for further improving the care systems.


Assuntos
Filho de Pais Incapacitados/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/prevenção & controle , Pais/psicologia , Medicina Preventiva , Criança , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Alemanha , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/reabilitação , Saúde Mental , Poder Familiar/psicologia
5.
Matern Child Health J ; 24(Suppl 2): 171-177, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32889683

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Expectant and parenting young people (young parents) require diverse services to support their health, educational success, and family functioning. Rarely can the needs of young parents be met by a single school or service provider. This case study examines how one large school district funded through the pathways to success initiative was able to facilitate systems change to increase young parents' access to and use of supportive services. METHODS: Data sources include a needs and resources assessment, quarterly reports documenting grantee effort, sustainability plans, social network analysis, and capstone interviews. All data sources were systematically reviewed to identify the existing context prior to the start of the initiative, the changes that resulted from the initiative, and efforts that could potentially be maintained beyond the grant period. RESULTS: The community context prior to Pathways implementation was one of disconnected services and missed opportunities. The full-time program coordinator hired by the district focused on systems-level change and facilitated connections between organizations. This greater connectivity contributed to increased collaboration with the goal of producing lasting benefits for young parents. DISCUSSION: Promoting sustainable connections and collaboration at the systems level can help dismantle barriers to service access and benefit young parents.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde do Adolescente/organização & administração , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Serviços de Saúde Escolar/organização & administração , Apoio Social , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Instituições Acadêmicas , Rede Social
6.
Pediatrics ; 146(3)2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32820068

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: When children are seriously ill, parents rely on communication with their clinicians. However, in previous research, researchers have not defined how this communication should function in pediatric oncology. We aimed to identify these communication functions from parental perspectives. METHODS: Semistructured interviews with 78 parents of children with cancer from 3 academic medical centers at 1 of 3 time points: treatment, survivorship, or bereavement. We analyzed interview transcripts using inductive and deductive coding. RESULTS: We identified 8 distinct functions of communication in pediatric oncology. Six of these functions are similar to previous findings from adult oncology: (1) building relationships, (2) exchanging information, (3) enabling family self-management, (4) making decisions, (5) managing uncertainty, and (6) responding to emotions. We also identified 2 functions not previously described in the adult literature: (7) providing validation and (8) supporting hope. Supporting hope manifested as emphasizing the positives, avoiding false hopes, demonstrating the intent to cure, and redirecting toward hope beyond survival. Validation manifested as reinforcing "good parenting" beliefs, empowering parents as partners and advocates, and validating concerns. Although all functions seemed to interact, building relationships appeared to provide a relational context in which all other interpersonal communication occurred. CONCLUSIONS: Parent interviews provided evidence for 8 distinct communication functions in pediatric oncology. Clinicians can use this framework to better understand and fulfill the communication needs of parents whose children have serious illness. Future work should be focused on measuring whether clinical teams are fulfilling these functions in various settings and developing interventions targeting these functions.


Assuntos
Comunicação , Oncologia , Neoplasias/terapia , Pais/psicologia , Pediatria , Adulto , Luto , Sobreviventes de Câncer , Tomada de Decisões , Revelação , Emoções , Empatia , Empoderamento , Família , Feminino , Esperança , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/psicologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Defesa do Paciente/psicologia , Relações Profissional-Família , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Autogestão , Incerteza , Adulto Jovem
7.
Am J Psychiatry ; 177(9): 818-826, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32731812

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Early adversity is correlated with increased risk for negative outcomes, including psychopathology and atypical neurodevelopment. The authors aimed to test the causal impact of an early parenting intervention (Attachment and Biobehavioral Catch-Up; ABC) on children's neural processing of parent cues and on psychosocial functioning in a longitudinal randomized clinical trial. METHODS: Participants (N=68, mean age, 10.0 years [SD=0.8 years]) were 46 high-risk children whose parents were randomly assigned to receive either the ABC intervention (N=22) or a control intervention (N=24) while the children were infants, in addition to a comparison sample of low-risk children (N=22). During functional MRI scanning, children viewed pictures of their own mothers and of a stranger. RESULTS: Children in the ABC condition showed greater maternal cue-related activation than children in the control condition in clusters of brain regions, including the precuneus, the cingulate gyrus, and the hippocampus, regions commonly associated with social cognition. Additionally, greater activity in these regions was associated with fewer total behavior problems. There was an indirect effect of early intervention on middle childhood psychosocial functioning mediated through increased activity in brain regions in response to maternal cues. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that early parenting intervention (in this case the ABC intervention) can enhance brain regions supporting children's social cognitive development. In addition, the findings highlight these brain effects as a possible neural pathway through which ABC may prevent future behavior problems among high-risk children, yielding psychosocial benefits that endure through at least middle childhood without the need to intervene with the child directly.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Educação não Profissionalizante/métodos , Mães/psicologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Habilidades Sociais , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Sinais (Psicologia) , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Estudos Longitudinais , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/prevenção & controle , Apego ao Objeto , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Relações Pais-Filho , Psicologia do Desenvolvimento/métodos , Medição de Risco
8.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237081, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764783

