Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 20.635
Filtrar
1.
Sci Total Environ ; 753: 141585, 2021 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32890882

RESUMO

There has been little study on the effect of Asian dust exposure on respiratory symptoms among children who are vulnerable to environmental factors. In this panel study, we investigated the effect of Asian dust on respiratory symptoms among children with and without asthma, and their sensitivity. Children attending two elementary schools (137 total), and 23 children with asthma from cooperating medical institutions in Fukuoka prefecture were recruited. Subjects measured peak expiratory flow rate (PEF), and recorded asthma-like symptoms, cough, nasal symptoms and use of medication in a diary from April 1, 2013 to June 30, 2013. To assess exposure to Asian dust, we used Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) data. For the analysis of the association between Asian dust and respiratory symptoms, the case-crossover design and generalized estimating equation (GEE) models were used. Taking individual sensitivity to respiratory aggravation into consideration, the subjects were classified into three groups: children without asthma, children with asthma who do not use long-term preventive medication (CA) and children with asthma who use long-term preventive medication (CA-LTM). For CA, Asian dust exposure was significantly associated with asthma-like symptoms, with a hazard ratio of 5.17 (95%CI: 1.02=26.12) at Lag0, and the change in %maxPEF, -1.65% (95%CI:-2.82, -0.48) at Lag0. For children without asthma, a statistically significant association was found between Asian dust exposure and the change in %maxPEF, -0.56% (95%CI: -1.31, -0.08) at Lag1. However, no adverse effects were observed in CA-LTM. Temperature had significant effects on %maxPEF for three groups. Asian dust, photochemical oxidant and pollen caused simultaneously additive adverse effects on nasal symptoms for children without asthma. This study suggests the possibility that long-term preventive medication to manage asthma may suppress aggravation of respiratory symptoms due to Asian dust and may be an effective prevention.


Assuntos
Asma , Poeira , Asma/epidemiologia , Criança , Estudos Cross-Over , Humanos , Pico do Fluxo Expiratório , Pólen
2.
Sci Total Environ ; 752: 141641, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32892037

RESUMO

Archaea have an important role in the elemental biogeochemical cycle and human health. However, characteristics of airborne archaea affected by anthropogenic and natural processes are unclear. In this study, we investigated the abundance, structures, influencing factors and assembly processes of the archaeal communities in the air samples collected from Beijing in springtime using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), high-throughput sequencing technology and statistical analysis. The concentrations of airborne archaea ranged from 101 to 103 copies m-3 (455 ± 211 copies m-3), accounting for 0.67% of the total prokaryote (sum of archaea and bacteria). An increase in airborne archaea was seen when the air quality shifted from clean to slightly polluted conditions. Sandstorm dust imported a large number of archaea to the local atmosphere. Euryarchaeota, Thaumarchaeota and Crenarchaeota were the dominant phyla, revealing the primary role of soil in releasing archaea to the ambient environment. Dispersal-related neutral processes play an important role in shaping the structure of airborne archaeal assembly. Of all phyla, methanogenic Euryarchaeota were most abundant in the air parcels come from the south of Beijing. Air masses from the west of Beijing, which brought sandstorm to Beijing, carried large amounts of ammonia oxidizing archaea Nitrososphaera. The results demonstrate the importance of air mass sources and local weather conditions in shaping the local airborne archaea community.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Poeira , Archaea/genética , Pequim , China , Poeira/análise , Humanos , Filogenia
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 750: 141700, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32861077

RESUMO

Despite adverse health effects, ultrafine particulate matter (UFP), i.e., PM less than 0.1 µm in diameter, is an emerging pollutant not subject to regulation. UFP may cause both lung inflammation and cardiopulmonary disease and may enter the brain directly via the olfactory bulb, affecting the nervous system. In highly urbanized environments, diesel and gasoline vehicles are among the major sources of UFP including combustion-generated solid particle pollutant and metal-based particles. Metal-based UFP are of much concern, as they may promote inflammation and DNA damage via oxidative stress with generation of free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS). We used the honeybee as an alternative sampling system of UFP in an area of the Po Valley (Northern Italy), which is subject to intense traffic. Worker bees are widely recognised as efficient samplers of air pollutants, including airborne PM. During flight and foraging activity, pubescence of the bees promotes the accumulation of electrical charge on the body's surface, enhancing attraction to air pollutants. Bees living near the main Italian highway, the Autostrada A1, displayed a contamination of nanosized Fe-oxides/hydroxides and baryte. Sources of Fe-bearing and baryte ultrafine particles are primarily the vehicles speeding on the motorway. Pollen collected by forager bees and honey produced by the bee colony displayed contamination by nanosized Fe-oxides/hydroxides and baryte. Such a contamination exposes pollinators and humans to UFP ingestion, endangering the safety of food produced at traffic-influenced sites. Given the global spread of traffic, our findings suggest that exposure and environmental impact of ultrafine Fe-oxides/hydroxides and baryte are potentially ubiquitous, although usually overlooked in environmental policy discussions.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Emissões de Veículos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Animais , Abelhas , Poeira , Humanos , Itália , Tamanho da Partícula , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Emissões de Veículos/análise , Emissões de Veículos/toxicidade
4.
Chemosphere ; 262: 127835, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32763581

