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1.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 124: 198-204, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36182131

RESUMO

Air pollutants can potentially lead to nitration of allergic proteins, thus promoting sensitization of these allergens. However, little is currently known about the nitration status of house dust mite (HDM) allergens. We identified the occurrence of nitrated products of two major HDM allergens Der f 1 and Der p 1 in dust samples collected from college dormitories in eastern China and assessed their associated health risk. The results showed that both non-nitrated and nitrated forms of the two allergens were detected in the dust in the range of non-detected (ND)-10.6, 1.44-15.4, ND-22.4, ND-7.28 µg/g for non-nitrated Der f 1, nitrated Der f 1, non-nitrated Der p 1 and nitrated Der p 1, respectively. The median rates of nitration were determined as 74.0% for Der f 1 and 20.4% for Der p 1 at consideration of one nitration site. Further analysis reveals that the levels of HDM allergens and their nitrated products were found to be generally higher during winter, in dormitories of lower altitude and with female occupants. Furthermore, the calculated risk indexes were at considerably high levels. Our findings suggest that nitrated HDM allergens have already accumulated in the environment at such significant levels and their associated health risk calls for our immediate attention.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Alérgenos/análise , Animais , Antígenos de Dermatophagoides/análise , Poeira/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Nitratos/análise , Óxidos de Nitrogênio/análise , Compostos Orgânicos/análise , Pyroglyphidae , Medição de Risco
2.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 124: 397-413, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36182148

RESUMO

Coal is widely utilized as an important energy source, but coal-fired power plant was considered to be an important anthropogenic lead emission source. In the present study, the distribution characteristics of lead in coal and combustion by-products are reviewed. Specifically, lead is mainly transferred to ash particles and the formation and migration mechanisms of particulate lead are summarized. Also, targeted measures are proposed to control the formation of fine particulate lead as well as to increase the removal efficiency during the low-temperature flue gas clean process. In detail, interactions between gaseous lead and some coal-bearing minerals or added adsorbents could obviously suppress the formation of fine particulate lead. On the other hand, some efforts (including promoting capture of fine particles, reducing resistivity of particles and strengthening the gas-liquid contact) could be made to improve the fine particulate lead removal capacity. Notably, the formation mechanism of fine particulate lead is still unclear due to the limitations of research methods. Some differences in the removal principles of fine particles and particulate lead make the lead emission precisely control a great challenge. Finally, the environmental potential risk of lead emission from flue gas and ash residues is addressed and further discussed.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , China , Carvão Mineral/análise , Cinza de Carvão/química , Poeira , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Gases , Chumbo , Material Particulado/análise , Centrais Elétricas
3.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 124: 644-654, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36182170

RESUMO

A solid phase extraction procedure (SPE) is described for the quantitative analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in atmospheric particulate matter (PM), as ubiquitous environmental pollutants routinely measured in air quality monitoring. A SPE cartridge was used based on a molecular imprinted polymer (MIP-SPE) properly tailored for selective retention of PAHs with 4 and more benzene fused rings. The performance of the clean-up procedure was evaluated with the specific concern of selective purification towards saturated hydrocarbons, which are the PM components mostly interfering GC analysis of target PAHs. Under optimized operative conditions, the MIP-SPE provided analyte recovery close to 95% for heavier PAHs, from benzo(α)pyrene to benzo(ghi)perylene, and close to 90% for four benzene rings PAHs, with good reproducibility (RSDs: 2.5%-5.9%). Otherwise, C17-C32n-alkanes were nearly completely removed. The proposed method was critically compared with Solid Phase Micro Extraction (SPME) using a polyacrylate fiber. Both methods were successfully applied to the analysis of ambient PM2.5 samples collected at an urban polluted site. Between the two procedures, the MIP-SPE provided the highest recovery (R% ≥ 93%) for PAHs with 5 and more benzene rings, but lower for lighter PAHs. In contrast, SPME showed a mean acceptable R% value (∼ 80%) for all the investigated PAHs, except for the heaviest PAHs in the most polluted samples (R%: 110%-138%), suggesting an incomplete purification from the interfering n-hydrocarbons.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Alcanos/análise , Benzeno , Benzo(a)pireno/análise , Poeira/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Polímeros Molecularmente Impressos , Material Particulado/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
4.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 124: 678-687, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36182173