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Approximately 18,000 Syrian refugees have resettled to the United States. Half of these refugees are children, whose age and refugee status jeopardize their abilities to attain quality healthcare. Information on Syrian refugees' health in the U.S. is limited. This qualitative study sought to explore Syrian refugee parents' beliefs, perspectives, and practices regarding their children's health through in-depth interviews. METHODS: Eighteen Syrian refugee parents residing in Cincinnati, Ohio were interviewed in Arabic by bilingual researchers using semi-structured in-depth interviews. The interviews were recorded, transcribed, and translated. Three members of the research team independently coded each interview using an inductive thematic analysis approach. RESULTS: Analysis identified four salient themes: stressors preclude health seeking behaviors, parents perceive health barriers, parents are dissatisfied with the healthcare system, and parents use resilience behaviors to overcome barriers. Stressors included poor housing and neighborhoods, reliving traumatic experiences, depression and anxiety, and social isolation. Dissatisfaction included emergency room wait times, lack of testing and prescriptions. Health barriers included missed appointments and inadequate transportation, translation services, health literacy and care coordination. Parents reported resilience through faith, by seeking knowledge, use of natural remedies, and utilizing community resources. CONCLUSION: This qualitative study provides information on the beliefs, practices, and behaviors of Syrian refugee parents related to health care utilization of pediatric refugees in the United States. Psychosocial and environmental stressors as well as perceived systemic health barriers, hinder health seeking behaviors in Syrian refugee parents. Culturally relevant care targeting perceived barriers and incorporating resilience behaviors may improve parental satisfaction and parental health seeking behaviors. Further study is needed to implement and evaluate interventions that target identified barriers.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde/etnologia , Letramento em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Pais/psicologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Refugiados/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Características da Família/etnologia , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ohio , Poder Familiar/etnologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/etnologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Refugiados/estatística & dados numéricos , Síria , Adulto Jovem
9.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236870, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32813732

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to verify the relationship between child-oriented and partner-oriented perfectionism, and their associations with narcissism and with difficulties in the romantic and parental domains. A total of 459 individuals participated, 264 women and 195 men (Mage = 33.88, SD = 4.39). Child-oriented perfectionism and partner-oriented perfectionism were related to each other and positively correlated with narcissism. Partner-oriented perfectionism turned out to be a specific predictor of difficulties in the romantic relations, whereas child-oriented perfectionism was found to be a predictor of difficulties in parental relation. The results suggest that studies on other-oriented perfectionism should take into consideration concrete individuals at whom perfectionistic expectations are directed (e.g. partner and children). This will enable a more precise investigation of the influence of perfectionism on family life and a better understanding of the social consequences of other-oriented perfectionism.


Assuntos
Família/psicologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Perfeccionismo , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Narcisismo
10.
Child Psychiatry Hum Dev ; 51(5): 671-682, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32749568

RESUMO

Research confirms that the mental health burdens following community-wide disasters are extensive, with pervasive impacts noted in individuals and families. It is clear that child disaster outcomes are worst among children of highly distressed caregivers, or those caregivers who experience their own negative mental health outcomes from the disaster. The current study used path analysis to examine concurrent patterns of parents' (n = 420) experience from a national sample during the early months of the U.S. COVID-19 pandemic. The results of a multi-group path analysis, organized by parent gender, indicate good fit to the data [X2(10) = 159.04, p < .01]. Results indicate significant linkages between parents' caregiver burden, mental health, and perceptions of children's stress; these in turn are significantly linked to child-parent closeness and conflict, indicating possible spillover effects for depressed parents and compensatory effects for anxious parents. The impact of millions of families sheltering in place during the COVID-19 pandemic for an undefined period of time may lead to unprecedented impacts on individuals' mental health with unknown impacts on child-parent relationships. These impacts may be heightened for families whose caregivers experience increased mental health symptoms, as was the case for fathers in the current sample.