RESUMO

This study evaluates the bioaccessibility and health risks related to heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn and metalloid As) in airborne dust samples (TSP and PM2.5) in Zabol, Iran during the summer dust period, when peak concentration levels of PM are typically observed. High bioaccessibilities of carcinogenic metals in PM2.5 (i.e. 53.3%, 48.6% and 47.6% for Ni, Cr and As, respectively) were calculated. The carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic health risks were assessed for three exposure pathways (inhalation, ingestion and dermal contact), separately for children and adults. Non-carcinogenic inhalation risks were very high (Hazard Index: HI > 1) both for children and adults, while the carcinogenic risks were above the upper acceptable threshold of 10-4 for adults and marginally close (5.0-8.4 × 10-5) for children. High carcinogenic risks (>10-4) were found for the ingestion pathway both for children and adults, while HI values > 1 (8.2) were estimated for children. Carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risk estimates for dermal contact were also above the limits considered acceptable, except for the carcinogenic risk for children (7.6 × 10-5). Higher non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks (integrated for all elements) were associated with the inhalation pathway in adults and children with the exception of carcinogenic risk for children, where the ingestion route remains the most important, while As was linked with the highest risks for nearly all exposure pathways. A comparative evaluation shows that health risks related with toxic elements in airborne particles in Sistan are among the highest reported in the world.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Poeira/análise , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Substâncias Perigosas/análise , Adulto , Carcinógenos/análise , Criança , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Metais Pesados/análise , Medição de Risco , Estações do Ano
5.
Chemosphere ; 262: 127295, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32536422

RESUMO

Good air quality is documented as a significant factor of social justice. The human health hazards associated with air pollution are not distributed equally across cities; the most vulnerable people are more exposed to ambient air as they commute to work and wait for buses or trains at the stations. Aerosols play important roles in atmosphere quality and the climate; their oxidation at the nanoscale level may possibly increase the reactivity and toxicity of atmospheric particulates. Indoor school environments are characterized by high concentrations of different airborne particulate and gaseous pollutants. The documentation of nanoparticles (NPs), ultra-fine particles (UFPs), and micron-size particle species present in indoor primary schools are an important aspect in the recognition of their influence in respirational difficulties and decreased cognitive progress in children. This work utilizes the study of condensed water, sampled with portable dehumidifiers (PD), to describe NPs and UFPs in the vapor stage of enclosed zones. The acquired extracts were analyzed by advanced electron microscopy techniques. A total of 392 NPs and 251 UFPs were examined in a set of 22 samples acquired in moderately limited or inadequately ventilated indoor areas from several schools. Noting that NPs-related disorders happen at particular places of respirational structure, identification of site-specific NPs accumulation should be anticipated in direction to better verify the corresponding human health outcomes resulting from respirable NPs.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Nanopartículas/análise , Aerossóis/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Atmosfera , Criança , Cidades , Poeira , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Gases , Humanos , Veículos Automotores , Tamanho da Partícula , Material Particulado/análise , Instituições Acadêmicas
6.
Sci Total Environ ; 752: 141988, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33207530

