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1.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 1): 131555, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34303048

RESUMO

Coal combustion can release large amounts of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which persist in various environment matrices (e.g., road dust) and hence cause the carcinogenic risk to human health. In this study, an exhaustive characterization of road dust samples coupling their physicochemical characteristics and stable isotope compositions (δ13C and δ15N) was conducted to evaluate the source, level, spatial distribution, and carcinogenic risk of PAHs in a typical coal-utilization city. Concentrations of Σ16 PAHs ranged from 605.5 to 25,374.3 ng/g with a mean concentration of 4083.0 ng/g. Pollution levels of sites around the coal-fired power plant (Zone 1) were significantly higher than those in other zones (p < 0.05). PAH concentration showed significant correlations with both C and N fractions (p < 0.01). Compositions of δ13C and δ15N in road dust coupled to principal component analysis and the partitions and diagnostic ratios of PAHs contributed to associating road dust to several local sources of contamination. Coal combustion and vehicular exhaust were major sources of PAHs around the power plant and urban area. Results of incremental lifetime cancer risk showed 81.5% of all sampling sites suffered potential risk (>10-6) for both adults and children, while children around the power plant suffered the highest risk. Despite the estimation of only potential risk being posed by PAHs in road dust, human exposure to the various environmental matrices, scientific and systematic assessment of carcinogenic risks by PAHs in the total environment warrants further investigations.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Adulto , Criança , China , Cidades , Carvão Mineral/análise , Poeira/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Medição de Risco
2.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 1): 131634, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34325266

RESUMO

One contemporary issue is how environmental pollution and climate can affect the dissemination and severity of COVID-19 in humans. We documented the first case of association between particulate matter ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5) and COVID-19 mortality rates that involved rural and medium-sized municipalities in northwestern Mexico, where direct air quality monitoring is absent. Alternatively, anthropogenic PM2.5 emissions were used to estimate the PM2.5 exposure in each municipality using two scenarios: 1) considering the fraction derived from combustion of vehicle fuel; and 2) the one derived from modeled anthropogenic sources. This study provides insights to better understand and face future pandemics by examining the relation between PM2.5 pollution and COVID-19 mortality considering the population density and the wind speed. The main findings are: (i) municipalities with high PM2.5 emissions and high population density have a higher COVID-19 mortality rate; (ii) the exceptionally high COVID-19 mortality rates of the rural municipalities could be associated to dust events, which are common in these regions where soils without vegetation are dominant; and (iii) the influence of wind speed on COVID-19 mortality rate was evidenced only in municipalities with <100 inhabitants per km2. These results confirm the suggestion that high levels of air pollutants associated with high population density and an elevated frequency of dust events may promote an extended prevalence and severity of viral particles in the polluted air of urban, suburban, and rural communities. This supports an additional means of dissemination of the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, in addition to the direct human-to-human transmission.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , COVID-19 , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Cidades , Poeira/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Material Particulado/análise , Densidade Demográfica , População Rural , SARS-CoV-2 , Vento
3.
Environ Pollut ; 292(Pt A): 118339, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34637824

RESUMO

Non-exhaust emissions (e.g., particles from brake pads, asphalt, curb, road paint, tire) are important sources of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) pollution in urban environments and are potential causes of PTEs pollution in road dust. We present the PTEs concentrations (Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Sn, Sb, Pb) of non-exhaust emission sources and pollution degree of PTEs. Isotopic signatures of Cu, Zn, and Pb were also analyzed to distinguish these sources. Among PTEs, the Cu concentration in all brake pads was significantly high and brake pads from Korea showed remarkably high Sb concentrations. Asphalt had a higher Pb concentration than other non-exhaust emission sources. Mean of δ65CuAE647, δ66ZnIRMM3702, and 206Pb/207Pb values of non-exhaust emission sources in this study ranged from -0.49‰ to +0.19‰, -0.24‰ to +0.16‰, and 1.1535 to 1.4471, respectively. Non-exhaust emission sources could be discriminated by plotting the concentration and isotopic composition of Cu. Cu isotopic compositions (δ65CuAE647) were clearly distinguished between brake pads including domestic and imported products and tires. Zn isotope values (δ66ZnIRMM3702) of brake pads, tires, and asphalt overlapped, but discriminated from road paint and curb. Our results indicate that the combination of Cu and Zn isotopic signatures can distinguish various non-exhaust traffic emissions, especially brake pads and tires.


