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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 752: 141988, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33207530

RESUMO

Identifying major adverse effects on aquatic organisms in environmental samples is still challenging, and metabolomic approaches have been utilized as non-target screening techniques in the context of ecotoxicology. While existing methods have focused on statistical tests or univariate analysis, there is the need to further explore a multivariate analytical method that captures synergetic effects and associations among metabolites and toxicants. Here we show a new tool for screening sediment toxicity in the environment. First, we constructed predictive models using the metabolomic profiles and the result of exposure tests, to discriminate the toxic effects of target substances. The developed models were then applied to sediment samples collected from an actual urban area that contain chromium, nickel, copper, zinc, cadmium, fluoranthene, nicotine, and osmotic stress, incorporated with exposure tests of the benthic amphipod Grandidierella japonica. As a result, the fitted models showed high predictive power (Q2 > 0.71) and could detect toxicants from mixed chemical samples across a wide range of concentrations in test datasets. The application of the constructed models to river sediment and road dust samples indicated that almost all target substances were less toxic compared with the effects at LC50 levels. Only zinc showed slight increasing trends among samples, suggesting that the proposed method can be used for prioritization of toxicants. The present work made a direct connection between chemical exposures and metabolomic responses, and draws attention to the need for further studies on interactive mechanisms of metabolites in toxicological assessments.


Assuntos
Anfípodes , Poluentes Ambientais , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Poeira/análise , Sedimentos Geológicos , Metabolômica , Rios , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
2.
Sci Total Environ ; 752: 141641, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32892037

RESUMO

Archaea have an important role in the elemental biogeochemical cycle and human health. However, characteristics of airborne archaea affected by anthropogenic and natural processes are unclear. In this study, we investigated the abundance, structures, influencing factors and assembly processes of the archaeal communities in the air samples collected from Beijing in springtime using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), high-throughput sequencing technology and statistical analysis. The concentrations of airborne archaea ranged from 101 to 103 copies m-3 (455 ± 211 copies m-3), accounting for 0.67% of the total prokaryote (sum of archaea and bacteria). An increase in airborne archaea was seen when the air quality shifted from clean to slightly polluted conditions. Sandstorm dust imported a large number of archaea to the local atmosphere. Euryarchaeota, Thaumarchaeota and Crenarchaeota were the dominant phyla, revealing the primary role of soil in releasing archaea to the ambient environment. Dispersal-related neutral processes play an important role in shaping the structure of airborne archaeal assembly. Of all phyla, methanogenic Euryarchaeota were most abundant in the air parcels come from the south of Beijing. Air masses from the west of Beijing, which brought sandstorm to Beijing, carried large amounts of ammonia oxidizing archaea Nitrososphaera. The results demonstrate the importance of air mass sources and local weather conditions in shaping the local airborne archaea community.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Poeira , Archaea/genética , Pequim , China , Poeira/análise , Humanos , Filogenia
3.
Chemosphere ; 262: 127835, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32763581

RESUMO

This study evaluates the bioaccessibility and health risks related to heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn and metalloid As) in airborne dust samples (TSP and PM2.5) in Zabol, Iran during the summer dust period, when peak concentration levels of PM are typically observed. High bioaccessibilities of carcinogenic metals in PM2.5 (i.e. 53.3%, 48.6% and 47.6% for Ni, Cr and As, respectively) were calculated. The carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic health risks were assessed for three exposure pathways (inhalation, ingestion and dermal contact), separately for children and adults. Non-carcinogenic inhalation risks were very high (Hazard Index: HI > 1) both for children and adults, while the carcinogenic risks were above the upper acceptable threshold of 10-4 for adults and marginally close (5.0-8.4 × 10-5) for children. High carcinogenic risks (>10-4) were found for the ingestion pathway both for children and adults, while HI values > 1 (8.2) were estimated for children. Carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risk estimates for dermal contact were also above the limits considered acceptable, except for the carcinogenic risk for children (7.6 × 10-5). Higher non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks (integrated for all elements) were associated with the inhalation pathway in adults and children with the exception of carcinogenic risk for children, where the ingestion route remains the most important, while As was linked with the highest risks for nearly all exposure pathways. A comparative evaluation shows that health risks related with toxic elements in airborne particles in Sistan are among the highest reported in the world.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Poeira/análise , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Substâncias Perigosas/análise , Adulto , Carcinógenos/análise , Criança , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Metais Pesados/análise , Medição de Risco , Estações do Ano
4.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(12): 771, 2020 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33215318