RESUMO

Identifying major adverse effects on aquatic organisms in environmental samples is still challenging, and metabolomic approaches have been utilized as non-target screening techniques in the context of ecotoxicology. While existing methods have focused on statistical tests or univariate analysis, there is the need to further explore a multivariate analytical method that captures synergetic effects and associations among metabolites and toxicants. Here we show a new tool for screening sediment toxicity in the environment. First, we constructed predictive models using the metabolomic profiles and the result of exposure tests, to discriminate the toxic effects of target substances. The developed models were then applied to sediment samples collected from an actual urban area that contain chromium, nickel, copper, zinc, cadmium, fluoranthene, nicotine, and osmotic stress, incorporated with exposure tests of the benthic amphipod Grandidierella japonica. As a result, the fitted models showed high predictive power (Q2 > 0.71) and could detect toxicants from mixed chemical samples across a wide range of concentrations in test datasets. The application of the constructed models to river sediment and road dust samples indicated that almost all target substances were less toxic compared with the effects at LC50 levels. Only zinc showed slight increasing trends among samples, suggesting that the proposed method can be used for prioritization of toxicants. The present work made a direct connection between chemical exposures and metabolomic responses, and draws attention to the need for further studies on interactive mechanisms of metabolites in toxicological assessments.


Assuntos
Anfípodes , Poluentes Ambientais , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Poeira/análise , Sedimentos Geológicos , Metabolômica , Rios , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
7.
Georgian Med News ; (306): 67-72, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33130649

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to optimize the method of selecting patients with bronchial asthma for the use of allergen-specific immunotherapy with allergens of house dust mites and to evaluate its effectiveness. The research was carried out based on the Municipal Non-Commercial Enterprise «City Children's Clinical Hospital¼ in Lviv. The study included 120 school-age children (aged 6-17) with bronchial asthma and sensitization to house dust mites. 60 patients were the main group of patients who received ASIT along with the basic treatment (30 sublingual sprays, 30 subcutaneous ASIT). The other 60 patients were in the comparison group and received only basic therapy for bronchial asthma. The presence of sensitization to house dust mites was proved based on skin prick testing. Optimization of patient selection consisted of molecular allergy diagnostics using the Immuno CAP method with the determination of sIgE to components of allergens of house dust mites rDer p1, rDer p2, rDer p10 to accurately assess patient sensitization for further use of ASIT. To assess the effectiveness of ASIT, asthma control test (ACT) indicators were analyzed, patients' quality of life was assessed, spirometric indicators were evaluated (FEV1 and PEF), and IFNγ and IL13 levels were assessed in patients with ASIT. After one year of treatment, the average asthma control test among patients receiving sublingual ASIT increased the most - by 26.32% (p <0.01). Also in this group of patients, there was the largest increase in PEF - by 9.82% (p <0.01). Regarding the increase in FEV 1, it was the highest in the group of patients receiving subcutaneous ASIT - by 9.85% (p <0.01). The quality of life of patients in the assessment of symptoms increased the most in patients who received sublingual ASIT by 28.7%. Based on our results, we can draw the following conclusions: The application of molecular allergy diagnostics using the definition of sIgE to the components of allergens of house dust mites rDer p1, rDer p2, rDer p10 allows optimizing the selection of patients for allergen-specific immunotherapy. Treatment of bronchial asthma with the involvement of ASIT during the first year allows obtaining higher efficiency indicators, which are manifested by a significant improvement in asthma control test, external respiration function and quality of life. Monitoring of immunological parameters showed a significant increase in IFNγ, which can be regarded as the activation of the process of switching the immune response from Th-2 to Th-1 indirect, and thus illustrates the positive effect of ASIT.


Assuntos
Asma , Qualidade de Vida , Adolescente , Alérgenos , Animais , Asma/terapia , Criança , Dessensibilização Imunológica , Poeira , Humanos , Monitorização Fisiológica
8.
Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi ; 38(10): 790-794, 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33142391

RESUMO

Welding is an important industrial activity worldwide which involving millions of practitioners. Due to the influence of welding method, welding dust concentration, ventilation, weather and other factors, the exposure of the welder is different. And resulting in different respiratory symptoms, including decreased lung function, welder's pneumoconiosis and even lung cancer, which seriously affects the life quality of the worker. Through referring to literatures, the research status of welding dust and respiratory diseases was summarized to provide direction for future research.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar , Exposição Ocupacional , Pneumoconiose , Soldagem , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/análise , Poeira , Gases , Humanos , Pulmão , Exposição Ocupacional/análise
9.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(11): 691, 2020 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33037483

RESUMO

Climate change is responsible for changes in the world's vegetation. This study was aimed to investigate the effect of long-term variations in the air temperature, precipitation, and dust concentration on normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) variations in the spring, summer, and growing season over arid regions of Iran. The results showed that the precipitation had a positive association with the NDVI in the spring and growing seasons (ß > + 0.28; P < 0.05), while air temperature had a negative relationship with the NDVI changes in these seasons (ß > - 0.34; P = 0.013). Our results also showed a negative relationship between the accumulated dust concentration (ADC) and NDVI in the spring (ß = - 0.23; P = 0.09) and growing seasons (ß = - 0.24; P = 0.003). Spatially, the strongest linkage between NDVI and climatic variables was observed in about two-thirds of the study region. In total, our findings indicate that the use of dust concentration, air temperature, and precipitation helps us to make a more accurate approach for evaluating the impacts of climate change on vegetation variations in the arid environments.