Assuntos
Chumbo , Metais Pesados , Poeira/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluição Ambiental , Isótopos , Metais Pesados/análise , Medição de Risco , Zinco
4.
Chemosphere ; 287(Pt 3): 132340, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34826953

RESUMO

Indoor dust is an important source of human exposure to hazardous organic micropollutants (OMPs) because humans spend about 90 % of their time in the indoor environments. This study initially analyzed the concentrations and compositions of OMPs in the dust of different indoor environments from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. A total of 57 OMPs were detected and assigned to 7 chemical classes in this study. The total concentration of OMPs ranged from 5980 to 183,000 ng/g, with the median concentration of 46,400 ng/g. Personal care products, organophosphate esters, and pesticides were the dominant groups, with their median concentrations at 12,000, 10,000, and 5940 ng/g, respectively. The concentrations and compositions of influential OMPs varied in different microenvironments, suggesting different sources and usage patterns in the house. Then, the noncarcinogenic and carcinogenic risks of exposure to these substances for diverse age groups were assessed based on the median concentration. Cumulative noncarcinogenic risks of these OMPs via ingestion pathway were estimated to be negligible (1.41 × 10-4 - 1.87 × 10-3). The carcinogenic risks of these OMPs were higher than 10-6 (1.63 × 10-6 - 6.17 × 10-6) and should be noted. Theobromine accounted for more than 89 % of the cumulative cancer risk, implying that the carcinogenic risk of theobromine needs further monitoring in the future. Toddler was the most affected group for cancer risk among all the age groups, regardless of the microenvironments. These findings from this study may provide a benchmark for future efforts to ensure the safety of indoor dust for the local residents.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Poeira , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Poeira/análise , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Malásia , Medição de Risco
5.
Environ Pollut ; 292(Pt A): 118293, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34626710

RESUMO

The application of traditional dust reduction methods in surface mines is limited, particularly during winter due to long-term drought and a rainless environment. Therefore, it is essential to investigate dust pollution in cold region mines and get insights into its scientific prevention and control. This research analyzed dust pollution (concentration of TSP, PM10, PM2.5) from a combined perspective of production and metrological conditions in the Haerwusu open pit coal mine located in northwest China to provide the basis for prevention and control. The main findings indicate that the dust concentration in the pit exceeds the national regulatory limit of 50 µg/m for PM10 and 35 µg/m for PM2.5. According to the air quality index, PM10 was the primary pollutant at the bottom of the pit where coal mining was occurring. The order of the factors influencing dust concentration was as follows: coal production > boundary layer height > wind speed > temperature difference > temperature > humidity. Our study revealed that mining activity polluted the surrounding areas, mostly in December and January. The southeastern and eastern regions of the mine site were found to be the most polluted areas. The implications of this study could be used to optimize mining operations and develop dust prevention and control strategies.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Minas de Carvão , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , China , Poeira/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Material Particulado/análise
6.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 3): 131879, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34418661