Assuntos
Esgotamento Psicológico , Cuidadores/psicologia , Bem-Estar da Criança/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus , Saúde Mental/tendências , Pandemias , Relações Pais-Filho , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral , Adulto , Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Ansiedade/etiologia , Betacoronavirus , Esgotamento Psicológico/etiologia , Esgotamento Psicológico/prevenção & controle , Esgotamento Psicológico/psicologia , Criança , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pais/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Angústia Psicológica , Isolamento Social/psicologia
11.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(9): e22002, 2020 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32857707

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 global pandemic has impacted the whole of society, requiring rapid implementation of individual-, population-, and system-level public health responses to contain and reduce the spread of infection. Women in the perinatal period (pregnant, birthing, and postpartum) have unique and timely needs for directives on health, safety, and risk aversion during periods of isolation and physical distancing for themselves, their child or children, and other family members. In addition, they are a vulnerable group at increased risk of psychological distress that may be exacerbated in the context of social support deprivation and a high-risk external environment. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to examine the public discourse of a perinatal cohort to understand unmet health information and support needs, and the impacts on mothering identity and social dynamics in the context of COVID-19. METHODS: A leading Australian online support forum for women pre- through to postbirth was used to interrogate all posts related to COVID-19 from January 27 to May 12, 2020, inclusive. Key search terms included "COVID," "corona," and "pandemic." A three-phase analysis was conducted, including thematic analysis, sentiment analysis, and word frequency calculations. RESULTS: The search yielded 960 posts, of which 831 were included in our analysis. The qualitative thematic analysis demonstrated reasonable understanding, interpretation, and application of relevant restrictions in place, with five emerging themes identified. These were (1) heightened distress related to a high-risk external environment; (2) despair and anticipatory grief due to deprivation of social and family support, and bonding rituals; (3) altered family and support relationships; (4) guilt-tampered happiness; and (5) family future postponed. Sentiment analysis revealed that the content was predominantly negative (very negative: n=537 and moderately negative: n=443 compared to very positive: n=236 and moderately positive: n=340). Negative words were frequently used in the 831 posts with associated derivatives including "worried" (n=165, 19.9%), "risk" (n=143, 17.2%), "anxiety" (n=98, 11.8%), "concerns" (n=74, 8.8%), and "stress" (n=69, 8.3%). CONCLUSIONS: Women in the perinatal period are uniquely impacted by the current pandemic. General information on COVID-19 safe behaviors did not meet the particular needs of this cohort. The lack of nuanced and timely information may exacerbate the risk of psychological and psychosocial distress in this vulnerable, high-risk group. State and federal public health departments need to provide a central repository of information that is targeted, consistent, accessible, timely, and reassuring. Compensatory social and emotional support should be considered, using alternative measures to mitigate the risk of mental health disorders in this cohort.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Internet , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Mães/psicologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Período Pós-Parto/psicologia , Gravidez/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Adulto , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Austrália/epidemiologia , Criança , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Parto/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/psicologia , Apoio Social
12.
Pediatrics ; 146(3)2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32747472

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Little is known about the 2% of US children being raised by their grandparents. We sought to characterize and compare grandparent- and parent-headed households with respect to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), child temperament, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and caregiver aggravation and coping. METHODS: Using a combined data set of children ages 3 to 17 from the 2016, 2017, and 2018 National Survey of Children's Health, we applied survey regression procedures, adjusted for sociodemographic confounders, to compare grandparent- and parent-headed households on composite and single-item outcome measures of ACEs; ADHD; preschool inattention and restlessness; child temperament; and caregiver aggravation, coping, support, and interactions with children. RESULTS: Among 80 646 households (2407 grandparent-headed, 78 239 parent-headed), children in grandparent-headed households experienced more ACEs (ß = 1.22, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.07 to 1.38). Preschool-aged and school-aged children in grandparent-headed households were more likely to have ADHD (adjusted odds ratio = 4.29, 95% CI: 2.22 to 8.28; adjusted odds ratio = 1.72, 95% CI: 1.34 to 2.20). School-aged children in these households had poorer temperament (ßadj = .25, 95% CI: -0.63 to 1.14), and their caregivers experienced greater aggravation (ßadj = .29, 95% CI: 0.08 to 0.49). However, these differences were not detected after excluding children with ADHD from the sample. No differences were noted between grandparent- and parent-headed households for caregiver coping, emotional support, or interactions with children. CONCLUSIONS: Despite caring for children with greater developmental problems and poorer temperaments, grandparent caregivers seem to cope with parenting about as well as parents.