Assuntos
Poeira , Monitoramento Ambiental , Mudança Climática , Irã (Geográfico) , Temperatura
10.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 98: 205-214, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33097153

RESUMO

To clarify the effect of coking dust, sintering dust and fly ash on the activity of activated carbon for various industrial flue gas desulfurization and denitrification, the coupling mechanism of the mixed activated carbon and dust was investigated to provide theoretical reference for the stable operation. The results show that coking dust had 34% desulfurization efficiency and 10% denitrification efficiency; correspondingly, sintering dust and fly ash had no obvious desulfurization and denitrification activities. For the mixture of activated carbon and dust, the coking dust reduced the desulfurization and denitrification efficiencies by blocking the pores of activated carbon, and its inhibiting effect on activated carbon was larger than its own desulfurization and denitrification activity. The sintering dust also reduced the desulfurization efficiency on the activated carbon while enhancing the denitrification efficiency. Fly ash blocked the pores of activated carbon and reduced its reaction activity. The reaction activity of coking dust mainly came from the surface functional groups, similar to that of activated carbon. The reaction activity of sintering dust mainly came from the oxidative property of Fe2O3, which oxidized NO to NO2 and promoted the fast selectively catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO to form N2. Sintering dust was activated by the joint action of activated carbon, and both had a coupling function. Sintering dust enhanced the adsorption and oxidation of NO, and activated carbon further promoted the reduction of NOx by NH3; thus, the denitrification efficiency increased by 5%-7% on the activated carbon.


Assuntos
Carvão Vegetal , Poeira , Adsorção , Desnitrificação , Dióxido de Enxofre
11.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(11): 727, 2020 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33098456

RESUMO

Many source apportionment models have been applied to identify pollution sources, and differences often exist in the diagnostic results. The reasons causing these differences have not been fully elucidated. In this study, three receptor models, principal component analysis-multiple linear regression (PCA-MLR), positive matrix factorization (PMF), and factor analysis-nonnegative constraints (FA-NNC), were compared and applied for the analysis of 16 EPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) adsorbed in street dust samples from Harbin City (China). The differences in the results were caused by different calculation approaches, including matrix decomposition, variable grouping extraction, and nonnegative constraints, especially between PCA-MLR and the other two models. PCA-MLR has no nonnegative constraints, making PCA-MLR less similar to the real world than the other two. Both PMF and FA-NNC have a nonnegative constraint process, which may be the main reason why their results were much more similar to each other than to those of PCA-MLR. PCA-MLR distinguishes variables into several groups that have the greatest variances from each other, whereas the other two methods find similarities among variables and extract them. In the case study of Harbin City, the contributions of mobile and industrial sources ranged from 47 to 69%, and the contributions of coal and other sources ranged from 30 to 52%. The recognized types of pollution sources were generally equivalent, but the proportional contributions were different. PCA-MLR performed best in calculating contributions, whereas PMF and FA-NNC were better in terms of source diagnosis.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , China , Cidades , Poeira , Monitoramento Ambiental , Análise Fatorial , Modelos Lineares , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Análise de Componente Principal
12.
Ann Parasitol ; 66(3): 319-329, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33128514