RESUMO

The thermal deactivation of diesel soot particles exerts a significant influence on the control strategy for the regeneration of diesel particulate filters (DPFs). This work focused on the changes in the surface functional groups, carbon chemical state, and graphitization degree during thermal treatment in an inert gas environment at intermediate temperatures of 600°C, 800°C, and 1000°C and explore the chemical species that were desorbed from the diesel soot surface during thermal treatment using a thermogravimetric analyser coupled with a gas-chromatograph mass spectrometer (TGA-GC/MS). The surface functional groups and carbon chemical state were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The graphitization degree was evaluated by means of Raman spectroscopy (RS). The concentrations of aliphatic C-H, C-OH, C=O, and O-C=O groups are reduced for diesel soot and carbon black when increasing the thermal treatment temperature, while the sp2/sp3 hybridized ratio and graphitization degree enhance. These results provide comprehensive evidence of the decreased reactivity of soot samples. Among oxygenated functional groups, the percentage reduction during thermal treatment is the largest for the O-C=O groups owing to its worst thermodynamic stability. TGA-GC/MS results show that the aliphatic and aromatic chains and oxygenated species would be desorbed from the soot surface during 1000°C thermal treatment of diesel soot.


Assuntos
Carbono , Fuligem , Carbono/química , Poeira , Gases/química , Fuligem/química , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Emissões de Veículos/análise
5.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 124: 735-744, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36182178

RESUMO

Fugitive road dust (FRD) contributes a great deal to urban rainwater and air pollution and is commonly controlled by water-sprinkling in most Chinese cities. However, there is a lack of information on its effectiveness. We used the Testing Re-entrained Aerosol Kinetic Emissions from Roads (TRAKER) method to monitor different types of roads in Baoding city before and within 1 hr after water-sprinkling and obtained the road dirtiness index (a) and PM concentration in the road environment (TT*), to evaluate the removal efficiency for PM deposited on the road surface (ηa) and the reduction efficiency for the PM concentration in the road environment (ηPM). The results give that the ηa for three types of roads is ranked: branch road (87%--100%) > major arterial road (80%-83%) > minor arterial road (68%-77%), and the ηPM ranked: minor arterial road (70%) > branch road (46%-58%) > major arterial road (37%-53%). The ηa and ηPM varied non-linearly with time and presented a quadratic curve. The average effective control time (ηa> 0) was 62 min on the major and minor arterial roads, and much longer than 1 hr on branch roads. The ηPM values diminished completely by 72 min on average from the end of sprinkling for the three types of roads. Water-sprinkling can remove PM10 particles from the road surface and reduce their concentration in the road environment more thoroughly than PM2.5. Our findings could be helpful for controlling urban FRD emissions more efficiently and precisely.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poeira , Aerossóis , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , China , Poeira/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Material Particulado/análise , Emissões de Veículos/análise , Água
6.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 124: 875-891, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36182190

RESUMO

Street dust is one of the most important carriers of heavy metals (HMs) originating from natural and anthropogenic sources. The main purpose of the work was to identify which of Fe-bearing phases bind HMs in street dust. Magnetic parameters of the Fe-bearing components, mainly magnetically strong iron oxides, are used to assess the level of HM pollution. Chemical sequential extraction combined with magnetic methods (magnetic susceptibility, magnetization, remanent magnetization) allowed determining the metal-bearing fractions and identifying the iron forms that are mostly associated with traffic-related HMs. The use of Mössbauer spectrometry (MS) supplemented by magnetic methods (thermomagnetic curves and psarameters of hysteresis loops) enabled precise identification and characterization of iron-containing minerals. The classification of HMs into five chemical fractions differing in mobility and bioaccessibility revealed that iron is most abundant (over 95%) in the residual fraction followed by the reducible fraction. HMs were present in reducible fraction in the following order: Pb>Zn>Mn>Cr>Ni>Fe>Cu, while they bound to the residual fraction in the following order: Fe>Ni>Cr>Mn>Pb>Cu>Zn. The signature of the anthropogenic origin of street dust is the presence of strongly nonstoichiometric and defected grains of magnetite and their porous surface. Magnetite also occurs as an admixture with maghemite, and with a significant proportion of hematite. A distinctive feature of street dust is the presence of metallic iron and iron carbides. Magnetic methods are efficient in the screening test to determine the level of HM pollution, while MS helps to identify the iron-bearing minerals through the detection of iron.