Assuntos
Experiências Adversas da Infância/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde da Família , Avós/psicologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Adaptação Psicológica , Adolescente , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Intervalos de Confiança , Estudos Transversais , Escolaridade , Feminino , Avós/educação , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Relações Pais-Filho , Pais/educação , Agitação Psicomotora/epidemiologia , Família de Pais Solteiros/psicologia , Família de Pais Solteiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Apoio Social , Temperamento
13.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236031, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32722686

RESUMO

Pregnancy and the early postpartum period alter the structure of the brain; particularly in regions related to parental care. However, the enduring effects of this period on human brain structure and cognition in late life is unknown. Here we use magnetic resonance imaging to examine differences in cortical thickness related to parenthood in late life, for both sexes. In 235 healthy older women, we find a positive relationship between parity (number of children parented) and memory performance in mothers. Parity was also associated with differences in cortical thickness in women in the parahippocampus, precuneus, cuneus and pericalcarine sulcus. We also compared non-parents to parents of one child, in a sub-sample of older women (N = 45) and men (N = 35). For females, six regions differed in cortical thickness between parents and non-parents; these regions were consistent with those seen earlier in life in previous studies. For males, five regions differed in cortical thickness between parents and non-parents. We are first to reveal parenthood-related brain differences in late-life; our results are consistent with previously identified areas that are altered during pregnancy and the postpartum period. This study provides preliminary evidence to suggest that neural changes associated with early stages of parenthood persist into older age, and for women, may be related to marginally better cognitive outcomes.


Assuntos
Córtex Cerebral/anatomia & histologia , Córtex Cerebral/fisiologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez
14.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235477, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32663843

RESUMO

Based on Social Learning Theory and the General Aggression Model, this study aims to explore the relationship between parental emotional warmth and the cyberbullying perpetration attitudes of college students and the mediating roles of trait gratitude and empathy. Using the stratified cluster random sampling method, 1198 college students (716 boys and 482 girls with an average age of 20.44 years) were tested using the subscale of the Parenting Styles Instrument, the Basic Empathy Scale, the Gratitude Questionnaire-6, and the Cyberbullying Attitude Questionnaire. Results: Emotional warmth, trait gratitude, cognitive empathy, and affective empathy all demonstrated significantly positive relationships with each other (rs from .175 to .403, ps < 0.01) and negative correlations with cyberbullying perpetration attitudes (rs from -.137 to -.306, ps < 0.01). Emotional warmth can exert an impact on cyberbullying perpetration attitudes through three fully mediating paths: the mediating roles of trait gratitude (41.91% of the total effect), cognitive empathy (14.5% of the total effect), and the chain mediating roles of trait gratitude-cognitive empathy (19.5% of the total effect). The results may have important implications for future studies to develop effective interventions for cyberbullying.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Agressão/psicologia , Cyberbullying/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Bullying/psicologia , Emoções , Empatia/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
15.
JAMA ; 324(3): 243-244, 2020 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32692390
16.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(29): e21230, 2020 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32702896

RESUMO

The aim of this study is to investigate the relation between parenting style and chronic pain and the patients' need for psychosomatic treatment in adulthood.We compared 4 combinations of 2 parenting style subscales, high and low care and overprotection, among the following 4 age- and sex-matched groups: community-dwelling subjects without chronic pain (n = 100), community-dwelling subjects with chronic pain (n = 100), outpatients with chronic pain (n = 50), and inpatients with chronic pain (n = 50). Parenting style was assessed for both the mother and father by use of the Parental Bonding Instrument questionnaire. The parenting style associated with the worst outcome was defined as both low care and high overprotection, as reported in previous studies.The frequency of reported adverse parenting style was significantly higher among chronic pain patients than community-dwelling subjects without chronic pain (all P < .05). The odds ratios for an adverse parenting style significantly increased through the categories after adjusting for demographic factors and the pain visual analog scale (P for trend <.01).These findings suggest that parental low care and high overprotection during childhood contribute to the future risk of chronic pain and the patients' need for psychosomatic treatment in adulthood.