RESUMO

Dust storms are frequent phenomena in Khuzestan Province, southwest Iran, leading to environmental hazards and deleterious impacts on human health. This work analyzes mineralogic and geochemical characteristics of dust sediments at the source regions and in deposition areas in southwest Iran during three dust-storm events in winter and spring 2018. Twenty soil and airborne dust samples were collected and analyzed for compositions of dust at different distances from the source regions in Iraq and southwest Iran, aiming to assess the source characterization and possible mixing processes in the atmosphere. The grain size distributions were also analyzed at specific sites. The results show that about 50 % of the volume size distribution corresponds to particle sizes of above 20 µm, indicating local/regional dust storms of coarse to giant particles. XRD analysis indicates that calcite is the dominant mineral in all the samples, with a high quartz and dolomite fraction. The most abundant major compounds are SiO2 and CaO, while Cl, Ba, Sr, Pb, Ni, Zn, Cr, V are the main trace elements. The enrichment factor (EF) analysis showed that apart from Th, Nb, Ce, and V, all the other elements (Pb, Zn, Cr, etc.) have an anthropogenic origin or represent high amounts of pollutant contamination. High levels of elemental enrichment are attributable to intensive pollution in Khuzestan Province and at sampling sites due to fossil-fuel combustion, gas and petroleum drilling activities. Moreover, based on the geo-accumulation index (Igeo), all samples are found to be contaminated by heavy metals due to prior war-related materiel, oil and gas extraction, and emissions from polluting industries.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Solo , Cidades , Poeira/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Metais Pesados/análise , Medição de Risco , Dióxido de Silício
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 803: 149832, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34525712

RESUMO

The share of non-exhaust particles, including tire wear particles (TWP), within the airborne dust and particularly within PM10 has increased in recent years due to a significant reduction of other particles including exhaust road traffic emissions. However, the quantification of TWP is a demanding task due to the non-specificity of tracers, and the fact that they are commonly contained in analytically challenging low concentrations (e.g. Zn, styrene, 1,3-butadiene, vinylcyclohexene). This difficulty is amplified by the chemical and morpho-textural heterogeneity of TWP resulting from the interaction between the tires and the road surface. In contrast to bulk techniques, automated single particle SEM/EDX analysis can benefit from the ubiquitous heterogeneity of environmental TWP as a diagnostic criterion for their identification and quantification. For this purpose, we follow a machine-learning (ML) approach that makes use of an extensive number (67) of morphological, textural (backscatter-signal based) and chemical descriptors to differentiate environmental particles into the following classes: TWP, metals, minerals and biogenic/organic. We present a ML-based model developed to classify airborne samples (trained by >100,000 environmental particles including 6841 TWP), and its application within a one-year monitoring campaign at two Swiss sites. In this study, the mass concentrations of TWP in the airborne fractions PM80-10, PM10-2.5 and PM2.5-1 were determined. Furthermore, the particle size distribution and shape characteristics of 5621 TWP were evaluated. A cut through a TWP by means of FIB-SEM evidences that the mineral and metal particles typically found in TWP are not only present on the particle surface but also throughout the complete TWP volume. At the urban background site, the annual average mass fraction of TWP and micro-rubber in PM10 was 1.8% (0.28 µg/m3) and 0.9%, respectively. At the urban kerbside site, the corresponding values were 6 times higher amounting to 10.5% (2.24 µg/m3) for TWP, and 5.0% for micro-rubber.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poeira , Poeira/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Aprendizado de Máquina , Tamanho da Partícula , Material Particulado/análise , Imagem Individual de Molécula , Emissões de Veículos/análise
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 803: 150016, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34525731

RESUMO

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are widely used in outdated electronic and electrical products. In the present study, dust samples from houses, kindergartens, and roads were collected in Guiyu, where informal e-waste recycling activities have been sustained since the 1980s. Haojiang was chosen as a reference site without e-waste pollution. A total of 20 PBDE congeners and 18 PCB congeners was measured. Concentrations of total PBDEs and PCBs in dust samples from Guiyu were significantly higher than those from Haojiang. In Guiyu, kindergarten dust had the highest concentration of PCBs in these three typical environments, whereas the concentration of PBDEs showed no significant difference. Concentrations of PBDEs in Haojiang house dust were found significantly higher than other two environmental dusts. According to the questionnaires, we found that factors such as shoe cabinets, electrical products, and potted plants might affect PBDE and PCB concentrations in house dust. Daily intake of PBDEs and PCBs via dust ingestion was estimated after correction by their house, kindergarten, and road dust concentrations. The mean estimated daily intake (EDI) of PBDEs for Guiyu children was far lower than the oral reference dose recommended by the environmental protection agency (EPA). The Guiyu children seem to have a higher trend of daily intakes of PCBs although their EDIs not being calculated accurately due to the low detection rate. Child exposure to PBDEs via dust ingestion in Guiyu was 36 times higher than those in Haojiang. This indicates that children from e-waste-polluted areas stay in surroundings with heavy burdens of PBDEs, even PCBs. The risk to their health from contaminants is a severe concern.