Assuntos
Poeira , Metais Pesados , Fracionamento Químico , China , Cidades , Poeira/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Óxido Ferroso-Férrico , Ferro/análise , Chumbo/análise , Fenômenos Magnéticos , Metais Pesados/análise , Óxidos/análise , Medição de Risco , Análise Espectral
7.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 124: 892-900, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36182192

RESUMO

To understand the characteristics of atmospheric brown carbon (BrC), daily PM2.5 samples in Xingtai, a small city in North China Plain (NCP), during the four seasons of 2018-2019, were collected and analyzed for optical properties and chemical compositions. The light absorption at 365 nm (absλ=365 nm) displayed a strong seasonal variation with the highest value in winter (29.0±14.3 M/m), which was 3.2∼5.4-fold of that in other seasons. A strong correlation of absλ=365 nm with benzo(b)fluoranthene (BbF) was only observed in winter, indicating that coal combustion was the major source for BrC in the season due to the enhanced domestic heating. The mass absorbing efficiency of BrC also exhibited a similar seasonal pattern, and was found to correlate linearly with the aerosol pH, suggesting a positive effect of aerosol acidity on the optical properties and formation of BrC in the city. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis further showed that on a yearly basis the major source for BrC was biomass burning, which accounted for 34% of the total BrC, followed by secondary formation (26.7%), coal combustion (21.3%) and fugitive dust (18%). However, the contribution from coal combustion was remarkably enhanced in winter, accounting for ∼40% of the total. Our work revealed that more efforts of "shifting coal to clean energy" are necessary in rural areas and small cities in NCP in order to further mitigate PM2.5 pollution in China.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Carvão Mineral , Aerossóis/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Carbono/análise , China , Carvão Mineral/análise , Poeira/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Material Particulado/análise , Estações do Ano , Água/química
8.
Chemosphere ; 310: 136795, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36228732

RESUMO

Particulate matter (PM) pollution is one of the world's most serious environmental challenges. Among PM components, atmospheric heavy metals (HMs) are considered one of the main pollutants responsible for causing significant negative impacts on human health, and ecological quality. This study aimed to assess environmental magnetism as a simple and rapid method that can be used to evaluate heavy metal contamination in urban areas from the relationships between magnetic properties and heavy metal concentrations. For this purpose, road dust and leaf samples of two common evergreen species (Cupressus lusitanica/Casuarina equisetifolia) were sampled simultaneously for 2 years at sites with different levels of traffic pollution. The results found significant statistical correlations between the magnetic properties and the chemical substances of the plants studied, as Fe, Cr and V showed an r ≥ 0.9 and Cr and Zn r ≥ 0.7 with χlf in C. equisetifolia. The frequency-dependent magnetic susceptibility was found to be between 0% and 14% for plants, and 0% and 2% for road dust, suggesting a rather dissimilar particle size distribution for plants, and a less important contribution from the more hazardous ultrafine superparamagnetic magnetite for both. Confirming that magnetic analyses can be used to distinguish different degrees of urban air pollution.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Metais Pesados , Humanos , Poeira/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Fenômenos Magnéticos , Cidades , Medição de Risco , China
9.
Chemosphere ; 310: 136750, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36241110

RESUMO

Children spend a significant portion of their day in school, where they may be exposed to hazardous organic compounds accumulated in indoor dust. The aim of this study was to evaluate the concentrations of major hazardous organic contaminants in dust collected from kindergartens and elementary schools in Northern Greece (n = 20). The sum concentrations of 20 targeted polybrominated diphenyl ether congeners (∑20PBDEs) in dust varied from 58 ng g-1 to 1480 ng g-1, while the sum of 4 novel brominated fire retardants (∑4NBFRs) ranged from 28 ng g-1 to 555 ng g-1. Correspondingly, the sum concentrations of phthalate esters (∑9PAEs) ranged between 265 µg g-1 and 2120 µg g-1, while the sum of organophosphate esters (∑11OPEs) was found between 2890 ng g-1 and 16,100 ng g-1. Finally, the sum concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (∑16PAHs) were found within in the range 212 ng g-1 and 6960 ng g-1. Exposure to indoor dust contaminant via inhalation, ingestion and dermal absorption was investigated for children and adults (teachers). Carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks were also estimated. Children's estimated intakes of individual hazardous chemicals via the three exposure routes, were lower than the available health-based reference values.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Poluentes Ambientais , Retardadores de Chama , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Criança , Adulto , Humanos , Poeira/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Saúde da Criança , Grécia , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Instituições Acadêmicas , Monitoramento Ambiental
10.
Chemosphere ; 310: 136902, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36265703

