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1.
Psychol Addict Behav ; 35(4): 377-390, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34096760

RESUMO

Objective: The COVID-19 pandemic has been an unprecedented event for the entire world. Stay-at-home orders, many children being taught at home, health anxieties, and the subsequent economic downturn have collectively resulted in significant stress. Recent work has established that some individuals report drinking more in response to experiencing pandemic-related stress, but data has largely been limited to individuals and to psychological stress. Methods: This research investigated how own (actor) and partner psychological and financial stress about the pandemic were associated with alcohol consumption, high-intensity drinking frequency, coping motives, and alcohol-related problems in a sample of 118 couples during the month of July 2020. We also explored whether own (actor) and partner effects were moderated by gender. Results: Results using indistinguishable Actor-partner interdependence models (APIMs) demonstrated that own psychological stress was associated with higher scores on all drinking indices, and own financial stress was associated with higher coping motives and alcohol-related problems. Partner psychological and financial stress was related to own greater endorsement of coping motives, and partner financial stress was related to own greater endorsement of alcohol-related problems. In APIMs with mixed-sex couples, men's psychological and financial stress were positively related to both his own and his partner's drinks per week, high-intensity drinking, and coping motives. Men's financial stress was also positively related to his own and his partner's alcohol-related problems. Conclusions: Results provide considerable insight into couple dynamics related to pandemic stress and have direct implications for alcohol prevention and treatment efforts as we navigate this serious crisis. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , COVID-19 , Estresse Financeiro/psicologia , Relações Interpessoais , Pandemias , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adaptação Psicológica , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool/psicologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motivação , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
2.
Psychol Addict Behav ; 35(4): 377-390, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1291583

RESUMO

Objective: The COVID-19 pandemic has been an unprecedented event for the entire world. Stay-at-home orders, many children being taught at home, health anxieties, and the subsequent economic downturn have collectively resulted in significant stress. Recent work has established that some individuals report drinking more in response to experiencing pandemic-related stress, but data has largely been limited to individuals and to psychological stress. Methods: This research investigated how own (actor) and partner psychological and financial stress about the pandemic were associated with alcohol consumption, high-intensity drinking frequency, coping motives, and alcohol-related problems in a sample of 118 couples during the month of July 2020. We also explored whether own (actor) and partner effects were moderated by gender. Results: Results using indistinguishable Actor-partner interdependence models (APIMs) demonstrated that own psychological stress was associated with higher scores on all drinking indices, and own financial stress was associated with higher coping motives and alcohol-related problems. Partner psychological and financial stress was related to own greater endorsement of coping motives, and partner financial stress was related to own greater endorsement of alcohol-related problems. In APIMs with mixed-sex couples, men's psychological and financial stress were positively related to both his own and his partner's drinks per week, high-intensity drinking, and coping motives. Men's financial stress was also positively related to his own and his partner's alcohol-related problems. Conclusions: Results provide considerable insight into couple dynamics related to pandemic stress and have direct implications for alcohol prevention and treatment efforts as we navigate this serious crisis. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , COVID-19 , Estresse Financeiro/psicologia , Relações Interpessoais , Pandemias , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adaptação Psicológica , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool/psicologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motivação , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
3.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0251720, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1241124

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Supportive parenting is critical for promoting healthy child development in the face of stressors, such as those occurring during COVID-19. Here, we address a knowledge gap regarding specific household risk factors associated with parenting quality during the pandemic and incorporate first-person accounts of family challenges and needs. METHODS: Mixed methods were applied to data collected between April 14th - 28th, 2020 from the "Parenting During the Pandemic" survey. Participants included 656 primary caregivers (e.g., mothers, fathers, foster parents) of least one child age 1.5-8 years of which 555 (84.6%) responded to at least one parenting questionnaire. Parenting quality was assessed across stressful, negative, and positive parenting dimensions. Household risk was examined across pandemic- linked (e.g., caregiver depression, unmet childcare needs) and stable factors (i.e., annual income, mental illness history). Significant correlates were examined with regressions in Mplus. Thematic analysis identified caregiver challenges and unmet needs from open-ended questions. FINDINGS: Caregiver depression, higher child parity, unmet childcare needs, and relationship distress predicted lower-quality parenting. Caregiver depression was the most significant predictor across every parenting dimension, with analyses indicating medium effect sizes, ds = .39 - .73. Qualitative findings highlighted severe strains on parent capacities including managing psychological distress, limited social supports, and too much unstructured time. INTERPRETATIONS: Lower quality parenting during COVID-19 is associated with multiple household and pandemic risk factors, with caregiver depression consistently linked to parent- child relationship disruptions. Focused efforts are needed to address caregiver mental health to protect child health as part of the pandemic response.