RESUMO

Mites are found in all types of environments, inhabiting also the immediate human environments, including dust from sleeping accommodations, upholstered furniture or carpeted floors. It is commonly known that house dust mites are sources of potent inhalant allergens. Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and Dermatophagoides farinae belong to the most common species in the temperate climate zone. Samples were collected by using a portable vacuum cleaner, into trap-filters installed onto the cap for dusting. Then, mites were isolated by a flotation method with saturated NaCl solution. The Petri dishes were screening under a stereoscopic microscope for presence of mites, then isolated mites were mounted on microscopic slides in Hoyer's medium. Mites were identified to species under the light microscope using phase contrast optics. A total of 724 mites were isolated from 46 of the examined samples, including 666 (91.9%) members of the family Pyroglyphidae. Among them D. pteronyssinus was predominat (62.8% of the total count, with average number 211.22 specimens per 1 gram of dust), followed by D. farinae (24.03%, averagely 150.07 specimens per 1 gram of dust) and Euroglyphus maynei (4.42%, 118.11 specimens per 1 gram of dust). Higher density of house dust mites was associated with the following factors: higher age of building, higher number of roommates, higher washing frequency per week, presence of carpeted floor in bedrooms, wooden floors in kitchens, closed kitchen, uphoplstered furniture, absence of pets and unemployed housewives.


Assuntos
Ácaros , Alérgenos , Animais , Poeira/análise , Habitação , Humanos , Polônia/epidemiologia , Pyroglyphidae
13.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(11): 741, 2020 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33128628

RESUMO

This study reports concentrations of trace metals and the associated health risks in settled dust of different microenvironments of a university in Northeast India. Settled dust samples were collected from the most accessible indoor locations by the students of Tezpur University, a rural-residential university of mid Brahmaputra Valley of Assam. Collected samples were digested in an aqua regia-assisted microwave digestion system and analyzed for iron (Fe), nickel (Ni), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb) using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). The highest concentration was obtained for Fe with a mean value of 1353.51 ± 123 mg/kg. Cadmium showed the lowest concentration with a mean value of 0.75 ± 0.57 mg/kg. Cadmium was the highly enriched element followed by Pb, Zn, and Ni. The metals mostly fall in the "extremely high enrichment" category. The study revealed that infiltrated soil or street dust, eroding wall paints, and automotive sources were the main contributing sources of the metals. The calculated Hazard Index (HI) value, 0.39, was lower than the acceptable HI value of 1 indicating no significant non-cancer risk to the students from exposure to these heavy metals at present. The study also found no carcinogenic risk on exposure to the metals present in the indoor dust samples.


Assuntos
Poeira , Metais Pesados , Cidades , Poeira/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Índia , Metais Pesados/análise , Medição de Risco , Universidades
14.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 10: CD006047, 2020 10 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33022752