Assuntos
Resíduo Eletrônico , Bifenilos Policlorados , Criança , Poeira/análise , Resíduo Eletrônico/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Humanos , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Medição de Risco
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 803: 149980, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34525764

RESUMO

Dust storm particles have been one of the important contributors to global aerosol loading, affecting human health and climate system. Beijing, a megapolitan city, experienced two severe dust storms in spring of 2015, with maximum hourly-mean PM10 mass concentrations exceeding 1000 µg/m3. The first dust storm (Dust 1) was from east area of Gobi Desert about 850 km in the north of Beijing and the second (Dust 2) was from west area of Gobi Desert about 1500 km in the northwest of Beijing. Morphologies and elemental compositions of dust particles were identified using high-resolution electron microscopy. The statistical analysis showed that the number fractions of mineral dust particles during the two dust storm episodes were 85.3% and 95.4%, respectively. Clay minerals were the most abundant among mineral particles, with a number fraction larger than 50%, followed by quartz particles (17.3% and 14.8%) and feldspar. Feldspar and carbonate particles accounted for 14.8% and 3.4% of mineral particles in Dust 1, and 9.9% and 13.6% in Dust 2, with the difference due to the different source areas. When the dust storms directly migrated to Beijing, the occurrence of S-containing mineral particles and the relative weight ratio of S in individual mineral particles were extremely low, indicating limited production of sulfate on the dust-storm particles in the atmosphere, regardless of the differences of source areas, migration paths, and mineralogical components. After the peaks of dust storms passed, the occurrence of S on the mineral particles were much higher, although the relative weight ratios of S in the mineral particles was still very small. This result suggests that most of the mineral particles underwent heterogeneous reactions, but the reaction rates were low.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Aerossóis/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Pequim , Poeira/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Minerais/análise , Tamanho da Partícula
10.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 2): 131703, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34352541

RESUMO

Exposure to phthalates poses adverse health impacts to human beings. In this study, we analyzed 7 phthalates in dust samples, which were collected with vacuum cleaner from 40 to 31 residences in Beijing in summer and winter, respectively. The major phthalates (median concentration in the summer and winter, respectively) were DiBP (55 and 40 ng/mg), DnBP (99 and 30 ng/mg) and DEHP (795 and 335 ng/mg). The concentrations were significantly influenced by season and residence time of house dust. The concentrations of phthalates in dust on plastic surfaces were highest, followed by those on wooden and fabric surfaces. The dust-air partition coefficients (Kd) were calculated: the median values were 0.13, 0.02 and 5.62 m3/mg in the summer and 0.06, 0.018 and 0.76 m3/mg in the winter for DiBP, DnBP and DEHP, respectively. A comparison with Kd* at equilibrium state suggested that partition between air and dust deviated from equilibrium state in both seasons. The results also revealed that dust-phthalates in the summer may completely originate from source materials via direct transfer and external physical process; while dust-phthalates in the winter may come from both air (via partition) and source material (via direct transfer and external physical process). The influence of temperature on dust-phthalate concentrations differed by season, owing to different origin of dust-phthalates in two seasons. Polar organic components in dust, which are products of reactions between O3 and unsaturated hydrocarbons in dust, likely played an important role in fate and transport of phthalates. The presence of them resulted in the significant associations between dust-phthalate concentrations and air humidity in the summer. Moreover, the impacts of indoor PM2.5 concentrations, traffic conditions surrounding residence, household lifestyle and number of occupants were also observed. The mechanisms behind those observations were discussed.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Ácidos Ftálicos , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , China , Poeira/análise , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Ácidos Ftálicos/análise
11.
Chemosphere ; 287(Pt 3): 132219, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34543906