Assuntos
COVID-19/psicologia , Fardo do Cuidador/epidemiologia , Saúde da Criança , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Fardo do Cuidador/prevenção & controle , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Características da Família , Humanos , Lactente , Pais/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
Child Abuse Negl ; 117: 105090, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1213081

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Emerging research suggests that parents are experiencing heightened stress during the COVID-19 pandemic. Parental stress is a risk factor for harsh or punitive parenting, and this association may be exacerbated by the use of alcohol. OBJECTIVE: We examine whether parental stress is associated with use of punitive parenting, as well as whether this association is modified by drinking pattern. PARTICIPANTS & SETTING: We used advertisements and word-of-mouth to recruit 342 parents living in Central Ohio during the initial stay-at-home order for COVID-19. METHODS: We used geographic ecological momentary assessment (gEMA) to measure parental stress and punitive parenting during three time periods (10 a.m., 3 p.m., and 9 p.m.) over a period of fourteen days using an app downloaded to their cellular telephone. Participants also completed a longer baseline survey. We used nested multilevel ordinal regression models, where at-the-moment assessments (Level 1) were nested within individuals (Level 2) to analyze data. RESULTS: Higher levels of parental stress [OR = 1.149 (95 % CI = 1.123, 1.176)] and later time of day [OR = 1.255 (95 % CI = 1.146, 1.373)] were positively related to odds of punitive parenting. Drinking pattern was not significantly related to punitive parenting in models with demographic covariates. Parents who drank alcohol both monthly and weekly and had higher levels of stress had greater odds of punitive parenting than parents with high levels of stress who abstain from alcohol. CONCLUSIONS: Alcohol may be an accelerant in the use of punitive parenting for parents experiencing stress. As alcohol use increases during COVID-19, children may be at higher risk for punitive parenting.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Avaliação Momentânea Ecológica , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Punição/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Ohio/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2
5.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0251720, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34029311

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Supportive parenting is critical for promoting healthy child development in the face of stressors, such as those occurring during COVID-19. Here, we address a knowledge gap regarding specific household risk factors associated with parenting quality during the pandemic and incorporate first-person accounts of family challenges and needs. METHODS: Mixed methods were applied to data collected between April 14th - 28th, 2020 from the "Parenting During the Pandemic" survey. Participants included 656 primary caregivers (e.g., mothers, fathers, foster parents) of least one child age 1.5-8 years of which 555 (84.6%) responded to at least one parenting questionnaire. Parenting quality was assessed across stressful, negative, and positive parenting dimensions. Household risk was examined across pandemic- linked (e.g., caregiver depression, unmet childcare needs) and stable factors (i.e., annual income, mental illness history). Significant correlates were examined with regressions in Mplus. Thematic analysis identified caregiver challenges and unmet needs from open-ended questions. FINDINGS: Caregiver depression, higher child parity, unmet childcare needs, and relationship distress predicted lower-quality parenting. Caregiver depression was the most significant predictor across every parenting dimension, with analyses indicating medium effect sizes, ds = .39 - .73. Qualitative findings highlighted severe strains on parent capacities including managing psychological distress, limited social supports, and too much unstructured time. INTERPRETATIONS: Lower quality parenting during COVID-19 is associated with multiple household and pandemic risk factors, with caregiver depression consistently linked to parent- child relationship disruptions. Focused efforts are needed to address caregiver mental health to protect child health as part of the pandemic response.