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lead exposure is a serious health hazard, especially for children. It is associated with physical, cognitive and neurobehavioural impairment in children. There are many potential sources of lead in the environment, therefore trials have tested many household interventions to prevent or reduce lead exposure. This is an update of a previously published review. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of household interventions intended to prevent or reduce further lead exposure in children on improvements in cognitive and neurobehavioural development, reductions in blood lead levels and reductions in household dust lead levels. SEARCH METHODS: In March 2020, we updated our searches of CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, 10 other databases and ClinicalTrials.gov. We also searched Google Scholar, checked the reference lists of relevant studies and contacted experts to identify unpublished studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs of household educational or environmental interventions, or combinations of interventions to prevent lead exposure in children (from birth to 18 years of age), where investigators reported at least one standardised outcome measure. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two authors independently reviewed all eligible studies for inclusion, assessed risk of bias and extracted data. We contacted trialists to obtain missing information. We assessed the certainty of the evidence using the GRADE approach. MAIN RESULTS: We included 17 studies (three new to this update), involving 3282 children: 16 RCTs (involving 3204 children) and one quasi-RCT (involving 78 children). Children in all studies were under six years of age. Fifteen studies took place in urban areas of North America, one in Australia and one in China. Most studies were in areas with low socioeconomic status. Girls and boys were equally represented in those studies reporting this information. The duration of the intervention ranged from three months to 24 months in 15 studies, while two studies performed interventions on a single occasion. Follow-up periods ranged from three months to eight years. Three RCTs were at low risk of bias in all assessed domains. The other 14 studies were at unclear or high risk of bias; for example, we considered two RCTs and one quasi-RCT at high risk of selection bias and six RCTs at high risk of attrition bias. National or international research grants or governments funded 15 studies, while the other two did not report their funding sources. Education interventions versus no intervention None of the included studies in this comparison assessed effects on cognitive or neurobehavioural outcomes, or adverse events. All studies reported data on blood lead level outcomes. Educational interventions showed there was probably no evidence of a difference in reducing blood lead levels (continuous: mean difference (MD) -0.03, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.13 to 0.07; I² = 0%; 5 studies, 815 participants; moderate-certainty evidence; log-transformed data), or in reducing floor dust levels (MD -0.07, 95% CI -0.37 to 0.24; I² = 0%; 2 studies, 318 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). Environmental interventions versus no intervention Dust control: one study in this comparison reported data on cognitive and neurobehavioural outcomes, and on adverse events in children. The study showed numerically there may be better neurobehavioural outcomes in children of the intervention group. However, differences were small and the CI included both a beneficial and non-beneficial effect of the environmental intervention (e.g. mental development (Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II): MD 0.1, 95% CI -2.1 to 2.4; 1 study, 302 participants; low-certainty evidence). The same study did not observe any adverse events related to the intervention during the eight-year follow-up, but observed two children with adverse events in the control group (1 study, 355 participants; very low-certainty evidence). Meta-analysis also found no evidence of effectiveness on blood lead levels (continuous: MD -0.02, 95% CI -0.09 to 0.06; I² = 0%; 4 studies, 565 participants; moderate-certainty evidence; log-transformed data). We could not pool the data regarding floor dust levels, but studies reported that there may be no evidence of a difference between the groups (very low-certainty evidence). Soil abatement: the two studies assessing this environmental intervention only reported on the outcome of 'blood lead level'. One study showed a small effect on blood lead level reduction, while the other study showed no effect. Therefore, we deem the current evidence insufficient to draw conclusions about the effectiveness of soil abatement (very low-certainty evidence). Combination of educational and environmental interventions versus standard education Studies in this comparison only reported on blood lead levels and dust lead levels. We could not pool the studies in a meta-analysis due to substantial differences between the studies. Since the studies reported inconsistent results, the evidence is currently insufficient to clarify whether a combination of interventions reduces blood lead levels and floor dust levels (very low-certainty evidence). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Based on available evidence, household educational interventions and environmental interventions (namely dust control measures) show no evidence of a difference in reducing blood lead levels in children as a population health measure. The evidence of the effects of environmental interventions on cognitive and neurobehavioural outcomes and adverse events is uncertain too. Further trials are required to establish the most effective intervention for reducing or even preventing further lead exposure. Key elements of these trials should include strategies to reduce multiple sources of lead exposure simultaneously using empirical dust clearance levels. It is also necessary for trials to be carried out in low- and middle-income countries and in differing socioeconomic groups in high-income countries.


Assuntos
Poeira/prevenção & controle , Exposição Ambiental/prevenção & controle , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental/métodos , Intoxicação por Chumbo/prevenção & controle , Prevenção Secundária/métodos , Viés , Pré-Escolar , Poeira/análise , Feminino , Pisos e Cobertura de Pisos , Humanos , Lactente , Chumbo/sangue , Masculino , Pintura/toxicidade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Poluentes do Solo
15.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33036531

RESUMO

Objective: To connect with the measurement data of asbestos dust fiber concentration in foreign countries, improve the accuracy of asbestos fiber detection in China, and understand the dust exposure in the working environment of asbestos and man-made mineral fiber production and processing sites in Zhejiang Province. The fiber count concentrations of working environment in glass fiber, ceramic fiber and asbestos processing plants were measured and compared. Methods: The dust concentration in the working environment of two glass fiber factories, one ceramic fiber factory and eight asbestos products processing factories was measured. The total dust mass concentration was measured according to GBZ/T 192.1-2007, and the fiber count concentration was measured by phase contrast microscope. Kruskal Wallis was used to test and compare the dust concentration in the working environment of each post. The correlation between asbestos mass concentration and fiber count concentration was analyzed by Spearman correlation. Results: Under the phase contrast microscope, there were many short and fine asbestos fibers in the field of vision, and there were many impurities around. The average dust concentration of asbestos processing plant was 3.2 f/ml, and the dust concentration of cotton ginning was the highest (6.68 f/ml) . There was a significantly positive correlation between asbestos fiber count concentration and mass concentration (r=0.535, P=0.033) . The average fiber count concentration of glass fiber factory was 0.001 f/ml, and the highest was 0.005 f/ml. The average fiber count concentration of ceramic fiber factory was 0.001 f/ml, and the highest was 0.006 f/ml. Conclusion: The fiber count concentration in the working environment of asbestos factory in Zhejiang Province is obviously over the standard, which is one of the important reasons for the high incidence of mesothelioma in this area. Short and small asbestos fibers are easy to be ignored when counting. It is necessary to improve the actual operation process of fiber counting to form a laboratory standard in China.