RESUMO

A serious risk to the production safety of coal mines is coal dust. The wettability of coal may be successfully changed by adding surfactants to water. However, the creation of very effective dust suppressants is constrained by the lack of knowledge about the microscopic interaction mechanism between coal dust and surfactants. In this investigation, we explained macroscopic experimental phenomena from a molecular perspective. The lauryl polyoxyethylene ethers (C12 (EO)n, n = 7,15,23) were selected. The macromolecular model of anthracite with 55 different components was constructed. Surface tension experiments and hydrophilic lipophilic balance (HLB) calculations showed that the ability of surface hydrophilicization followed the order of C12 (EO)7

Assuntos
Carvão Mineral , Tensoativos , Molhabilidade , Água , Poeira
11.
Chemosphere ; 311(Pt 1): 136872, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36252898

RESUMO

A risk assessment and a source apportionment of the particulate- and gas-phase PAHs were conducted in a high vehicular traffic and industrialized region in southeastern Brazil. Higher concentrations of PAHs were found during summer, being likely driven by the contributions of PAHs in the vapor phase caused by fire outbreaks during this period. Isomer ratio diagnostic and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) identified four potential sources in the region, in which the Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) model confirmed and apportioned as gasoline-related (31.8%), diesel-related (25.1%), biomass burning (23.4%), and mixed sources (19.6%). The overall cancer risk had a tolerable value, with ∑CR = 4.6 × 10-5, being ingestion the major via of exposure (64% of the ∑CR), followed by dermal contact (33% of the ∑CR) and inhalation (3%). Mixed sources contributed up to 45% of the overall cancer risk (∑CR), followed by gasoline-related (up to 35%), diesel-related (up to 15%), and biomass burning (up to 10%). The risk assessment for individual PAH species allowed identifying higher CR associated with BaP, DBA, BbF, BaA, and BkF, species associated with gasoline-related and industrial sources. Higher risks were associated with PM2.5-bound PAHs exposure, mainly via ingestion and dermal contact, highlighting the need for measures of mitigation and control of PM2.5 in the region.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Neoplasias , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Gasolina/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Brasil/epidemiologia , Carvão Mineral/análise , Poeira/análise , Medição de Risco , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Material Particulado/análise , China
12.
Chemosphere ; 311(Pt 1): 136990, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36309055

RESUMO

Construction dust contributes a significant proportion of airborne particulate matter, affecting the health of its surrounding environment and population. Construction workers are normally exposed to dust at high levels and bear severe health risks. The existing articles concerning the exposure and health impacts of construction dust are limited, but this research field has received more and more attention. This work reviews literature in the field and tries to systematically assess the current research state. Here, we review (1) methods used to monitor or sample construction dust; (2) main characteristics of construction dust, including dust classification, exposed populations, and exposure concentrations; (3) potential health hazards and (4) health risk assessment of construction dust. From existing literature, the exposure concentrations of different types and sources of construction dust are usually the focus of attention, while its particle size distribution and chemical composition are rarely mentioned. The classification and characteristics of populations exposed to construction dust ought to be a key consideration but not clear enough so far. There still lacks in-depth study of health hazards and systematic assessment of risks associated with construction dust. In future, it is valuable to develop utility instruments to precisely monitor construction dust. Besides, control means to reduce the pollution of construction dust deserve more studies. Health hazards of construction dust should be verified by biological experiments. Moreover, emerging algorithm models should be utilized in the risk assessment. The findings will help gain a better understanding of construction dust exposure and associated health risks.