Assuntos
COVID-19/psicologia , Fardo do Cuidador/epidemiologia , Saúde da Criança , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Fardo do Cuidador/prevenção & controle , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Características da Família , Humanos , Lactente , Pais/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
Med Sci Monit ; 27: e930214, 2021 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33986238

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Regulation disorders are already apparent in infancy. The For Healthy Offspring Project was the first Hungarian study aimed at building an effective model for screening and examining the prevalence and complex (medical and psychosocial) background of classic behavior regulation disorders (excessive crying, feeding, and sleep problems) in infancy. MATERIAL AND METHODS Data were collected from families of 0- to 3-year-old children in a pediatric hospital and its neighboring areas through questionnaires, medical examinations, and individual and small-group consultations. RESULTS In the questionnaire study about their children's behavior (n=1133), 15% of mothers reported excessive crying, 16% reported feeding problems, and 10% reported sleep problems. In a subsample (n=619) in which medical examinations were also conducted, the prevalence of medical diagnoses was 15.0% for excessive crying, 15.2% for sleep disorders, 10.3% for breastfeeding difficulties, and 14.8% for feeding disorders. Children who were referred to the screening program (n=183) had significantly more behavior regulation disorders than the other children in our study. Regulation disorders were found to be comorbid with other health conditions in some cases. CONCLUSIONS We developed a complex model to screen for regulatory problems in early childhood. This study adds more information about the relationship between regulation problems and other health conditions. The general incidence (5-15%) of early childhood regulation disorders in other countries is likely similar to that found in Hungary. In order to effectively recognize early regulation disorders, diagnostic instruments widely used in the international field should be adapted in general Hungarian pediatric care.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiopatologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/fisiopatologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/psicologia , Adulto , Aleitamento Materno/psicologia , Pré-Escolar , Choro/fisiologia , Choro/psicologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hungria , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Mães/psicologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Pediatria , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
Child Abuse Negl ; 117: 105090, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33975257

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Emerging research suggests that parents are experiencing heightened stress during the COVID-19 pandemic. Parental stress is a risk factor for harsh or punitive parenting, and this association may be exacerbated by the use of alcohol. OBJECTIVE: We examine whether parental stress is associated with use of punitive parenting, as well as whether this association is modified by drinking pattern. PARTICIPANTS & SETTING: We used advertisements and word-of-mouth to recruit 342 parents living in Central Ohio during the initial stay-at-home order for COVID-19. METHODS: We used geographic ecological momentary assessment (gEMA) to measure parental stress and punitive parenting during three time periods (10 a.m., 3 p.m., and 9 p.m.) over a period of fourteen days using an app downloaded to their cellular telephone. Participants also completed a longer baseline survey. We used nested multilevel ordinal regression models, where at-the-moment assessments (Level 1) were nested within individuals (Level 2) to analyze data. RESULTS: Higher levels of parental stress [OR = 1.149 (95 % CI = 1.123, 1.176)] and later time of day [OR = 1.255 (95 % CI = 1.146, 1.373)] were positively related to odds of punitive parenting. Drinking pattern was not significantly related to punitive parenting in models with demographic covariates. Parents who drank alcohol both monthly and weekly and had higher levels of stress had greater odds of punitive parenting than parents with high levels of stress who abstain from alcohol. CONCLUSIONS: Alcohol may be an accelerant in the use of punitive parenting for parents experiencing stress. As alcohol use increases during COVID-19, children may be at higher risk for punitive parenting.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Avaliação Momentânea Ecológica , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Punição/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Ohio/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Child Abuse Negl ; 117: 105080, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1201974