RESUMO

A dust storm that formed in the north of China and the southeastern part of Mongolia in March 2021 significantly deteriorated air quality over a large area of East Asia. According to the synoptic pattern, the cause of the dust storm was a cyclone with a significant drop in pressure leading to high winds and dry components of the soil over parts of the Gobi Desert becoming airborne. Data obtained from ground-based air quality monitoring stations show that the observed hourly PM10 concentration greatly exceeded the recommended maximum of 150 µg/m3 with readings above 1500 µg/m3 in the cities of Tianjin, Baoding, Zhengzhou, Luoyang, Zhoukou. In Shijiazhuang, Taiyuan, Jinnan, Xining, Baotou, and Jining. In Handan, it was over 2000 µg/m3. Cities where PM10 concentration exceeded 3900 µg/m3 included Lanzhou, Hohhot, Changzhou, Alashan, Yan'an, Yulin, Hami, Jiuquan, Heze, Hotan, and Baiyin. Concentrations exceeded 7000 µg/m3 on March 15th over parts of the provinces of Inner Mongolia, Gansu and Ningxia, in the cities of Ordos, Jinchang, Wuwei and Zhongwei. According to satellite data, the area of dust covered approximately 450,000 km2. MODIS and TROPOMI data demonstrated high aerosol optical depth (AOD) (more than 1) with a high ultraviolet aerosol index (UVAI) (more than 2), confirming the predominance of dust particles during the storm. Data from CALIPSO show the presence of a dense layer of dust extending from the earth's surface to a height of about 8 km. The Dust Regional Atmospheric Model (BSC-DREAM8b) demonstrates high synchrony with the satellite's surface dust concentration data, ranging from 640 to 1280 µg/m3, and exceeding 2650 µg/m3 in some areas. The purpose of this study is to analyze data from ground-based sensors, satellites, and atmospheric models to better understand the March 2021 dust storm event. The results may be useful for the implementation of protective and preventive measures for both the environment and human health, including air quality control.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Aerossóis/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , China , Cidades , Poeira/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Material Particulado/análise
12.
Chemosphere ; 287(Pt 3): 132341, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34563786

RESUMO

Pollution of atmospheric particulate matter carrying heavy metals has posed a great threat to various ecosystem compartments. Here, a total of 540 samples from four ecosystem compartments (plant leaves, foliar dust, surface soil, and subsoil) were collected in urban soil-plant systems to characterize the heavy metal concentration and composition of foliar dust, to verify the suitability of foliar dust as an environmental monitor, and to explore the importance of foliar dust in shaping the heavy metal composition in plant leaves. We found that the concentrations of all detected elements (lead, zinc, copper, chromium, nickel, and manganese) in foliar dust were the highest among the four ecosystem compartments. The mass of element per unit leaf area, considering both the dust retention amount and the heavy metal concentration of foliar dust, had significant positive correlations with the degree of heavy metal pollution in soil. Foliar dust could reflect ambient elemental composition most reliably among the four ecosystem compartments. The above findings show that foliar dust is more suitable for environmental monitoring than soil and plant materials in urban areas. In addition, the elemental composition of plant leaves differed significantly with different soil-plant systems although species identity dominated the leaf elemental composition. The variation partitioning model and the partial correlation analysis confirm that foliar dust plays a more important role in shaping the elemental composition of plant leaves than soil. This study provides a new way for environmental pollution monitoring and contributes to a comprehensive understanding of atmospheric particulate matter.