Assuntos
Dor Crônica/psicologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Transtornos Psicofisiológicos/psicologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição da Dor , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
J Evid Based Soc Work (2019) ; 17(4): 406-426, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32692640

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This qualitative study examined views of research-supported parenting interventions across three stakeholder groups that have critical roles in child welfare-case managers, clinicians, and judicial representatives in one rural community. METHOD: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with members in each stakeholder group. Two analytic approaches were used. First, views on the selection of research-supported interventions, strengths and weaknesses, and professional collaboration in implementation were examined. Second, several factors in the literature impacting research-supported interventions were used to compare views. RESULTS: All stakeholder groups supported the use of research-supported therapies while agreeing that the overriding importance in selecting any therapy was to ensure the best "fit" with a client. Professional collaboration was considered essential in a variety of forms and combinations by all groups. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: The results highlight important considerations in selecting and implementing research-supported parent therapies. Recommendations to continue and expand this line of research are articulated.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Redes Comunitárias/organização & administração , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Pais/educação , Pais/psicologia , Serviço Social/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Qualitativa , População Rural
18.
Fam Process ; 59(3): 1060-1079, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32678461

RESUMO

During the recent COVID-19 outbreak in Spain, we explored the individual and relational well-being of people confined together with their partners and/or children during the first 3 weeks of state-regulated lockdown. Adults 18 years or older (N = 407) completed an online survey that included demographic, household, and employment information along with standardized measures of psychological distress (State-Trait Anxiety and Beck Depression) and relationship functioning-either the Dyadic Adjustment Scale if there were no children in the household or a Basic Family Relations Evaluation Questionnaire (CERFB) measuring conjugal, parental, and coparental functions. Qualitative analyses of responses to an open-ended question about perceived changes in couple or family dynamics during lockdown revealed nine specific themes comprising two overarching categories: relational improvement and deterioration. The overall prevalence of improvement themes (61.7%) exceeded deterioration themes (41.0%), with increased (re)connection and conflict atmosphere cited most often. Quantitative analyses found elevated levels of state anxiety but not trait anxiety or depression during lockdown. Consistent with the qualitative results, couples having no children at home reported high levels of dyadic adjustment, but with children present CERFB parental functioning exceeded conjugal functioning, a pattern sometimes associated with child triangulation into adult conflicts. Although correlates of psychological distress (e.g., unemployment, perceived economic risk) were relatively stable across subgroups, predictors of relationship functioning varied substantially with household/parental status (e.g., telecommuting and employment facilitated conjugal functioning only for couples with children).


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Quarentena/psicologia , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Relações Familiares/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Prevalência , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Espanha/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
Eur. j. psychol. appl. legal context (Internet) ; 12(1): 1-10, ene.-jun. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-189156

RESUMO

Current emergent studies are seriously questioning if parental strictness contributes to adolescent adjustment. This study examined whether the relationship between authoritative (warmth and strictness), authoritarian (strictness without warmth), indulgent (warmth without strictness), and neglectful (neither warmth nor strictness) parenting styles shows equal or different pattern of adjustment and maladjustment for aggressive and non-aggressive adolescents. The sample consisted of 969 Spanish adolescents, 554 females (57.2%) and 415 males, ranging from 12 to 17 years old. Families were classified into one of four typologies by their scores on warmth and strictness, and the adolescents were grouped by their aggressiveness (low vs. high). Adolescent adjustment was captured with three self-esteem indicators (emotional, physical, and family) and personal maladjustment with five indicators (negative self-esteem, negative self-adequacy, emotional irresponsiveness, emotional instability, and negative worldview). It was tested main and interaction effects between parenting and aggressiveness considering also sex and age factors. Findings showed that aggressive adolescents always had the worst socialization outcomes (i.e., the lowest self-esteem and the highest personal maladjustment). Aggressive and non-aggressive adolescents have a common pattern: both, indulgent and authoritative parenting styles were always associated with better outcomes than either authoritarian or neglectful parenting, but indulgent parenting style was associated with the best outcomes across all the criteria. In contrast with previous evidence about the idea that parental strictness and imposition might be beneficial to raise aggressive adolescents, present findings highlight the positive impact of parental warmth even with aggressive adolescents. Implications for family interventions were considered