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The outbreak of COVID-19 has forced parents to deal with a challenging crisis, which may have increased their stress levels, negatively affecting their parenting and putting their infants at risk of abuse. OBJECTIVE: To examine the contribution of the pandemic to parenting stress, exploring differences in parenting stress among new parents before and during the crisis, the role of background and personal variables, and the possibility that the study phase moderated the associations of gender and personal resources with parenting stress. METHOD: Israeli parents (n = 1591) whose first child was 3-12 months old were recruited twice through social media: in 2019, before the spread of COVID-19 (n = 985); and in March 2020, during the pandemic (n = 606). RESULTS: Sociodemographic variables, perception of the childbirth as traumatic, lower meaning in life, higher search for meaning, less marital satisfaction, and study phase all contributed to greater parenting stress. In addition, the association between gender and stress was moderated by study phase, with fathers reporting a greater increase in stress during the pandemic. Moreover, only during the pandemic did fathers report higher parenting stress than mothers. CONCLUSIONS: The findings highlight the vulnerability of new parents of young infants to parenting stress during the crisis, and the special attention which should be paid to fathers. They indicate the value of strengthening meaning in life and preserving good marital relationships as resources that help to cope with the heightened parenting stress at this time.


Assuntos
COVID-19/psicologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Israel/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto Jovem
9.
N Z Med J ; 134(1534): 17-30, 2021 04 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33927435

RESUMO

AIM: To document the prevalence of child physical punishment by parents and associated predictors in the Christchurch Health and Development Study (CHDS) birth cohort over a 15-year period. METHOD: A cohort of 1,265 CHDS individuals were followed from birth (1977) to age 40 years. At ages 25 (n=155), 30 (n=337), 35 (n=585) and 40 years (n=636), the cohort members with dependent children (<16 years of age) were interviewed about their use of child physical punishment in the past 12 months using the Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scale. Parent, child and family predictors were also examined. RESULTS: The most common forms of physical punishment were smacking on bottom and slapping on hand, arm or leg. Rates of all forms of physical punishment declined with age, ranging from 77% reporting any physical punishment at age 25 to 42% at age 40. In multivariable models, significant predictors included parental age, numbers/ages of children in the household, childhood family socioeconomic status, parental history of adolescent mental health problems and concurrent intimate partner violence. CONCLUSION: Use of physical punishment remains a relatively common form of child discipline despite the 2007 anti-smacking legislation and reduced public tolerance for physical violence towards children. Implications for prevention/intervention are discussed.


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Infantis/estatística & dados numéricos , Relações Pais-Filho , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Comportamento Problema/psicologia , Punição/psicologia , Adulto , Criança , Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Masculino , Nova Zelândia
10.
Nutrients ; 13(4)2021 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33920602

RESUMO

Although there is a large body of research connecting emotion to eating behaviors, little is known about the role of caregivers' responses to children's emotions in the context of child feeding. The purpose of this study was to analyze the relation between caregivers' emotional responsiveness and feeding responsiveness. The mothers of 137 children between 2 and 6 years of age reported on their responses to children's negative emotions using the Coping with Children's Negative Emotions Scale and on their feeding practices using the Comprehensive Feeding Practices Questionnaire. The results showed that mothers' supportive emotion responses (e.g., problem-focused, emotion-focused, and expressive encouragement reactions) tend to be positively associated with responsive feeding practices (e.g., encouraging, modelling, and teaching healthy food-related behaviors). Instead, mothers' unsupportive responses (e.g., distress, punitive and minimization reactions) tend to be positively associated with nonresponsive feeding practices (e.g., food as reward or to regulate emotions, and pressure to eat) and negatively associated with responsive feeding practices. Our results suggest that emotional and feeding responsiveness may be intertwined and that differences in parent's emotional responsiveness may translate into differences in their feeding styles, setting the stage for parents' use of positive vs. negative feeding practices.


Assuntos
Dieta Saudável/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Mães/psicologia , Relações Pais-Filho , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Adaptação Psicológica , Adulto , Criança , Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Pré-Escolar , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Portugal , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
11.
Child Abuse Negl ; 117: 105080, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33930664