Assuntos
Poeira , Exposição Ocupacional , Humanos , Material Particulado , Poluição Ambiental , Medição de Risco
13.
J Environ Manage ; 325(Pt B): 116601, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36326529

RESUMO

Organophosphate esters (OPEs) are widely used as flame retardants and plasticizers in the world. The use of OPEs has increased rapidly due to the prohibition of polybrominated diphenyl ethers. However, OPEs are mainly added to various materials by physical mixing, they are therefore easy to be released into the environment through volatilization, leaching, and abrasion during their production, use, transportation, and after disposal. Dust, as an important medium for human exposure to OPEs, has attracted extensive attention. Here, this article reviewed the current knowledge on the physiochemical properties, consumptions and applications, and ecotoxicities of OPEs, also synthesized the available data on the occurrence of 13 OPEs in outdoor and indoor dust environments around the world over the past decade. The results showed that the sum of OPEs (ΣOPEs) was the highest in outdoor dust from an e-waste disposal area in Tianjin of China (range: 1390-42700 ng/g dw; mean: 11500 ng/g dw). The highest ΣOPEs was found in Japan for home dust (range: 9300-11000000 ng/g dw; mean: 266543 ng/g dw), Sweden for office dust (range: 14000-1600000 ng/g dw; mean: 360100 ng/g dw) and daycare center dust (range: 40000-4600000 ng/g dw; mean: 1990800 ng/g dw), and Brazil for car dust (range: 108000-2050000 ng/g dw; mean: 541000 ng/g dw). The use pattern of OPEs differed in different regions and countries. The exposure and risk assessment based on the data of OPEs in home dust indicated that the average daily intakes of OPEs via dust ingestion for children and adults were lower than the corresponding reference doses; and that the current human exposure to OPEs through indoor dust ingestion were not likely to pose risks to human health. Finally, the review pointed out the gaps of current research and provided the directions for further study on OPEs in dust environment.


Assuntos
Poeira , Retardadores de Chama , Criança , Adulto , Humanos , Poeira/análise , Organofosfatos , Retardadores de Chama/análise , China , Medição de Risco , Ésteres/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental
14.
Chemosphere ; 311(Pt 1): 137093, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36332740

RESUMO

As the primary carrier of harmful elements, road sediment poses severe hazards to human health and ecological environment, especially in megacities. Based on the industrial cities in North China, this research focused on the multi-element features and the pollution levels, sources, and spatial distributions of trace metals in road sediment of Shijiazhuang. The mean levels of P (928.4 mg kg-1), S (1446.2 mg kg-1), Cl (783.9 mg kg-1), Br (5.3 mg kg-1), Na2O (2.0%), CaO (9.9%), Co (36.0 mg kg-1), Pb (38.0 mg kg-1), Cu (34.7 mg g-1), Zn (149.1 mg kg-1), Ba (518.1 mg kg-1), and Sr (224.9 mg kg-1) in road sediment were greater than their soil background values. Trace metals in most samples was moderately (75%) and heavily contaminated (15.6%). The industrial areas, congested roads, and residential areas in the northeast, middle and south of Shijiazhuang are the hotspots of trace metals pollution. A comprehensive analysis of trace metals sources indicated that Ni, V, Ga, Rb, Y, Sc, La, Ce, Zr, and Hf were mainly from natural source, which contributed to 34.2% of the total trace metals concentrations. Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr, Ba, Sr, and Mn primarily originated from mixed source, which accounted for 46.5%. Co principally came from building source, which accounted for 19.3%. This study shows that industrial discharges, construction dust and traffic emissions are the primary anthropogenic sources of trace metals in road sediment in the study area.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , Oligoelementos , Humanos , Cidades , Metais Pesados/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Chumbo/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Oligoelementos/análise , Poeira/análise , China , Medição de Risco
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 856(Pt 1): 158797, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36116651

RESUMO

A near-real-time (NRT) aerosol forecast and diagnostic approach is developed based on the system of Infusing satellite Data into Environmental Applications for East Asia, herein denoted as IDEA-EA. The design incorporates a 0.5-degree Global Forecast System (GFS) and Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) aerosol and cloud retrievals for meteorological and remote sensing inputs. The primary output of IDEA-EA includes aerosol forward and backward air mass trajectory forecasts, migration visualization, and data synthesis purposed for NRT aerosol detection, monitoring, and source tracing in East Asia. Two aerosol episodes of Southeast Asia (SEA) biomass burning and Chinese haze infusion with Gobi dust are illustrated by IDEA-EA to demonstrate its forecast and source tracing capabilities. In the case of SEA biomass burning (late March 2021), forward trajectories of IDEA-EA forecasted air masses with high aerosol optical depth (AOD) from SEA affecting Taiwan. The IDEA-EA forecasts were verified by increased AOD and surface PM2.5 observations at a mountain site. In the case of the Chinese haze (October 30, 2019), backward trajectories from the northern tip of Taiwan traced air masses back to the east coast of mainland China and possibly further to the Gobi Desert. Compared with conventional numerical model simulations, the combination of the state-of-the-art aerosol remote sensing and trajectory modeling in IDEA-EA provides a cost-effective alternative for air quality management.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Aerossóis/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poeira/análise
16.
Sci Total Environ ; 856(Pt 1): 158779, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36116658

RESUMO

In this study, brominated flame retardants (BFRs), phthalates, and organophosphate flame retardants (PFRs) were analyzed in indoor household dust collected during the COVID-19 related strict lockdown (April-July 2020) period. Floor dust samples were collected from 40 households in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The levels of most of the analyzed chemicals were visibly high and for certain chemicals multifold high in analyzed samples compared to earlier studies on indoor dust from Jeddah. Bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) was the primary chemical in these dust samples, with a median concentration of 769,500 ng/g of dust. Tris (2-butoxy ethyl) phosphate (TBEP) and Decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE 209) contributed the highest among PFRs and BFRs with median levels of 5990 and 940 ng/g of dust, respectively. The estimated daily exposure in the worst case scenario (23,700 ng/kg bw/day) for Saudi children was above the reference dose (20,000 ng/kg bw/day) for DEHP, and the hazardous index (HI) was also >1. The long-term carcinogenic risk was above the 1 × 10-5, indicating a risk to the health of Saudi young children from getting exposed to DEHP from indoor dust. This study draws attention to the increased indoor pollution during the lockdown period when all of the daily activities by adults and children were performed indoors, which negatively impacted human health, as suggested by the calculated risk. However, the current study has limitations and warrants more monitoring studies from different parts of the world to understand the phenomenon. At the same time, this study also highlights another side of COVID-19 related to our lives.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , COVID-19 , Dietilexilftalato , Retardadores de Chama , Criança , Adulto , Humanos , Pré-Escolar , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Poeira , Organofosfatos/análise , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Compostos Organofosforados/análise , Fosfatos
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 856(Pt 2): 159012, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36162574

RESUMO

Particulate matter (PM) pollution is one of the major threats to cultural heritage outdoors. It has been recently implied that organic aerosols will prevail over inorganic carbon particulates in the future, changing the main mechanisms of damage caused by poor air quality to calcareous heritage in particular. We studied fresh particulate deposits on marble and limestone surfaces exposed to urban air in sheltered and unsheltered configurations. Due to different air pollution sources in different seasons, the amount and composition of surface deposits varied throughout the year. The main and most constant contributor to PM2.5 (particles smaller than 2.5 µm) were primary traffic emissions (30 %), followed by secondary formation of acidic inorganic aerosols, such as sulphate in summer and nitrate in winter (33 % altogether), and seasonal biomass-burning emissions (14 %). Although biomass burning is the major source of primary organic aerosols including the light-absorbing fraction that prevailed over black carbon (BC) in colder months (up to 60 % carbonaceous aerosol mass), we show that surface darkening causing the soiling effect is still governed by the minor BC fraction of atmospheric aerosols, which remained below 20 % of the carbonaceous aerosol mass throughout the year. This, however, can change in remote environments affected by biomass-burning emissions, such as winter resorts, or by rigorous BC mitigation measures in the future. In the short run, sheltered positions were less affected by different removal processes, but we show that surface deposits are not simply additive when considering longer periods of time. This must be taken into account when extrapolating surface accumulation to longer time scales.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Material Particulado , Material Particulado/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Aerossóis/análise , Fuligem/análise , Poeira/análise , Estações do Ano , Carbono/análise , Carvão Mineral
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 857(Pt 2): 159386, 2023 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36240941