Assuntos
Poeira , Metais Pesados , Poeira/análise , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluição Ambiental , Metais Pesados/análise , Folhas de Planta/química , Solo
13.
Environ Pollut ; 292(Pt B): 118353, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34637821

RESUMO

The skin constitutes a protective barrier to external physical and chemical aggressions. Although it is constantly exposed to various xenobiotics, it is generally considered poorly permeable to them, as for example metal ions, becoming unfortunately an entry route of such substances. Metals may penetrate inside the skin inducing more or less local effects such as skin sensitization and potential metals diffusion into the bloodstream. The objective of the study was to investigate the percutaneous penetration of metals in vitro - ex vivo in Franz cell with intact as well damaged skin applying a road dust powder. Moreover, porcine and human skins were compared. This study demonstrated that, after the application of a road dust powder on the skin, metals can penetrate and permeate this cutaneous membrane. From this experimental analysis, in intact skin lead (Pb) achieved the highest skin absorption in both human and porcine skin, while skin absorption profile of cobalt (Co) was the lowest in human skin than the one in porcine model. The concentrations of Ni present in receiving solution were higher compared to other metals in all experiments performed. The present work, definitely shows that metals permeation through damaged skin is accelerated than intact skin, as a result of the weaker cutaneous barrier function. According to published data, pig skin appeared as a suitable model for human skin. Our results confirmed that skin absorption of metals can be relevant in environmental exposures.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Absorção Cutânea , Animais , Cobalto , Poeira , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Pós/metabolismo , Pele/metabolismo , Suínos
14.
Chemosphere ; 287(Pt 1): 132048, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34478961

RESUMO

Exposure to dust particles enriched with arsenic (As) is a significant health threat for populations living in Southeast Asian megacities. The mineralogical composition of dust particles is the key factor that controls the retention and release of As. This study investigated the degree of metal(oid)s pollution (As, Ca, Fe, K, Ga, Rb, Sr, Ti, V, Y, and Zr) in road dust of Dhaka city, Bangladesh. Enrichment factor and geoaccumulation index suggested that the road dust was heavily enriched with As, which triggers a comprehensive investigation of its controlling mechanisms and potential health risks by combining physicochemical and mineralogical information with multivariate analysis and a simulated probabilistic risk estimation model. Alkaline road dust (pH1:5 ranges from 8.02 to 10.34) in Dhaka city was found to have significant enrichment of As. Dust alkalinity was possibly controlled by the presence of carbonate minerals, such as calcite. Quartz was identified as the dominant mineral phase followed by magnesium carbon arsenide (MgCAs2). Carbonate mineral driven alkaline pH conditions in road dust would potentially trigger the release and mobilization of As to the environment. However, organic complexation can stabilize As on particle surfaces. Monte Carlo simulation-based health risk forecast suggested that the probability of As associated cancer risk has greatly exceeded the threshold value of 1E-4 for adults and children, and children are more vulnerable than adults. According to sensitivity analysis, the concentration of As and exposure duration (ED) posed the most significant impact (>58%) on risk estimation.


Assuntos
Arsênio , Metais Pesados , Adulto , Bangladesh , Criança , Cidades , Poeira/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Metais Pesados/análise , Medição de Risco
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 805: 150266, 2022 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34536864

RESUMO

Potentially toxic element (PTE) pollution is widespread in road dust across China, and the effects of PTEs in road dust on health cannot be ignored. In this study, the concentrations of six PTEs (Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu, Zn and Ni) in 4336 road dust samples from 58 cities in 31 provincial regions of China taken after 2000 were obtained from the literatures. Based on these data, the spatial distribution, pollution sources, and ecological and human health risks of PTEs in road dust were comprehensively assessed and the main pollution factors and areas of high risk were identified. The results revealed that PTE levels are generally higher in eastern cities than western cities in China. The key driving factors are socioeconomic factors, including those related to transportation, industry, and population, for which the contribution rates are 57.80%, 55.39% and 37.19%, respectively. PTEs in the road dust with high ecological risks are mainly distributed in the southeastern coastal areas and the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region. No obvious noncarcinogenic risk was found for PTEs in road dust, but Cd and Pb may have potential noncarcinogenic risk, mainly distributed in cities in western China. Therefore, regions and pollution sources contributing to Pb and Cd levels should be monitored. The control of PTE pollution in China is a priority for ecological and environmental protection.