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The outbreak of COVID-19 has forced parents to deal with a challenging crisis, which may have increased their stress levels, negatively affecting their parenting and putting their infants at risk of abuse. OBJECTIVE: To examine the contribution of the pandemic to parenting stress, exploring differences in parenting stress among new parents before and during the crisis, the role of background and personal variables, and the possibility that the study phase moderated the associations of gender and personal resources with parenting stress. METHOD: Israeli parents (n = 1591) whose first child was 3-12 months old were recruited twice through social media: in 2019, before the spread of COVID-19 (n = 985); and in March 2020, during the pandemic (n = 606). RESULTS: Sociodemographic variables, perception of the childbirth as traumatic, lower meaning in life, higher search for meaning, less marital satisfaction, and study phase all contributed to greater parenting stress. In addition, the association between gender and stress was moderated by study phase, with fathers reporting a greater increase in stress during the pandemic. Moreover, only during the pandemic did fathers report higher parenting stress than mothers. CONCLUSIONS: The findings highlight the vulnerability of new parents of young infants to parenting stress during the crisis, and the special attention which should be paid to fathers. They indicate the value of strengthening meaning in life and preserving good marital relationships as resources that help to cope with the heightened parenting stress at this time.


Assuntos
COVID-19/psicologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Israel/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto Jovem
12.
Nutrients ; 13(3)2021 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33803655

RESUMO

Impact of parental feeding practices on children's eating behaviors is well-documented in the literature. Nevertheless, little is known about how many of these behaviors might persist into adulthood. There is a lack of a tool measuring childhood feeding experiences recollected by adults, while the Comprehensive Feeding Practices Questionnaire (CFPQ) is used to measure parental feeding practices applied towards children. The aim of the study was to adapt the CFPQ to measure adults' recollections of their childhood (5-10 years old) feeding experiences, to examine its discriminant validity and then to assess if these practices are related to adults' food choices. In 2020, the modified version of CFPQ (mCFPQ) and questions on current food consumption were administered in a group of 500 adults twice over a two-week interval. The analysis included 443 participants whose questionnaires were correctly completed in both stages of the study. The Q-sorting procedure was used to test for discriminant validity of the questionnaire, i.e., confirmatory and exploratory factor analysis (EFA), Cronbach's alpha, correlations coefficients, and the analysis of the differences between groups according to the intake of certain food products. Test-retest reliability was examined by calculating interclass correlation coefficients (ICC) for each obtained factor. As a result of EFA, five subscales were identified: "Restrictions", "Healthy Eating Guidance", "Pressure and Food Reward", "Monitoring", and "Child Control". Items from these subscales created a new tool-Adults' Memories of Feeding in Childhood (AMoFiC). Test for internal consistency, factor correlations, and discriminant validity proved satisfactory psychometric parameters of AMoFiC. "Pressure and Food Reward" and "Child Control" were associated with higher intake of sweets and salty snacks, whereas "Healthy Eating Guidance", "Monitoring", and "Restrictions" were associated with higher consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables. Despite the fact that the AMoFiC questionnaire requires further research, the findings of the study might be of practical use in counseling addressed to the parents.


Assuntos
Crianças Adultas/psicologia , Inquéritos sobre Dietas/normas , Dieta Saudável/psicologia , Preferências Alimentares/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Adulto , Criança , Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Pré-Escolar , Comportamento de Escolha , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Rememoração Mental , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
13.
Nutrients ; 13(3)2021 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33652798

RESUMO

Coparenting quality and food parenting practices have been shown to have a strong influence on child outcomes. However, little is known about whether coparenting quality may influence food parenting practices. This study aimed to investigate how coparenting quality is associated with both mothers' and fathers' food parenting practices. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted of 58 mothers and 40 fathers enrolled in the Guelph Family Health Study. The Coparenting Relationship Scale and the Comprehensive Feeding Practices Questionnaire were used to measure coparenting and food parenting practices, respectively. Linear regressions using generalized estimating equations were used to examine associations between coparenting quality and food parenting practices in mothers and fathers. Among mothers, higher coparenting quality was associated with lower use of food for emotional regulation, restriction of food for health, and child control of food intake and with higher encouragement of a balanced and varied diet, provision of a healthy home environment, and modeling of healthy eating behaviors. Among fathers, higher coparenting quality was associated with lower pressure to eat and with higher encouragement of a balanced and varied diet and provision of a healthy home environment. Coparenting quality is associated with food parenting practices among both mothers and fathers. Interventions aiming to improve food parenting practices should include fathers and should consider targeting parents' coparenting relationship.