Investigaciones emergentes cuestionan que la severidad parental contribuya al ajuste del adolescente. Este estudio examina si la relación entre los estilos parentales autorizativo (afecto y severidad), autoritario (severidad sin afecto), indulgente (afecto sin severidad) y negligente (ni afecto ni severidad) presenta patrones de ajuste y desajuste iguales o diferentes en adolescentes agresivos y no agresivos. Participaron 969 adolescentes españoles, 554 mujeres (57.2%) y 415 varones, de 12 a 17 años. Las familias se clasificaron en un estilo parental según sus puntuaciones en afecto y severidad y los adolescentes se agruparon por agresividad (baja vs. alta). Se captó el ajuste mediante tres indicadores de autoestima (emocional, física y familiar) y el desajuste personal con cinco indicadores (autoestima negativa, autoeficacia negativa, falta de respuesta emocional, inestabilidad emocional y visión negativa del mundo). Se probaron efectos principales y de interacción para estilos parentales y agresividad, considerando también sexo y edad. Los análisis mostraron que los adolescentes agresivos siempre tenían los peores resultados (i.e., la menor autoestima y el mayor desajuste personal). Los adolescentes agresivos y no agresivos comparten un patrón común: los estilos indulgente y autorizativo siempre se asociaron con mejores resultados que el autoritario o el negligente, pero el estilo indulgente se asoció con los mejores resultados en todos los criterios. A diferencia de estudios previos que consideraban que el rigor y la severidad de los padres podrían ser beneficiosos en hijos agresivos, los presentes resultados resaltan el impacto positivo del afecto parental incluso en adolescentes agresivos. Se consideraron las implicaciones para las intervenciones familiares


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Educação Infantil/psicologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Comportamento Problema/psicologia , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Autoimagem , Características da Família , Relações Pais-Filho , Agressão/psicologia , Violência/psicologia , Afeto/classificação , Autoritarismo , Fatores de Risco , Psicometria/instrumentação
20.
Ansiedad estrés ; 26(1): 1-8, ene.-jun. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-192294

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN Y OBJETIVOS: Este estudio analiza la relación entre los estilos parentales (indulgente, autorizativo, autoritario y negligente) con el patrón de ajuste personal y social, a corto y largo plazo, en hijos adolescentes y adultos. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: La muestra fue de 2,119 hijos españoles (59.2% mujeres), 623 adolescentes (12-18 años), 591 jóvenes adultos (19-35 años), 509 adultos de mediana edad (36-59 años) y 396 adultos mayores (60 años o más). Las familias se clasificaron en una de las cuatro tipologías parentales (indulgente, autorizativa, autoritaria y negligente) según sus puntuaciones en las dos dimensiones principales (aceptación/implicación y severidad/imposición). El ajuste personal y social de los hijos se midió con autoconcepto familiar, autoestima, agresividad, prejuicio sexista e internalización de valores sociales de universalismo. RESULTADOS: Los resultados mostraron un patrón común a corto y largo plazo entre los estilos parentales y el ajuste personal y social. El estilo indulgente se relacionó con iguales o incluso mejores puntuaciones en ajuste personal y social que el estilo autorizativo, mientras que las puntuaciones más bajas correspondieron a los estilos parentales autoritario y negligente. CONCLUSIONES: Los resultados de este estudio se discuten considerando la relevancia del contexto cultural donde se produce la socialización parental


INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: This study analyzes the relationship between parental styles (indulgent, authoritative, authoritarian, and neglectful) with the short- and long-term pattern of personal and social adjustment in children, teenagers and adults. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The sample consisted of 2,119 Spanish children (59.2% female), 623 adolescents (12-18 years), 591 young adults (19-35 years), 509 middle-aged adults (36-59 years) and 396 older adults (60 years or more). Families were classified into one of four parental typologies (indulgent, authoritative, authoritarian and neglectful) based on their scores in the two main dimensions (acceptance/implication and severity/imposition). Children's personal and social adjustment was measured with family self-concept, self-esteem, aggressiveness, sexist prejudice, and internalization of social values of universalism. RESULTS: The results showed a common short- and long-term pattern between parental styles and personal and social adjustment. The indulgent style was associated with equal or even better scores on personal and social adjustment than the authoritative style, while the lower scores corresponded to the authoritarian and neglectful parental styles. CONCLUSIONS: The findings are discussed considering the relevance of the cultural context in which parental socialization occurs


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Relações Pais-Filho , Ajustamento Social , Autoimagem
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