Assuntos
Poeira , Metais Pesados , China , Cidades , Poeira/análise , Saúde Ambiental , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Metais Pesados/análise , Medição de Risco
16.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(12): 777, 2021 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34748100

RESUMO

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have attracted significant attention in recent times on account of their reasonably high environmental burden and extreme toxicity. Samples of indoor dusts were obtained daily over a period of 2 weeks from 10 residences located within low, medium, and high density residential areas of Ilorin City. The concentration levels, potential sources, and cancer health risks of sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. PAHs total concentrations varied from 3.95 ± 0.19 to 8.70 ± 0.43 µg/g with arithmetic mean of 6.09 ± 0.46 µg/g. Fluoranthene was the most dominant PAHs congener. High molecular weight (HMW) PAHs (4-6 rings) were the most prevalent PAHs and were responsible for 79.29% of total PAHs in sampled residences. Chrysene (Chry) was the most abundant compound among the 7 carcinogenic PAHs (CPAHs). Moreover, diagnostic ratios and positive matrix factorization (PMF) employed to apportion PAHs suggested that indoor dusts originated from indoor activities and infiltrating outdoor air pollutants. Diagnostic ratios revealed that PAHs are from mixed sources which include coal/wood combustion, non-traffic and traffic emissions, petroleum, petrogenic (gasoline), and petroleum combustion. Similarly, positive matrix factorization (PMF) model suggested five sources (factors) were responsible for PAHs in indoor dusts comprised of petroleum combustion and traffic emissions (60.05%), wood and biomass combustion emissions (20.84%), smoke from cooking, incense burning and tobacco (4.17%), gasoline combustion from non-traffic sources (13.89%), and emissions from coal burning and electronic devices (1.05%). The incremental lifetime carcinogenic risks (ILCR) of PAHs in adults and children estimated by applying benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) equivalent were within the satisfactory risk limits in Ilorin. Indoor PAHs emissions in Ilorin residences could be monitored and controlled by using data provided in this study.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Adulto , Criança , Poeira/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Nigéria , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Densidade Demográfica , Medição de Risco
17.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 55(11): 1287-1292, 2021 Nov 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34749470

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the association between occupational hazard exposures and small airway function among middle-aged and elderly people. Methods: From July to December in 2015, a multistage cluster random sampling method was used to select 3 600 residents aged 40 years old and above from 6 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease surveillance points in Jiangsu province. A cross-sectional survey was conducted to collect relevant information. Multivariable linear regression model was performed to determine the relationship between occupational hazard exposures and small airway function. Results: A total of 3 347 participants were included in the final analysis, and 44.6% of participants had been exposed to occupational hazard exposures. Compared with participants without the exposure history of occupational hazards, the significantly lower post-bronchodilator FEF50%, FEF75% and MMEF levels were observed in those with the exposure history of occupational hazards (ß=-82.74, -55.43 and -91.57, respectively). Post-bronchodilator FEF75% and MMEF (ß=-51.78 and -79.47, respectively) in the participants with the exposure history of occupational dust and post-bronchodilator FEF50%, FEF75% and MMEF (ß=-96.84, -32.87 and -75.72, respectively) in the participants with the exposure history of occupational harmful gas all showed a lower level. Post-bronchodilator FEF75% was negatively associated with occupational hazard exposures in males (ßmale=-91.65 vs. ßfemale=-27.21, P for interaction=0.022). Conclusions: The small airway function is worse in the middle-aged and elderly population with the exposure history of occupational hazards, and it is more significant in the male population.