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Pai/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Mães/psicologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Adulto , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Saúde da Família , Relações Familiares/psicologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Ontário , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
14.
Cogn Behav Ther ; 50(4): 305-319, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1161021

RESUMO

The direct threat posed by the 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19), uncertainty surrounding best safety practices, and secondary consequences of the virus have led to widespread stress and declining mental health across communities and individuals. These stresses may impact parenting behaviors, potentially leading to negative consequences for children. Controlling parenting behaviors increase in the face of perceived environmental threat and are associated with adverse mental health outcomes for children; however, determinants of parenting behaviors have not been investigated during the COVID-19 pandemic. The current study prospectively evaluated parenting behaviors during the pandemic (N=87). Results indicated that all negative affect emotions investigated were positively associated with controlling parenting behaviors. However, only COVID-related fear predicted changes in controlling parenting behaviors across timepoints. Specifically, although controlling parenting behaviors decreased in the overall sample from time 1 to time 2, higher COVID-related fear scores at time 1 predicted maintenance of high levels of controlling parenting behaviors at time 2. Additionally, this effect was specific to controlling, as opposed to more adaptive, parenting behaviors. Future studies should investigate the association between parents' COVID-related fear, controlling parenting behaviors, and adverse mental health outcomes for children in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , COVID-19/psicologia , Medo/psicologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Incerteza
15.
PLoS Biol ; 19(3): e3001100, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1125719

RESUMO

The issues facing academic mothers have been discussed for decades. Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is further exposing these inequalities as womxn scientists who are parenting while also engaging in a combination of academic related duties are falling behind. These inequities can be solved by investing strategically in solutions. Here we describe strategies that would ensure a more equitable academy for working mothers now and in the future. While the data are clear that mothers are being disproportionately impacted by COVID-19, many groups could benefit from these strategies. Rather than rebuilding what we once knew, let us be the architects of a new world.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisadores/estatística & dados numéricos , Sexismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Ensino/estatística & dados numéricos , COVID-19/economia , COVID-19/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Mães/psicologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Poder Familiar/tendências , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Sexismo/psicologia , Sexismo/tendências
16.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 171, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1112430

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Psychological stress and coping experienced during pregnancy can have important effects on maternal and infant health, which can also vary by race, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. Therefore, we assessed stressors, coping behaviors, and resources needed in relation to the COVID-19 pandemic in a sample of 162 perinatal (125 pregnant and 37 postpartum) women in the United States. METHODS: A mixed-methods study captured quantitative responses regarding stressors and coping, along with qualitative responses to open-ended questions regarding stress and resources needed during the COVID-19 pandemic. Logistic and linear regression models were used to analyze differences between pregnant and postpartum participants, as well as differences across key demographic variables. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyze open-ended questions. RESULTS: During the COVID-pandemic, food scarcity and shelter-in-place restrictions made it difficult for pregnant women to find healthy foods. Participants also reported missing prenatal appointments, though many reported using telemedicine to obtain these services. Financial issues were prevalent in our sample and participants had difficulty obtaining childcare. After controlling for demographic variables, pregnant women were less likely to engage in healthy stress-coping behaviors than postpartum women. Lastly, we were able to detect signals of increased stressors induced by the COVID-19 pandemic, and less social support, in perinatal women of racial and ethnic minority, and lower-income status. Qualitative results support our survey findings as participants expressed concerns about their baby contracting COVID-19 while in the hospital, significant others missing the delivery or key obstetric appointments, and wanting support from friends, family, and birthing classes. Financial resources, COVID-19 information and research as it relates to maternal-infant health outcomes, access to safe healthcare, and access to baby supplies (formula, diapers, etc.) emerged as the primary resources needed by participants. CONCLUSIONS: To better support perinatal women's mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic, healthcare providers should engage in conversations regarding access to resources needed to care for newborns, refer patients to counseling services (which can be delivered online/via telephone) and virtual support groups, and consistently screen pregnant women for stressors.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , COVID-19 , Recursos em Saúde/organização & administração , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Assistência Perinatal , Educação Pré-Natal/métodos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/psicologia , Feminino , Alocação de Recursos para a Atenção à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/normas , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/tendências , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Saúde Mental/normas , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Assistência Perinatal/métodos , Assistência Perinatal/organização & administração , Assistência Perinatal/tendências , Gravidez , SARS-CoV-2 , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia , Estresse Psicológico/prevenção & controle , Telemedicina/métodos , Telemedicina/organização & administração , Estados Unidos
17.
Cogn Behav Ther ; 50(4): 305-319, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33787461