RESUMO

Ambient particulate matter (PM) is a major contributor to air pollution, leading to adverse health effects on the human population. It has been suggested that the oxidative potential (OP, as a tracer of oxidative stress) of PM is a possible determinant of its health impact. In this study, samples of PM10, PM2.5, and PM1 were collected roughly every four days from January 2018 until March 2019 at a Barcelona urban background site and Montseny rural background site in northeastern Spain. We determined the chemical composition of samples, allowing us to perform source apportionment using positive matrix factorization. The OP of PM was determined by measuring reactive oxygen species using dithiothreitol and ascorbic acid assays. Finally, to link the sources with the measured OP, both a Pearson's correlation and a multiple linear regression model were applied to the dataset. The results showed that in Barcelona, the OP of PM10 was much higher than those of PM2.5 and PM1, whereas in Montseny results for all PM sizes were in the same range, but significantly lower than in Barcelona. In Barcelona, several anthropogenic sources were the main drivers of OP in PM10 (Combustion + Road Dust + Heavy Oil + OC-rich) and PM2.5 (Road Dust + Combustion). In contrast, PM1 -associated OP was driven by Industry, with a much lower contribution to PM10 and PM2.5 mass. Meanwhile, Montseny exhibited no clear drivers for OP evolution, likely explaining the lack of a significant difference in OP between PM10, PM2.5, and PM1. Overall, this study indicates that size fraction matters for OP, as a function of the environment typology. In an urban context, OP is driven by the PM10 and PM1 size fractions, whereas only the PM1 fraction is involved in rural environments.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Humanos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Espanha , Tamanho da Partícula , Material Particulado/análise , Poeira/análise , Estresse Oxidativo
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 857(Pt 2): 159455, 2023 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36252657

RESUMO

Collecting and obtaining sufficient amount of airborne particles for multiple microbial component assessments can be challenging. A passive dust sampling device, the electrostatic dust fall collector (EDC) has been established for assessing airborne exposures including endotoxin and glucans. Recently, with advances in next-generation sequencing techniques, EDCs were used to collect microbial cells for DNA sequencing analysis to promote the study of airborne bacterial and fungal communities. However, low DNA yields have been problematic when employing passive sampling with EDC. To address this challenge, we attempted to increase the efficiency of extraction. We compared DNA extraction efficiency of bacterial components from EDCs captured on filters through filtration using five extraction techniques. By measuring the abundance, diversity and structure of bacterial communities using qPCR and amplicon sequencing targeting 16S rRNA genes, we found that two techniques outperformed the rest. Furthermore, we developed protocols to simultaneously extract both DNA and endotoxin from a single EDC cloth. Our technique promotes a high quality to price ratio and may be employed in large epidemiological studies addressing airborne bacterial exposure where a large number of samples is needed.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Poeira , Poeira/análise , Endotoxinas/análise , DNA Bacteriano , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Bactérias
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 857(Pt 2): 159507, 2023 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36257421

RESUMO

The proliferation of modern vegetable plastic greenhouses (VPGS) supplies more and more vegetables for food all over the world. The airborne bacteria and fungi induce more exposure opportunities for workers toiling in confined plastic greenhouses. Culture-independent approaches by qPCR and high-throughput sequencing technology were used to study the airborne particulates microbiota in typic VPGS in Shandong, a large base of vegetables in China. The result revealed the mean airborne bacteria concentrations reached 1.67 × 103 cells/m3 (PM2.5) and 2.38 × 103 cells/m3 (PM10), and the mean airborne fungal concentrations achieved 1.49 × 102 cells/m3 (PM2.5) and 3.19 × 102 cells/m3 (PM10) in VPGS. The predominant bacteria in VPGS included Ralstonia, Alcanivorax, Pseudomonas, Bacillus, and Acinetobacter. Botrytis, Alternaria, Fusarium, Sporobolomyces, and Cladosporium were frequently detected fungal genera in VPGS. A higher Chao1 of bacteria in PM10 was significantly different from PM2.5 in VPGS. The potential pathogens in VPGS include Raltonia picketti, Acinetobacter lwoffii, Bacillus anthracis, Botrytis cinerea, and Cladosporium sphaerospermum. The network analysis indicated that airborne microbiota was associated with soil microbiota which was affected by anthropologic activities. The predicted gene functions revealed that bacterial function mainly involved metabolism, neurodegenerative diseases, and fungal trophic mode dominated by Pathotroph-Saprotroph in VPGS. These findings unveiled airborne microbiomes in VPGS so that a strategy for improving air quality can be applied to safeguard health and vegetation.


Assuntos
Microbiologia do Ar , Verduras , Humanos , Plásticos , Fungos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Bactérias , Poeira
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