Assuntos
Asbestos , Mesotelioma , Asbestos/análise , China , Poeira/análise , Humanos , Fibras Minerais/análise
16.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 41(11): 4825-4831, 2020 Nov 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33124226

RESUMO

In order to investigate the pollution characteristics and sources of elements in PM2.5 in the Shanxi University Town in 2017, an energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (ED-XRF) was used to analyze 21 kinds of elements in PM2.5 samples. A health risk assessment was conducted for Mn, Zn, Cu, Sb, Pb, Cr, Co, and Ni. The main sources of elements were identified by the principal component analysis (PCA) and positive matrix factorization (PMF). The results found that, among the 21 kinds of elements in PM2.5 in Shanxi University Town, the mass concentration of Ca was the highest, followed by Si, Fe, Al, S, K, and Cl. These seven elements accounted for 95.71% of the total element concentrations. The concentration of Cr exceeded the annual average concentration limit of ambient air quality standards in China by 104 times. The concentration of Ca in PM2.5 was the highest in spring, summer, and winter, while in autumn the concentration of S was the highest. Mn was the element that had non-carcinogenic risks to the three population types, and the level of risks were in the order of children > adult men > adult women. Cr and Co had tolerable carcinogenic risks, and the risk levels were in the order of adult men > adult women > children. The main sources of elements in PM2.5 in Shanxi University Town in 2017 were natural mineral dust, urban dust, coal combustion, and traffic.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Material Particulado , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Criança , China , Cidades , Poeira/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Material Particulado/análise , Medição de Risco , Estações do Ano , Universidades
17.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 41(9): 3918-3923, 2020 Sep 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33124270

RESUMO

In order to study the characteristics and sources of carbon fractions in PM2.5 in road dust in Anshan, road dust samples were collected from nine roads in Anshan in October 2014 and re-suspended on filters using a NK-ZXF sampler to obtain PM2.5 samples. A thermal optical carbon analyzer (IMPROVE-TOR) was employed to measure the mass fraction of organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) in PM2.5. The results showed that ω(TC) in PM2.5 in road dust was 9.78% (outer loop)-14.00% (Qianshan West Road), ω(OC) was 8.15% (outer loop)-10.84% (Qianshan West Road), and ω(EC) was 1.63% (outer loop)-2.85% (Qianshan West Road). ω(OC) was much higher than ω(EC), indicating that road dust contained a large amount of organic carbon. All OC/EC values were greater than 2.0 during the sampling period, suggesting that there was secondary pollution. Spearman correlation analysis and linear fitting indicated that the sources of OC and EC were basically the same. Cluster analysis results showed that carbon components in PM2.5 in road dust in Anshan mainly originated from vehicle exhaust, biomass burning, and coal combustion emissions.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Material Particulado , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Carbono/análise , Poeira/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Material Particulado/análise , Estações do Ano , Emissões de Veículos/análise
18.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 41(9): 4113-4123, 2020 Sep 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33124293

RESUMO

Most sponge city constructions in China are carried out in urban parcel-based catchments, and the quality and quantity of surface runoff can be controlled by several low impact development (LID) facilities. However, there are few reports on the generation and control of urban diffuse pollution. In this study, two areas with different hardening rates were compared to analyze the load conditions during the accumulation-wash-off-transport process of particulate pollutants. The results showed that the road surface in the catchment was the main underlying surface that the particulate pollutants contributed to. The road dust accumulation in the medium hardening rate (61.1%) and high hardening rate (73.6%) plots accounted for 88.4% (2.22-12.51 g ·m-2) and 90.1% (4.99-33.43 g ·m-2) of the catchment area unit, respectively. The contribution to the suspended solids (SS) load of runoff was 91.7% (0.97-7.34 g ·m-2) and 90.5% (0.92-18.77 g ·m-2), respectively. The SS load of road runoff accounted for approximately 95.2% and 83.1%, respectively. The pollution load (SS) after treatment by the LID facilities was approximately 24.0% and 40.2% of the surface runoff, respectively. The particle size distribution of road dust during the accumulation and wash-off processes was>150 µm, while that in surface and output runoff was <50 µm. With the increase in the impervious area, the distribution of finer particles (<105 µm) in the process of accumulation and wash-off increased (24.4%, 106.4%), while the distribution of particles <50 µm in road runoff decreased (12.4%). The particle size distribution of the accumulated, washed dust, and the rain runoff on the roof were roughly similar to those on the road. However, compared to the particle size distribution of road dust, in the accumulation and wash-off processes, the coarser particles (>1000 µm) of the medium hardening rate plot and the particles of size 250-450 µm and <45 µm of the high hardening rate plot increased significantly (>1000 µm: 58.1%, 108.5%; 250-450 µm: 72.9%, 41.8%; <45 µm: 59.2%, 64.8%). The results revealed the entire distribution process (accumulation-wash-off-transport) of particulate pollutants and the effect of LID facilities on the total SS pollution load of the catchment, which can provide an important reference for the scientific assessment of the project performance of LID installation in urban parcel-based catchments.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Poluentes Químicos da Água , China , Cidades , Poeira , Monitoramento Ambiental , Chuva , Movimentos da Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
19.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 41(8): 3547-3555, 2020 Aug 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33124327