RESUMO

The direct threat posed by the 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19), uncertainty surrounding best safety practices, and secondary consequences of the virus have led to widespread stress and declining mental health across communities and individuals. These stresses may impact parenting behaviors, potentially leading to negative consequences for children. Controlling parenting behaviors increase in the face of perceived environmental threat and are associated with adverse mental health outcomes for children; however, determinants of parenting behaviors have not been investigated during the COVID-19 pandemic. The current study prospectively evaluated parenting behaviors during the pandemic (N=87). Results indicated that all negative affect emotions investigated were positively associated with controlling parenting behaviors. However, only COVID-related fear predicted changes in controlling parenting behaviors across timepoints. Specifically, although controlling parenting behaviors decreased in the overall sample from time 1 to time 2, higher COVID-related fear scores at time 1 predicted maintenance of high levels of controlling parenting behaviors at time 2. Additionally, this effect was specific to controlling, as opposed to more adaptive, parenting behaviors. Future studies should investigate the association between parents' COVID-related fear, controlling parenting behaviors, and adverse mental health outcomes for children in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , COVID-19/psicologia , Medo/psicologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Incerteza
18.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 18(1): 41, 2021 03 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33736668

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Due to the myriad of benefits of children's outdoor play and time, there is increasing concern over its decline. This systematic review synthesized evidence on the correlates of outdoor play and outdoor time among children aged 3-12 years. METHODS: A total of 12 electronic databases in five different languages (Chinese, English, Korean, Spanish, Portuguese) were searched between October 28, 2019 and July 27, 2020. Covidence software was used for screening and Microsoft Excel with a predesigned coding form was used for data extraction. Evidence was synthesized and correlates were categorized using the socioecological model framework. RESULTS: Based on 107 studies representing 188,498 participants and 422 childcare centers from 29 countries, 85 studies examined potential correlates of outdoor play while 23 studies examined that of outdoor time (one examined both). The duration of outdoor play and outdoor time ranged between 60 and 165 min/d and 42-240 min/d, respectively. Out of 287 (outdoor play) and 61 (outdoor time) potential correlates examined, 111 correlates for outdoor play and 33 correlates for outdoor time were identified as significant correlates. Thirty-three variables were identified as key/common correlates of outdoor play/time, including eight correlates at the individual level (e.g., sex/gender, race/ethnicity, physical activity), 10 correlates at the parental level (e.g., parental attitude/support/behavior, parenting practice), nine at the microsystem level (e.g., proximal home/social environment such as residence type, peer influence), three at the macrosystem/community level (e.g., availability of space children can play), and three at the physical ecology/pressure for macrosystem change level (e.g., seasonality, rurality). No key correlates were found at the institutional level. CONCLUSIONS: Individual, parental, and proximal physical (home) and social environments appear to play a role in children's outdoor play and time. Ecological factors (i.e., seasonality, rurality) also appear to be related to outdoor play/time. Evidence was either inconsistent or lacking at institutional and macrosystem/community levels. Standardizing terminology and measures of outdoor play/time is warranted. Future work should investigate the interactions and processes of multiple variables across different levels of socioecological modelling to better understand the mechanisms through which outdoor play/time opportunities can be optimized for children while paying special attention to varying conditions in which children are born, live, and play.


Assuntos
Meio Ambiente , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Jogos e Brinquedos , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Criança , Creches , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Poder Familiar/etnologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Jogos e Brinquedos/psicologia , Meio Social , Fatores de Tempo
19.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 18(1): 43, 2021 03 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33752697

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Social factors are important determinants of youth physical activity (PA), but the longitudinal association between parental behaviours and adolescent PA has not been clearly assessed. This prospective study examined average and lagged associations between perceived parental support and control with adolescents' moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA); and assessed the independent associations between specific parental support and control behaviours and adolescents' MVPA. METHODS: Data from three cycles of the MATCH study, when 374 participants were 12, 16 and 17 years old, were included in this analysis. At each cycle, participants self-reported questionnaires on perceived tangible parental support, intangible support, and control behaviours as well as number of days per week attaining at least 60 min of MVPA. Mixed effect models were used to assess the longitudinal relationship between parental behaviours and MVPA. Cross-lagged panel design was used to assess the association of parental behaviours during early adolescence with MVPA during late adolescence. RESULTS: Overall parental support (coef. = 0.46, P < 0.0001), tangible support (coef. = 0.37, P < 0.0001), encouragement (coef. = 0.12, P = 0.025) and transportation (coef. = 0.25, P < 0.0001) were positively associated with MVPA, whereas parental control was a negative predictor of MVPA (coef. = - 0.18, P = 0.003). Perceived parental behaviours appeared to have long term associations (5 y.) with MVPA as parent support (coef. = 0.40, P = 0.006) and co-participation (coef. = 0.33, P = 0.017) reported around age 12 were positively associated with MVPA measured 5 years later. CONCLUSIONS: Parental support for PA, particularly in the form of tangible support, may be a key factor to include in interventions aiming to promote PA during adolescence. In contrast, parents should be encouraged to avoid control behaviours as these appear to lead to lower MVPA among adolescents.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Relações Pais-Filho , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Adolescente , Controle Comportamental/psicologia , Criança , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pais/psicologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Autorrelato , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 183, 2021 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33673826

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mental wellbeing during pregnancy and the year after birth is critical to a range of maternal and infant outcomes. Many mental health interventions fail to incorporate stakeholder perspectives. The Catalyst Project aimed to work with key stakeholders in Mozambique to develop interventions and delivery strategies which were in-line with existing evidence and the needs, goals, and priorities of those both directly and indirectly involved in its success. METHODS: A qualitative, human-centred design approach was utilised. Focus-group discussions, individual interviews, and observations with young women (aged 16-24 years), their families, community leaders, service providers and government were used to better understand the needs, priorities and challenges to mental wellbeing of young women. These findings were triangulated with the literature to determine priority challenges to be addressed by an intervention. Stakeholder workshops were held to identify potential solutions and co-develop an intervention and delivery strategy. RESULTS: The 65 participants comprised 23 young pregnant women or new mothers, 12 family members, 19 service providers and 11 staff from the Ministry of Health. Participants highlighted significant uncertainty related to living situations, financial status, education, social support, and limited knowledge of what to expect of the impact of pregnancy and parenting. Family and community support were identified as an important need among this group. The Mama Felíz (Happy Mama) programme was developed with stakeholders as a course to strengthen pregnancy, childbirth and child development knowledge, and build positive relationships, problem-solving and parenting skills. In addition, family sessions address wider cultural and gender issues which impact adolescent maternal wellbeing. CONCLUSIONS: We have developed an intervention to reduce the risk of poor maternal mental health and gives young mothers hope and skills to make a better life for them and their children by packaging information about the risk and protective factors for maternal mental disorders in a way that appeals to them, their families and service providers. By using human-centred design to understand the needs and priorities of young mothers and the health and community systems in which they live, the resulting intervention and delivery strategy is one that stakeholders view as appropriate and acceptable.


Assuntos
Saúde Mental , Mães/psicologia , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Intervenção Psicossocial , Participação dos Interessados , Saúde da Mulher , Adolescente , Atenção à Saúde/métodos , Feminino , Grupos Focais/métodos , Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Humanos , Moçambique , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Gravidez , Fatores de Proteção , Intervenção Psicossocial/métodos , Intervenção Psicossocial/organização & administração , Adulto Jovem
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