Assuntos
Doenças Profissionais , Exposição Ocupacional , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Poeira , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
18.
Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi ; 39(10): 794-796, 2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34727667

RESUMO

Objective: To analyze the protective effect of dust masks worn by super absorbent polymer (SAP) dust-exposed workers and the influence of each test exercise on the protective effect of mask. Methods: In March 2017, forty nine SAP dust-exposed workers in a large chemical enterprise were selected as subjects. The respirator fitness tester was used to test the protective effect of dust mask before and after training, and the influence of each test exercise on the protective effect of dust mask was analyzed. Results: After training, the qualified rate of dust mask protective effect of SAP dust-exposed workers was 95.92% (47/49) , which was significantly higher than that before training [63.31% (32/49) ], and the difference was statistically significant (χ2=14.69, P<0.01) . When the total protective effect was qualified, the fit factor (FF) decreased significantly when speaking aloud and bending down (Z=-2.59, -4.20, P<0.01) . The qualified rates of protective effect of each exercise were significantly different (χ2=42.70, P<0.01) , among which the qualified rates of deep breath was the highest (100.00%) , and the qualified rate of bending down was the lowest (70.21%) . Conclusion: Strengthening the training of workers to wear masks correctly is helpful to improve their respiratory protection efficiency. Under the condition that the total protective effect of dust masks is qualified, workers should try to avoid unnecessary actions, especially speaking aloud and bending down frequently.


Assuntos
Exposição Ocupacional , Dispositivos de Proteção Respiratória , Poeira , Humanos , Máscaras , Polímeros , Ventiladores Mecânicos
19.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(21)2021 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770567

RESUMO

Monitoring of personal exposure to hazardous substances has garnered increasing attention over the past few years. However, no straightforward and exact indoor positioning technique has been available until the recent discovery of Wi-Fi round trip time (Wi-Fi RTT). In this study, we investigated the possibility of using a combination of Wi-Fi RTT for indoor positioning and a wearable particle monitor (WPM) to observe dust concentration during walking in a simulated factory. Ultrasonic humidifiers were used to spray sodium chloride solution inside the factory. The measurements were recorded three times on different routes (Experiments A, B, and C). The error percentages, i.e., measurements that were outside the expected measurement area, were 7% (49 s/700 s) in Experiment A, 2.3% (15 s/660 s) in Experiment B, and 7.8% (50 s/645 s) in Experiment C. The dust measurements were also recorded without any obstruction. A heat map was created based on the results from both measured values. Wi-Fi RTT proved useful for computing the indoor position with high accuracy, suggesting the applicability of the proposed methodology for occupational health monitoring.


Assuntos
Poeira , Saúde do Trabalhador
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769524

RESUMO

To explore the mass concentration levels and health risks of heavy metals in the air in dense traffic environments, PM2.5 samples were collected at three sites in the city of Kunming in April and October 2013, and January and May 2014. Ten heavy metals--V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd and Pb--were analyzed by ICP-MS, and the results showed PM2.5 concentrations significantly higher in spring and winter than in summer and autumn, especially for Zn and Pb. The concentration of heavy metals on working days is significantly higher, indicating that vehicle emissions are significant contributors. An enrichment factor analysis showed that Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd and Pb come mainly from anthropogenic sources, while V and Co may be both anthropogenic and natural. The correlation and principal component analysis (PCA) showed that Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb mainly come from vehicles emissions and metallurgical industries; Cr and Mn, from vehicles emissions and road dust; and As, mainly from coal combustion. The health risk assessment shows that the non-carcinogenic risk thresholds of the heavy metals in PM2.5 to children and adult men and women are all less than 1. The carcinogenic risk of Cr for men and women in traffic-intensive areas exceeds 10-4, reaching 1.64 × 10-4 and 1.4 × 10-4, respectively.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Metais Pesados , Adulto , Criança , China , Cidades , Poeira/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Metais Pesados/análise , Medição de Risco
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