RESUMO

In order to explore the pollution characteristics and health risks of heavy metals in dust from roads around non-ferrous smelting activities in different regions, dust samples from urban roads, non-ferrous smelting industry park roads, and tunnel roads were collected from the Mengzi area of Yunnan Province. The dust samples were suspended on Teflon filters by re-suspension equipment to obtain PM2.5 and PM10 samples. Eight heavy metals (Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, and Pb) were analyzed by ICP-MS. The results showed that the average content of the total heavy metals in PM2.5 was higher than that in PM10. The average contents of Pb, Cd, As, and Zn were highest in all three types of road dust, and the difference in the total average content in different types of road dust was ranked as:tunnel roads > non-ferrous smelting industrial park roads > urban roads. The average contents of Pb and As in PM2.5 from the tunnel road dust were higher than other heavy metals, and reached up to 92338.3 mg·kg-1 and 12457.7 mg·kg-1, respectively. The average contents of Pb and Zn in PM2.5 from the industrial park road dust were the highest of all heavy metals (4381.7 mg·kg-1 and 4685.0 mg·kg-1, respectively). The average content of Zn and Pb in PM2.5 were the highest of all the heavy metals in the urban road dust (1952.6 mg·kg-1 and 1944.8 mg·kg-1, respectively). The average contents of Cu, Zn, As, Cd, and Pb in the different types of road dust were all higher than their background values in Yunnan Province. The results of the enrichment factor analysis and principal component analysis indicated that Cu, Zn, As, Cd, and Pb were obviously enriched in all three types of road dust, which were significantly affected by the non-ferrous smelting industry and traffic sources. In contrast, Cr, Mn, and Ni were not obviously enriched in the three types of road dust and were less affected by anthropogenic sources. The results of the health risk assessment testified that ingestion was the main exposure route, and that the children's non-carcinogenic risk was higher than that of adults. In PM2.5, As, Cd, and Pb in all types of road dust were associated with non-carcinogenic risks for adults and children. In PM10, As, Cd, and Pb in dust from the non-ferrous smelting industry park roads and tunnel roads had non-carcinogenic risks for humans. As in PM10 from the urban road dust was associated with a non-carcinogenic risk for children, whereas As in dust from the tunnel roads had carcinogenic risks.


Assuntos
Poeira , Metais Pesados , Adulto , Criança , China , Cidades , Poeira/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Metais Pesados/análise , Medição de Risco
20.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 41(8): 3556-3562, 2020 Aug 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33124328

RESUMO

Surface dust samples were collected from university campuses in Xi'an, and X-ray fluorescent spectrometry was used to determine the contents of nine heavy metals (Mn, As, Pb, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, V, and Zn). Enrichment factors were subsequently used to determine the enrichment degree of each element and the preliminary determination of the pollution sources. The R programming language and SPSS were used for cluster analysis and principal components analysis to identify the pollution sources. The results showed that the average concentrations of all nine heavy metal elements were higher than their surface soil background values in Shaanxi Province; however, Mn, Co, As, V, and Ni exhibited relatively little enrichment and were less affected by human interference. Cr and Cu were moderately enriched, whereas Zn and Pb were significantly enriched, and human activities played a major role in the enrichment of these four elements. The main sources of Mn, Co, As, V, and Ni in surface dust samples from the university campuses were natural sources, whereas the accumulation of Zn, Cr, and Pb were mainly due to traffic sources, and Cu originated both from the auto repair industry and from paint coatings.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , China , Poeira/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Metais Pesados/análise , Medição de Risco , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Universidades
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA