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1.
Mol Cell ; 81(7): 1365-1367, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33798412

RESUMO

Ciesla et al. (2021) uncover intricate circuits of post-transcriptional regulation induced by the Myc oncogene, including alternative splicing and translational control, which are relevant for breast cancer prognosis and contribute to metabolic reprogramming and stem cell-like features of cancer cells.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Carcinogênese/genética , Humanos , Poder Psicológico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-myc/genética , RNA , Spliceossomos
3.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 21(1): 65, 2021 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33602199

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The new paradigm of intercultural policies focuses on rethinking the common public culture. In Ecuador, the "Buen Vivir" plan seeks to incorporate the ancestral medical knowledge, experience and beliefs of traditional healers into the formal health services. This study explores views on the formal health system from the perspective of the healers belonging to the Kichwa and Shuar ethnicities in the South of Ecuador. METHODS: A qualitative study with a phenomenological approach was performed. Focus groups were conducted in three locations in Southern Ecuador. Shuar, Kichwa and Mestizo ethnic groups were included in the research. RESULTS: Eleven focus groups with a total of 110 participants belonging to the Shuar, Kichwa and Mestizo ethnic groups participated in the study. Six themes were created through analysis: 1) conflicts with health professionals, 2) acceptance of traditional healers, 3) respect, 4) work as a team, 5) environment and patient care, and 6) salary and recognition. CONCLUSION: This study indicated the perceived barriers compromising respectful collaboration between health staff and traditional healers from an indigenous perspective. Power inequalities and a historically unidirectional relationship and, in addition, differences in health beliefs, seem to create misunderstandings regarding each other's approach when faced with health and disease. However, insight in these barriers can create opportunities towards collaboration, which will have a positive effect on patient confidence in one or both systems and support continuity between traditional healers and the formal health system.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Assistência à Saúde , Grupos Étnicos , Pessoal de Saúde , Índios Sul-Americanos , Relações Interprofissionais , Medicina Tradicional , Adulto , Idoso , Compreensão , Comportamento Cooperativo , Cultura , Equador , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Percepção , Políticas , Poder Psicológico , Pesquisa Qualitativa
4.
Z Psychosom Med Psychother ; 67(1): 21-35, 2021.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33565376

RESUMO

Question: For decades hysteria has been psychodynamically interpreted sexualized as part of a frustrated desire with a depressive core. However, this "victim" side should be faced with the other often hidden aspects of hysteria with aggression and striving for power. Method: The basic hypothesis pursued here is that the hysterical/histrionic person was not primarily "disadvantaged" in his or her development, but that his or her striving for power and thus his or her potential for aggression is to be understood above all as a learned mode of global relationship that the adolescents have learned to respond and assert themselves to an intra-familiar situation of tension and pressure. Results: Any therapy that does not take this sufficiently into account falls short and reinforces the underlying mechanism of the therapeutic relationship dynamics. During treatment the patient must increasingly feel how much destruction and loneliness this global relationship implies. Conclusions: Only if the patient experiences that reduction of dominance and self-reference as well as increase of "true" felt empathy lead to more satisfying relations, the "imprisonment" in hysterical mode can be gradually lifted.


Assuntos
Agressão , Histeria/psicologia , Histeria/terapia , Poder Psicológico , Psicoterapia , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
6.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 22(1): 74, 2021 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33602124

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: One component of precision medicine is to construct prediction models with their predicitve ability as high as possible, e.g. to enable individual risk prediction. In genetic epidemiology, complex diseases like coronary artery disease, rheumatoid arthritis, and type 2 diabetes, have a polygenic basis and a common assumption is that biological and genetic features affect the outcome under consideration via interactions. In the case of omics data, the use of standard approaches such as generalized linear models may be suboptimal and machine learning methods are appealing to make individual predictions. However, most of these algorithms focus mostly on main or marginal effects of the single features in a dataset. On the other hand, the detection of interacting features is an active area of research in the realm of genetic epidemiology. One big class of algorithms to detect interacting features is based on the multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR). Here, we further develop the model-based MDR (MB-MDR), a powerful extension of the original MDR algorithm, to enable interaction empowered individual prediction. RESULTS: Using a comprehensive simulation study we show that our new algorithm (median AUC: 0.66) can use information hidden in interactions and outperforms two other state-of-the-art algorithms, namely the Random Forest (median AUC: 0.54) and Elastic Net (median AUC: 0.50), if interactions are present in a scenario of two pairs of two features having small effects. The performance of these algorithms is comparable if no interactions are present. Further, we show that our new algorithm is applicable to real data by comparing the performance of the three algorithms on a dataset of rheumatoid arthritis cases and healthy controls. As our new algorithm is not only applicable to biological/genetic data but to all datasets with discrete features, it may have practical implications in other research fields where interactions between features have to be considered as well, and we made our method available as an R package ( https://github.com/imbs-hl/MBMDRClassifieR ). CONCLUSIONS: The explicit use of interactions between features can improve the prediction performance and thus should be included in further attempts to move precision medicine forward.


Assuntos
Medicina de Precisão , Algoritmos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Redução Dimensional com Múltiplos Fatores , Poder Psicológico
7.
Acad Med ; 96(1): 134-141, 2021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33394664

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The combination of power and conflict is frequently reported to have a detrimental impact on communication and on patient care, and it is avoided and perceived negatively by health care professionals. In view of recent recommendations to explicitly address power and conflict in health professions education, adopting more constructive approaches toward power and conflict may be helpful. This study examined the role of power in conflicts between health care professionals in different cultural contexts to make recommendations for promoting more constructive approaches. METHOD: The authors used social bases of power (positional, expert, informational, reward, coercive, referent) identified in the literature to examine the role of power in conflicts between health care professionals in different cultural settings. They drew upon semistructured interviews conducted from 2013 to 2016 with 249 health care professionals working at health centers in the United States, Switzerland, and Hungary, in which participants shared stories of conflict they had experienced with coworkers. The authors used a directed approach to content analysis to analyze the data. RESULTS: The social bases of power tended to be comparable across sites and included positional, expert, and coercive power. The rigid hierarchies that divide health care professionals, their professions, and their specialties contributed to negative experiences in conflicts. In addition, the presence of an audience, such as supervisors, coworkers, patients, and patients' families, prevented health care professionals from addressing conflicts when they occurred, resulting in conflict escalation. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that fostering more positive approaches toward power and conflict could be achieved by using social bases of power such as referent power and by addressing conflicts in a more private, backstage, manner.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Incivilidade/prevenção & controle , Relações Interprofissionais , Negociação/métodos , Negociação/psicologia , Poder Psicológico , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos
8.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 28: e49421, jan.-dez. 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1128423

RESUMO

Objetivo: descrever o uso das tecnologias de cuidado da enfermeira obstétrica qualificada na modalidade de residência e sua relação com a práxis profissional. Método: estudo qualitativo com 13 enfermeiras obstétricas atuantes em duas maternidades públicas do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Dados coletados por entrevista individual, semiestruturada e análise hermenêutica-dialética. Resultados: a transição do modelo intervencionista estrutura-se no cuidado humanizado com a incorporação de um modelo centrado nas boas práticas e nas tecnologias não invasivas de cuidado da enfermeira obstétrica. A práxis da enfermeira obstétrica contribui para a transformação qualitativa deste cenário, com resgate sobre a fisiologia, o fortalecimento de vínculo e empoderamento da mulher, ressignificando o momento do parto. Conclusão: a prática da enfermeira e o uso das tecnologias não invasivas constituem possibilidades para ruptura do modelo hegemônico culturalmente instituído no Brasil, sendo necessária ainda a constituição de um consenso que supere o senso comum(AU)


Objective: to describe the use of care technologies by residency-qualified nurse midwives and their relationship with professional praxis. Method: in this qualitative study with 13 nurse midwives at two public maternity hospitals in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, data were collected by individual, semi-structured interview and hermeneutic-dialectic analysis. Results: the transition from the interventionist model builds on humanized care by incorporating a model centered on nurse midwives' use of best practices and noninvasive care technologies. Their praxis contributes to qualitative change in this scenario by reinstating physiology, fostering stronger bonding, and empowering women, so as to re-signify the moment of childbirth. Conclusion: nurse midwives' praxis and use of noninvasive technologies constitute opportunities to break with the culturally established model hegemonic in Brazil, while a consensus still needs to be built to surmount common sense(AU)


Objetivo: describir el uso de tecnologías asistenciales por parte de enfermeras parteras tituladas en residencia y su relación con la praxis profesional. Método: en este estudio cualitativo con 13 enfermeras parteras de dos maternidades públicas de Río de Janeiro, Brasil, los datos fueron recolectados mediante entrevista individual, semiestructurada y análisis hermenéuticodialéctico. Resultados: la transición del modelo intervencionista se basa en la atención humanizada al incorporar un modelo centrado en el uso de las mejores prácticas y tecnologías de atención no invasiva por parte de las enfermeras parteras. Su praxis contribuye al cambio cualitativo en este escenario al reinstaurar la fisiología, fomentar vínculos más fuertes y empoderar a las mujeres, para resignificar el momento del parto. Conclusión: la praxis de las enfermeras parteras y el uso de tecnologías no invasivas constituyen oportunidades para romper con el modelo hegemónico culturalmente establecido en Brasil, mientras que aún debe construirse un consenso para superar el sentido común(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Parto Humanizado , Parto Obstétrico/tendências , Enfermeiras Obstétricas/educação , Enfermagem Obstétrica/métodos , Brasil , Poder Psicológico , Epidemiologia Descritiva , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Hermenêutica , Maternidades
9.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244432, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33338078

RESUMO

Antibiotic resistance is a global health concern. Although numerous strategies have tried to reduce inadequate antibiotic prescribing, antibiotics are still prescribed in 60% of acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRTIs) cases in Catalonia (Spain). This study aims to explore service users' experiences of ALRTIs, the quality and access to healthcare services, and health education. Selective purposive sampling was carried out, based on a prior definition of participant characteristics. These were sex, age, ethnicity, date of the last ALRTI, number of ALRTIs in the last year, and treatments received. Participants with a previous diagnosis of ALRTIs were recruited from three primary health care centres in Barcelona and one in Tarragona. Twenty-nine interviews were conducted between April and June 2019. A content thematic analysis was performed. Three themes were identified: 1) risk perceptions and help-seeking; 2) treatment preferences and antibiotic use; and 3) relationship dynamics and communication with healthcare professionals. Accounts of service users' sense of autonomy towards their health and power dynamics within the healthcare system were apparent. Supporting service users to become reliable, subjective and agentic experts of their health and bodies could help them to voice their healthcare agendas. Power structures embedded within healthcare, political and economic institutions should be challenged so that healthcare services can be co-developed (with service users) and based on service users' autonomy and horizontal relationships. Special consideration should be paid to the intersection of social vulnerabilities. A concordance approach to prescribing could be key to improve the responsible use of antibiotics and to contribute to the prevention of AMR in primary healthcare. The marketisation of health, and the increased demands of private healthcare in Spain due to the financial pressures on public healthcare as a consequence of the financial crisis of 2008 and the COVID-19 pandemic, are a risk for promoting adequate antibiotic prescribing and use. Trial registration The ISAAC-CAT study has been registered in the NCT registry, ID: NCT03931577.


Assuntos
Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Autonomia Pessoal , Poder Psicológico , Atenção Primária à Saúde/organização & administração , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Preferência do Paciente , Atenção Primária à Saúde/métodos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Risco , Espanha/epidemiologia , Populações Vulneráveis
10.
Texto & contexto enferm ; 29: e20180522, Jan.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1139734

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Objective: to analyze how nursing is represented by the series that portray the context of clinical health care. v Method: a descriptive, exploratory study carried out in a public Higher Education Institution. Data collection was carried out through semi-structured interviews with nursing students. Data analysis was performed through content analysis, supported by IRAMUTEQ version 0.7 and Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 22.0 software. Results: the analysis of the data allowed for the identification of two categories directly related to the role of nursing and to the power relations between the characters. Yet, although television series are common among nursing students, they have not influenced them in choosing the course. However, the positive perception on the part of some interviewees was related to admiration for the field of human health, but not with the nursing characters represented in the television shows. Conclusion: nursing in health series is not perceived as a leading category in its responsibilities in the care process, but only as an auxiliary group. It is noticed that the media reproduces the biomedical model, emphasizing the medical professional as the central character in clinical care.


RESUMEN Objetivo: analizar cómo se representa la Enfermería en las series de televisión que retratan el contexto de los cuidados clínicos de la salud. Método: estudio descriptivo y exploratorio realizado en una Institución de Enseñanza superior pública. Los datos se recopilaron por medio de entrevistas semiestructuradas con estudiantes de la carrera de grado de Enfermería. El análisis de los datos se realizó por medio del análisis de contenido, con la ayuda de los programas IRAMUTEQ versión 0.7 y Statistical Package for the Social Sciences versión 22.0. Resultados: el análisis de los datos permitió identificar dos categorías relacionadas directamente al rol de la enfermería y las relaciones de poder entre los personajes. Sin embargo, a pesar de que los estudiantes de Enfermería son espectadores habituales de las series televisivas, estas no los influenciaron al elegir su carrera. No obstante, por parte de algunos entrevistados, la percepción positiva estuvo relacionada con la admiración al campo de la salud de los seres humanos, aunque no con los personajes de Enfermería representados en los programas de televisión. Conclusión: en las series de salud, la Enfermería no se percibe como una categoría protagonista en sus responsabilidades inherentes al proceso del cuidado, sino solamente como un grupo auxiliar de profesionales. Se percibe que los medios de comunicación reproducen el modelo biomédico, enfatizando al profesional de la Medicina como el personaje central en los cuidados clínicos.


RESUMO Objetivo: analisar como a enfermagem é representada pelos seriados que retratam o contexto dos cuidados clínicos em saúde. Método: estudo descritivo e exploratório, realizado em uma Instituição de Ensino Superior Pública. A coleta de dados foi realizada por meio de entrevistas semiestruturadas com graduandos de enfermagem. A análise de dados foi feita por meio da análise de conteúdo, subsidiada pelos softwares IRAMUTEQ versão 0.7 e Statistical Package for the Social Sciences versão 22.0. Resultados: a análise dos dados permitiu a identificação de duas categorias relacionadas diretamente ao papel da enfermagem e as relações de poder entre os personagens. Ainda, apesar dos seriados televisivos serem comum entre os estudantes de enfermagem, estas não influenciaram os acadêmicos na escolha do curso. Entretanto, a percepção positiva, por parte de alguns entrevistados, esteve relacionada com a admiração ao campo da saúde humana, mas não com as personagens de enfermagem representadas nos shows televisivos. Conclusão: a enfermagem nos seriados de saúde não é percebida como categoria protagonista em suas responsabilidades no processo de cuidar, mas, somente como um grupo auxiliar. Percebe-se que a mídia reproduz o modelo biomédico, enfatizando o profissional médico como o personagem central no cuidado clínico.


Assuntos
Humanos , Desejabilidade Social , Poder Psicológico , Comunicação , Privacidade , Mídia Audiovisual , Enfermeiras Clínicas
11.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem ; 28: e3373, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33174992

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to measure the level of structural empowerment of nurses working in a university hospital. METHOD: a descriptive, analytical, and cross-sectional study, carried out with 237 nurses, who developed care and management activities. Data collection took place through a self-administered questionnaire with questions on the personal and professional characterization and the Work Effectiveness Conditions Questionnaire II. Data analysis used descriptive and inferential statistics. RESULTS: it was identified that nurses have a moderate level of structural empowerment (18.06±SD 0.9). The greatest value was obtained in the Opportunity dimension (4.08±SD 0.8), followed by the Resources (3.17±SD 0.8) and Informal power (3,04±SD 0.9) dimensions; while the scores of Support (2.67±SD 1.0), Formal power (2.59±SD 0.9), and Information (2.51±SD 0.9) were lower. CONCLUSION: the level of structural empowerment of the nurses was moderate, which means partial access to opportunities, resources, support, and information of the institution.


Assuntos
Empoderamento , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros , Estudos Transversais , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Satisfação no Emprego , Poder Psicológico , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
Cuad Bioet ; 31(102): 151-165, 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32910669

RESUMO

The public health crisis caused by COVID-19 disease has bring again to the public arena the old debate of the role in decision-making process of politics and science. In this paper we analyze, in the context of the current pandemics, how politics has left a stellar role for science, either because science has anticipated in its proposals to politics, or because politics has opted for it as a premeditated strategy. The references to the opinion of scientists as a decision-making criterion or, furthermore, their presence as true spokesmen for authority have been so frequent. This means rediscovering science and health as instruments of power, in terms that remind us of what Foucault denounced almost fifty years ago with his Biopolitics.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Política , Ciência , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Tomada de Decisões , Democracia , Teoria Ética , Política de Saúde , Prioridades em Saúde , Recursos em Saúde/provisão & distribução , Humanos , Pandemias/ética , Pandemias/legislação & jurisprudência , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Poder Psicológico , Saúde Pública , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Alocação de Recursos/ética , Papel (figurativo) , Valores Sociais , Sociedades Científicas , Espanha , Vacinas Virais
15.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(37): 22780-22786, 2020 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32868412

RESUMO

Does being disagreeable-that is, behaving in aggressive, selfish, and manipulative ways-help people attain power? This question has long captivated philosophers, scholars, and laypeople alike, and yet prior empirical findings have been inconclusive. In the current research, we conducted two preregistered prospective longitudinal studies in which we measured participants' disagreeableness prior to entering the labor market and then assessed the power they attained in the context of their work organization ∼14 y later when their professional careers had unfolded. Both studies found disagreeable individuals did not attain higher power as opposed to extraverted individuals who did gain higher power in their organizations. Furthermore, the null relationship between disagreeableness and power was not moderated by individual differences, such as gender or ethnicity, or by contextual variables, such as organizational culture. What can account for this null relationship? A close examination of behavior patterns in the workplace found that disagreeable individuals engaged in two distinct patterns of behavior that offset each other's effects on power attainment: They engaged in more dominant-aggressive behavior, which positively predicted attaining higher power, but also engaged in less communal and generous behavior, which predicted attaining less power. These two effects, when combined, appeared to cancel each other out and led to a null correlation between disagreeableness and power.


Assuntos
Personalidade/fisiologia , Poder Psicológico , Adulto , Dissidências e Disputas , Feminino , Humanos , Individualidade , Relações Interpessoais , Liderança , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Ocupações , Estudos Prospectivos , Personalidade Tipo A
16.
Acta bioquím. clín. latinoam ; 54(3): 257-266, set. 2020. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1130600

RESUMO

EL HOMA-IR (homeostasis model assessment-insulin-resistance) es un estimador de insulinorresistencia (IR) pero depende de la determinación de insulina. Los índices triglicéridos-glucosa (T-G)-circunferencia de la cintura (CC) (T-G-CC) o triglicéridos-glucosa-índice de masa corporal (TG- IMC) podrían ser sustitutos. Los objetivos de este trabajo consistieron en investigar en personas con riesgo de desarrollar diabetes tipo 2 (DT2): a) los índices T-G, T-G-CC y T-G-IMC como estimadores de HOMA-IR>2,1; b) determinar su poder discriminante. Se realizó un estudio prospectivo en el que se estudiaron 223 individuos ≥45 años con riesgo de desarrollar diabetes tipo 2 (DT2). La relación T-G se calculó como ln [triglicéridos (mg/dL) x glucemia (mg/dL)/2]. La relación T-G-CC y T-G-IMC fue el producto de T-G por CC o IMC. Se utilizó análisis de regresión logística y se calcularon las áreas bajo las curvas ROC (receiver operating characteristic curves) (ABC) para comparar las asociaciones de T-G, T-G-CC y T-G-IMC con HOMA-IR>2,1. Mediante análisis discriminante se evaluó la clasificación de los sujetos entre HOMA-IR>2,1 y HOMA-IR≤2,1. ABC, sensibilidad, especificidad, poder predictivo positivo y negativo para T-G-CC y T-G-IMC fueron mayores que para T-G, con los siguientes valores de corte: T-G=8,75, T-G-CC=821 y T-G-IMC=255. Los odds ratios (OR) para HOMA-IR>2,1, ajustados para confusores, fueron: T-G>8,75, OR: 4,85 (IC 95% 2,73-8,62); T-G-CC>821, OR: 10,41 (IC 95% 5,55-19,53); T-GIMC> 255, OR: 10,41 (IC 95% 5,55-19,53). Con el análisis discriminante T-G>8,75 clasificó correctamente 69,2% individuos con HOMA-IR≤2,1 y 68,3% con HOMA-IR>2,1; T-G-CC y T-G-IMC clasificaron 74,4% y 78,2% respectivamente (p<0,001 en todos los casos). Se concluyó que T-GCC> 821 y T-G-IMC>255 fueron mejores estimadores de HOMA-IR>2,1 que T-G>8,75. Estas son determinaciones simples y accesibles y podrían ser útiles en la práctica clínica y en estudios epidemiológicos.


HOMA-IR ((homeostasis model assessment-insulin-resistance) is a surrogate estimator of insulin resistance (IR) but it depends on insulin determination. Triglyceride-glucose-waist circumference (T-G-WC) or triglyceride-glucose-body mass index (BMI) (T-G-BMI) could be substitutes. The objectives of this work were: to investigate in people at risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D): a) T-G, T-G-CC and T-G-BMI as estimators of HOMA-IR>2.1 and b) to determine their discriminating power. A prospective study was conducted studying 223 individuals ≥45 years of age at risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D). The T-G ratio was calculated as ln [triglycerides (mg/dL) x glycemia (mg/dL)/2]. The T-G-CC and T-G-BMI ratio was the product of T-G by CC or BMI. Logistic regression analysis was used and the areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC) curves were calculated to compare the associations of T-G, T-G-CC and T-G-BMI with HOMA-IR>2.1. Using a discriminant analysis, the classification of the subjects between HOMA-IR>2.1 or HOMA-IR≤2.1 was evaluated. AUC, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive powers for T-G-CC and T-G-BMI were higher than for T-G, with the following cut-off values: TG=8.75, T-G-CC=821 and T-G-BMI=255. Odds ratios (OR) for HOMA-IR>2.1, adjusted for confounders, were: T-G>8.75, OR 4.85 (95% CI 2.73-8.62); T-G-CC>821, OR 10.41 (95% CI 5.55-19.53); T-G-BMI>255, OR 10.41 (95% CI 5.55-19.53). With the discriminant analysis T-G>8.75, 69.2% correctly classified with HOMA-IR≤2.1 and 68.3% with HOMA-IR>2.1; T-G-CC and T-G-BMI correctly classified 74.4% and 78.2% respectively (p <0.001 in all cases). It is concluded that T-G-CC>821 and T-G-BMI>255 were better estimators of HOMA-IR>2.1 than T-G>8.75. T-G-WC and T-G-BMI are simple and reliable determinations and could be useful in clinical practice and epidemiological studies.


O HOMA-IR (homeostasis model assessment-insulin-resistance) e um estimador de resistencia a insulina (RI), mas depende da determinacao da insulina. Triglicerideos-glicose (T-G), circunferencia da cintura (CC) (T-G-CC) ou triglicerideos-glicose-indice de massa corporal (T-G-IMC) poderiam ser substitutos. Os objetivos desse trabalho foram investigar em pessoas com risco de desenvolver diabetes tipo 2 (DT2): a) os indices T-G, T-G-CC e T-G-IMC como estimadores de HOMA-IR> 2,1; b) determinar seu poder discriminante. Um estudo prospectivo foi realizado em 223 pessoas ≥45 anos com risco de desenvolver diabetes tipo 2 (DT2). A razao T-G foi calculada como ln [triglicerideos (mg/dL) x glicemia (mg/dL)/2]. A razao T-G-CC e T-G-IMC foi o produto de T-G por CC ou IMC. A analise de regressao logistica foi utilizada e as areas sob as curvas ROC (receiver operating features) ABC foram calculadas para comparar as associacoes de T-G, T-G-CC e T-G-IMC com HOMA-IR>2.1. Por meio de analise discriminante, avaliou-se a classificacao dos sujeitos entre HOMA-IR>2,1 e HOMA-IR≤2,1. ABC, sensibilidade, especificidade, poder preditivo positivo e negativo para TG-CC e TG-IMC foram maiores que para TG, com os seguintes valores de corte: TG=8,75, TG-CC=821 e TG-IMC=255. Odds Ratios (OR) para HOMA-IR>2,1, ajustados para fatores de confusao, foram: TG>8,75, OR 4,85 (IC95% 2,73-8,62); T-G-CC>821, OR 10,41 (IC 95% 5,55-19,53); T-G-IMC>255, OR 10,41 (IC 95% 5,55-19,53). Com a analise discriminante T-G>8,75, 69,2% foram classificados corretamente com HOMA-IR≤2,1 e 68,3% com HOMA-IR>2,1; T-G-CC e T-G-IMC classificaram 74,4% e 78,2%, respectivamente (p<0,001 em todos os casos). Conclui-se que T-G-CC>821 e TG- IMC>255 foram melhores estimadores de HOMA-IR>2,1 que T-G>8,75. Elas sao determinacoes simples e acessiveis e poderiam ser uteis na pratica clinica e em estudos epidemiologicos.


Assuntos
Humanos , Triglicerídeos , Poder Psicológico , Estudos Epidemiológicos , Modelos Logísticos , Razão de Chances , Fatores de Confusão Epidemiológicos , Curva ROC , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Classificação , Área Sob a Curva , Corte , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Glucose , Objetivos , Insulina , Pessoas , Organização e Administração , Associação , Glicemia , Resistência à Insulina , Índice de Massa Corporal , Análise Discriminante , Risco , Análise de Regressão , Circunferência da Cintura
17.
An. psicol ; 36(2): 370-377, mayo 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-192074

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Political Skills Inventory (PSI) is a measurement tool for assessing four dimensions associated with political skills: social astuteness, interpersonal influence, networking ability and apparent sincerity (Ferris, 2005). METHOD: In the present study, multi-sample and multi-method, we developed and analyzed the psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the (PSI), by performing both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. Additionally, a longitudinal reliability test and a sex factorial invariance test were performed. RESULTS: Cronbach's alpha and omega indices revealed satisfactory reliability and exploratory factor analyses extracted the four original factors as reported in other studies (N = 309). Confirmatory factorial analyses confirmed that the four-factor solution presented the best fit to our data (N = 248). CONCLUSIONS: We add new evidence for time and sex invariance of the measure, showing that the PSI can be considered a stable and valid measure over time and across sex


INTRODUCCIÓN: El inventario de habilidades políticas (PSI, siglas en inglés) es una medida para calibrar cuatro dimensiones relacionadas con es-te constructo: la astucia social, la capacidad de influencia interpersonal, la habilidad para establecer contactos y la sinceridad aparente (Ferris, David-son & Perrewé, 2005). MÉTODO: En el presente estudio, multi-muestra y multimétodo, sendos análisis factorial exploratorio y confirmatorio se han llevado a cabo sobre dos muestras, una primera compuesta por trabajadores de varios ramos (recogido en tres etapas, con una edad media comprendida entre 43.66 y 44.70 años, DT = 9.42 - 10.22, y un porcentaje de mujeres entre 57.3 - 58.4%) y una segunda por trabajadores del sector salud (Mage = 35.56, SD = 7.23; 80.6% women), para desarrollar y testar las propiedades psicométricas de la versión española del PSI. Adicionalmente, se llevó a cabo una prueba de fiabilidad longitudinal y un análisis de invarianza relativo al género. RESULTADOS: Los índices alpha de Cronbach (cuyos valores oscilaron entre 0.83-0.90 en nuestros datos, y entre 0.73-0.87 en la versión original) y omega (0.85 para el total de la escala) revelaron un grado de fiabilidad satisfactoria. El análisis factorial exploratorio extrajo los cuatro factores de la versión original, tal y como ya ha sido reportado en otros estudios (N = 309). El análisis factorial confirmatorio confirmó que el ajuste de dicha estructura fue el mejor frente a los datos (N = 248). CONCLUSIONES: Con este estudio se añade evidencia al estudio de la invarianza de género y la estabilidad temporal de esta medida, mostrando que la versión española del PSI puede ser considerada una medida estable y válida a través del tiempo y relativa al género


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Inventário de Personalidade/normas , Aptidão , Política , Psicometria/instrumentação , Psicometria/normas , Análise Fatorial , Inquéritos e Questionários , 16054/psicologia , Traduções , Avaliação de Desempenho Profissional/estatística & dados numéricos , Mobilidade Ocupacional , Poder Psicológico
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32784889

RESUMO

In this study, we built and tested a contingency model linking leader daily empowering behaviors with employee daily job crafting. Drawing on the contingency leadership literature and the model of proactive motivation, we theorized employee daily work meaning and vigor as moderators of the above relationships. Daily data were collected from 103 Chinese employees for five consecutive days. Our findings suggest that leader dayT (a certain day) empowering behaviors are more strongly related to employee dayT+1 (next day after the certain day) job crafting when employee dayT work meaning is low and employee dayT+1 vigor is high. Our findings suggest that only under certain conditions can empowering leadership promote employee job crafting on a daily basis.


Assuntos
Liderança , Motivação , Humanos , Satisfação no Emprego , Poder Psicológico
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32752026

RESUMO

Breastfeeding provides benefits to the infant and mother; however, the rates of breastfeeding, particularly exclusive breastfeeding, remain below optimal levels in many Asian countries. The aim of this study is to review the benefits of breastfeeding to mothers and infants and current rates of breastfeeding in Vietnam, and to evaluate the effectiveness of a mobile application on exclusive breastfeeding among mothers in Vietnam. A two-arm, parallel triple-blinded randomised controlled trial will be conducted among 1000 mothers in Hanoi City, Vietnam, during 2020-2021. Eligible participants are pregnant women who will seek antenatal care from health facilities at 24-36 weeks of gestation and plan to deliver at two participating hospitals, own a smartphone, and carry a singleton foetus. Permuted-block randomisation method stratified by maternal age, education and parity will be used to ensure an equal number of participants in each group. A smartphone app will be developed to deliver breastfeeding and non-breastfeeding information to the intervention and control group, respectively. Data will be collected at baseline, before hospital discharge, and at 1, 4, and 6 months postpartum. This study envisages demonstrating whether a smartphone-based intervention can be effective at improving breastfeeding in Vietnam. Trials registration: ACTRN12619000531112.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Aplicativos Móveis , Mães , Poder Psicológico , Ásia , Aleitamento Materno/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Gravidez , Vietnã
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