RESUMO

In this study, the occurrence of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn) in the environment of the Moravian Library in Brno, the second largest library in Czechia, was in focus. The materials of interest were airborne particles, dust originating from books, and also book pages. Total suspended particles (TSP) were sampled in different areas of the library, including the reading room, the book depository, and an external book warehouse. Samples of dusts were obtained from the book-cleaning system, and, moreover, some pages taken from old books were also analyzed. Samples were microwave-digested and analyzed using graphite furnace high-resolution continuum source AAS (HR-CS GF-AAS). During the analysis, possibilities of the signal intensity modulation of the HR-CS technique were demonstrated and employed in order to determine Zn, an element which is rarely determined by GF-AAS. The median TSP concentrations (in ng/m3) were as follows: Pb, 4.4; Cd, 0.07; Cu, 2.6; and Zn, 20.9. Such concentrations are safely below allowed limits. Contents of Pb determined in dust samples and book pages were slightly higher (up to 707 and 38 mg/kg, respectively) than the usually reported values. However, none of these results indicate a potential risk to library staff or readers.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Metais Pesados , Cádmio/análise , Poeira/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Chumbo , Metais Pesados/análise , Zinco
5.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 10: CD006047, 2020 10 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33022752

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lead exposure is a serious health hazard, especially for children. It is associated with physical, cognitive and neurobehavioural impairment in children. There are many potential sources of lead in the environment, therefore trials have tested many household interventions to prevent or reduce lead exposure. This is an update of a previously published review. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of household interventions intended to prevent or reduce further lead exposure in children on improvements in cognitive and neurobehavioural development, reductions in blood lead levels and reductions in household dust lead levels. SEARCH METHODS: In March 2020, we updated our searches of CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, 10 other databases and ClinicalTrials.gov. We also searched Google Scholar, checked the reference lists of relevant studies and contacted experts to identify unpublished studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs of household educational or environmental interventions, or combinations of interventions to prevent lead exposure in children (from birth to 18 years of age), where investigators reported at least one standardised outcome measure. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two authors independently reviewed all eligible studies for inclusion, assessed risk of bias and extracted data. We contacted trialists to obtain missing information. We assessed the certainty of the evidence using the GRADE approach. MAIN RESULTS: We included 17 studies (three new to this update), involving 3282 children: 16 RCTs (involving 3204 children) and one quasi-RCT (involving 78 children). Children in all studies were under six years of age. Fifteen studies took place in urban areas of North America, one in Australia and one in China. Most studies were in areas with low socioeconomic status. Girls and boys were equally represented in those studies reporting this information. The duration of the intervention ranged from three months to 24 months in 15 studies, while two studies performed interventions on a single occasion. Follow-up periods ranged from three months to eight years. Three RCTs were at low risk of bias in all assessed domains. The other 14 studies were at unclear or high risk of bias; for example, we considered two RCTs and one quasi-RCT at high risk of selection bias and six RCTs at high risk of attrition bias. National or international research grants or governments funded 15 studies, while the other two did not report their funding sources. Education interventions versus no intervention None of the included studies in this comparison assessed effects on cognitive or neurobehavioural outcomes, or adverse events. All studies reported data on blood lead level outcomes. Educational interventions showed there was probably no evidence of a difference in reducing blood lead levels (continuous: mean difference (MD) -0.03, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.13 to 0.07; I² = 0%; 5 studies, 815 participants; moderate-certainty evidence; log-transformed data), or in reducing floor dust levels (MD -0.07, 95% CI -0.37 to 0.24; I² = 0%; 2 studies, 318 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). Environmental interventions versus no intervention Dust control: one study in this comparison reported data on cognitive and neurobehavioural outcomes, and on adverse events in children. The study showed numerically there may be better neurobehavioural outcomes in children of the intervention group. However, differences were small and the CI included both a beneficial and non-beneficial effect of the environmental intervention (e.g. mental development (Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II): MD 0.1, 95% CI -2.1 to 2.4; 1 study, 302 participants; low-certainty evidence). The same study did not observe any adverse events related to the intervention during the eight-year follow-up, but observed two children with adverse events in the control group (1 study, 355 participants; very low-certainty evidence). Meta-analysis also found no evidence of effectiveness on blood lead levels (continuous: MD -0.02, 95% CI -0.09 to 0.06; I² = 0%; 4 studies, 565 participants; moderate-certainty evidence; log-transformed data). We could not pool the data regarding floor dust levels, but studies reported that there may be no evidence of a difference between the groups (very low-certainty evidence). Soil abatement: the two studies assessing this environmental intervention only reported on the outcome of 'blood lead level'. One study showed a small effect on blood lead level reduction, while the other study showed no effect. Therefore, we deem the current evidence insufficient to draw conclusions about the effectiveness of soil abatement (very low-certainty evidence). Combination of educational and environmental interventions versus standard education Studies in this comparison only reported on blood lead levels and dust lead levels. We could not pool the studies in a meta-analysis due to substantial differences between the studies. Since the studies reported inconsistent results, the evidence is currently insufficient to clarify whether a combination of interventions reduces blood lead levels and floor dust levels (very low-certainty evidence). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Based on available evidence, household educational interventions and environmental interventions (namely dust control measures) show no evidence of a difference in reducing blood lead levels in children as a population health measure. The evidence of the effects of environmental interventions on cognitive and neurobehavioural outcomes and adverse events is uncertain too. Further trials are required to establish the most effective intervention for reducing or even preventing further lead exposure. Key elements of these trials should include strategies to reduce multiple sources of lead exposure simultaneously using empirical dust clearance levels. It is also necessary for trials to be carried out in low- and middle-income countries and in differing socioeconomic groups in high-income countries.


Assuntos
Poeira/prevenção & controle , Exposição Ambiental/prevenção & controle , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental/métodos , Intoxicação por Chumbo/prevenção & controle , Prevenção Secundária/métodos , Viés , Pré-Escolar , Poeira/análise , Feminino , Pisos e Cobertura de Pisos , Humanos , Lactente , Chumbo/sangue , Masculino , Pintura/toxicidade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Poluentes do Solo
6.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 41(11): 4825-4831, 2020 Nov 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33124226

RESUMO

In order to investigate the pollution characteristics and sources of elements in PM2.5 in the Shanxi University Town in 2017, an energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (ED-XRF) was used to analyze 21 kinds of elements in PM2.5 samples. A health risk assessment was conducted for Mn, Zn, Cu, Sb, Pb, Cr, Co, and Ni. The main sources of elements were identified by the principal component analysis (PCA) and positive matrix factorization (PMF). The results found that, among the 21 kinds of elements in PM2.5 in Shanxi University Town, the mass concentration of Ca was the highest, followed by Si, Fe, Al, S, K, and Cl. These seven elements accounted for 95.71% of the total element concentrations. The concentration of Cr exceeded the annual average concentration limit of ambient air quality standards in China by 104 times. The concentration of Ca in PM2.5 was the highest in spring, summer, and winter, while in autumn the concentration of S was the highest. Mn was the element that had non-carcinogenic risks to the three population types, and the level of risks were in the order of children > adult men > adult women. Cr and Co had tolerable carcinogenic risks, and the risk levels were in the order of adult men > adult women > children. The main sources of elements in PM2.5 in Shanxi University Town in 2017 were natural mineral dust, urban dust, coal combustion, and traffic.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Material Particulado , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Criança , China , Cidades , Poeira/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Material Particulado/análise , Medição de Risco , Estações do Ano , Universidades
7.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 41(9): 3918-3923, 2020 Sep 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33124270

RESUMO

In order to study the characteristics and sources of carbon fractions in PM2.5 in road dust in Anshan, road dust samples were collected from nine roads in Anshan in October 2014 and re-suspended on filters using a NK-ZXF sampler to obtain PM2.5 samples. A thermal optical carbon analyzer (IMPROVE-TOR) was employed to measure the mass fraction of organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) in PM2.5. The results showed that ω(TC) in PM2.5 in road dust was 9.78% (outer loop)-14.00% (Qianshan West Road), ω(OC) was 8.15% (outer loop)-10.84% (Qianshan West Road), and ω(EC) was 1.63% (outer loop)-2.85% (Qianshan West Road). ω(OC) was much higher than ω(EC), indicating that road dust contained a large amount of organic carbon. All OC/EC values were greater than 2.0 during the sampling period, suggesting that there was secondary pollution. Spearman correlation analysis and linear fitting indicated that the sources of OC and EC were basically the same. Cluster analysis results showed that carbon components in PM2.5 in road dust in Anshan mainly originated from vehicle exhaust, biomass burning, and coal combustion emissions.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Material Particulado , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Carbono/análise , Poeira/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Material Particulado/análise , Estações do Ano , Emissões de Veículos/análise
8.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 41(8): 3547-3555, 2020 Aug 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33124327

RESUMO

In order to explore the pollution characteristics and health risks of heavy metals in dust from roads around non-ferrous smelting activities in different regions, dust samples from urban roads, non-ferrous smelting industry park roads, and tunnel roads were collected from the Mengzi area of Yunnan Province. The dust samples were suspended on Teflon filters by re-suspension equipment to obtain PM2.5 and PM10 samples. Eight heavy metals (Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, and Pb) were analyzed by ICP-MS. The results showed that the average content of the total heavy metals in PM2.5 was higher than that in PM10. The average contents of Pb, Cd, As, and Zn were highest in all three types of road dust, and the difference in the total average content in different types of road dust was ranked as:tunnel roads > non-ferrous smelting industrial park roads > urban roads. The average contents of Pb and As in PM2.5 from the tunnel road dust were higher than other heavy metals, and reached up to 92338.3 mg·kg-1 and 12457.7 mg·kg-1, respectively. The average contents of Pb and Zn in PM2.5 from the industrial park road dust were the highest of all heavy metals (4381.7 mg·kg-1 and 4685.0 mg·kg-1, respectively). The average content of Zn and Pb in PM2.5 were the highest of all the heavy metals in the urban road dust (1952.6 mg·kg-1 and 1944.8 mg·kg-1, respectively). The average contents of Cu, Zn, As, Cd, and Pb in the different types of road dust were all higher than their background values in Yunnan Province. The results of the enrichment factor analysis and principal component analysis indicated that Cu, Zn, As, Cd, and Pb were obviously enriched in all three types of road dust, which were significantly affected by the non-ferrous smelting industry and traffic sources. In contrast, Cr, Mn, and Ni were not obviously enriched in the three types of road dust and were less affected by anthropogenic sources. The results of the health risk assessment testified that ingestion was the main exposure route, and that the children's non-carcinogenic risk was higher than that of adults. In PM2.5, As, Cd, and Pb in all types of road dust were associated with non-carcinogenic risks for adults and children. In PM10, As, Cd, and Pb in dust from the non-ferrous smelting industry park roads and tunnel roads had non-carcinogenic risks for humans. As in PM10 from the urban road dust was associated with a non-carcinogenic risk for children, whereas As in dust from the tunnel roads had carcinogenic risks.


Assuntos
Poeira , Metais Pesados , Adulto , Criança , China , Cidades , Poeira/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Metais Pesados/análise , Medição de Risco
9.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 41(8): 3556-3562, 2020 Aug 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33124328

RESUMO

Surface dust samples were collected from university campuses in Xi'an, and X-ray fluorescent spectrometry was used to determine the contents of nine heavy metals (Mn, As, Pb, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, V, and Zn). Enrichment factors were subsequently used to determine the enrichment degree of each element and the preliminary determination of the pollution sources. The R programming language and SPSS were used for cluster analysis and principal components analysis to identify the pollution sources. The results showed that the average concentrations of all nine heavy metal elements were higher than their surface soil background values in Shaanxi Province; however, Mn, Co, As, V, and Ni exhibited relatively little enrichment and were less affected by human interference. Cr and Cu were moderately enriched, whereas Zn and Pb were significantly enriched, and human activities played a major role in the enrichment of these four elements. The main sources of Mn, Co, As, V, and Ni in surface dust samples from the university campuses were natural sources, whereas the accumulation of Zn, Cr, and Pb were mainly due to traffic sources, and Cu originated both from the auto repair industry and from paint coatings.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , China , Poeira/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Metais Pesados/análise , Medição de Risco , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Universidades
10.
Ann Parasitol ; 66(3): 319-329, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33128514

RESUMO

Mites are found in all types of environments, inhabiting also the immediate human environments, including dust from sleeping accommodations, upholstered furniture or carpeted floors. It is commonly known that house dust mites are sources of potent inhalant allergens. Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and Dermatophagoides farinae belong to the most common species in the temperate climate zone. Samples were collected by using a portable vacuum cleaner, into trap-filters installed onto the cap for dusting. Then, mites were isolated by a flotation method with saturated NaCl solution. The Petri dishes were screening under a stereoscopic microscope for presence of mites, then isolated mites were mounted on microscopic slides in Hoyer's medium. Mites were identified to species under the light microscope using phase contrast optics. A total of 724 mites were isolated from 46 of the examined samples, including 666 (91.9%) members of the family Pyroglyphidae. Among them D. pteronyssinus was predominat (62.8% of the total count, with average number 211.22 specimens per 1 gram of dust), followed by D. farinae (24.03%, averagely 150.07 specimens per 1 gram of dust) and Euroglyphus maynei (4.42%, 118.11 specimens per 1 gram of dust). Higher density of house dust mites was associated with the following factors: higher age of building, higher number of roommates, higher washing frequency per week, presence of carpeted floor in bedrooms, wooden floors in kitchens, closed kitchen, uphoplstered furniture, absence of pets and unemployed housewives.


Assuntos
Ácaros , Alérgenos , Animais , Poeira/análise , Habitação , Humanos , Polônia/epidemiologia , Pyroglyphidae
11.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(11): 741, 2020 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33128628

RESUMO

This study reports concentrations of trace metals and the associated health risks in settled dust of different microenvironments of a university in Northeast India. Settled dust samples were collected from the most accessible indoor locations by the students of Tezpur University, a rural-residential university of mid Brahmaputra Valley of Assam. Collected samples were digested in an aqua regia-assisted microwave digestion system and analyzed for iron (Fe), nickel (Ni), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb) using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). The highest concentration was obtained for Fe with a mean value of 1353.51 ± 123 mg/kg. Cadmium showed the lowest concentration with a mean value of 0.75 ± 0.57 mg/kg. Cadmium was the highly enriched element followed by Pb, Zn, and Ni. The metals mostly fall in the "extremely high enrichment" category. The study revealed that infiltrated soil or street dust, eroding wall paints, and automotive sources were the main contributing sources of the metals. The calculated Hazard Index (HI) value, 0.39, was lower than the acceptable HI value of 1 indicating no significant non-cancer risk to the students from exposure to these heavy metals at present. The study also found no carcinogenic risk on exposure to the metals present in the indoor dust samples.


Assuntos
Poeira , Metais Pesados , Cidades , Poeira/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Índia , Metais Pesados/análise , Medição de Risco , Universidades
12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33036531

RESUMO

Objective: To connect with the measurement data of asbestos dust fiber concentration in foreign countries, improve the accuracy of asbestos fiber detection in China, and understand the dust exposure in the working environment of asbestos and man-made mineral fiber production and processing sites in Zhejiang Province. The fiber count concentrations of working environment in glass fiber, ceramic fiber and asbestos processing plants were measured and compared. Methods: The dust concentration in the working environment of two glass fiber factories, one ceramic fiber factory and eight asbestos products processing factories was measured. The total dust mass concentration was measured according to GBZ/T 192.1-2007, and the fiber count concentration was measured by phase contrast microscope. Kruskal Wallis was used to test and compare the dust concentration in the working environment of each post. The correlation between asbestos mass concentration and fiber count concentration was analyzed by Spearman correlation. Results: Under the phase contrast microscope, there were many short and fine asbestos fibers in the field of vision, and there were many impurities around. The average dust concentration of asbestos processing plant was 3.2 f/ml, and the dust concentration of cotton ginning was the highest (6.68 f/ml) . There was a significantly positive correlation between asbestos fiber count concentration and mass concentration (r=0.535, P=0.033) . The average fiber count concentration of glass fiber factory was 0.001 f/ml, and the highest was 0.005 f/ml. The average fiber count concentration of ceramic fiber factory was 0.001 f/ml, and the highest was 0.006 f/ml. Conclusion: The fiber count concentration in the working environment of asbestos factory in Zhejiang Province is obviously over the standard, which is one of the important reasons for the high incidence of mesothelioma in this area. Short and small asbestos fibers are easy to be ignored when counting. It is necessary to improve the actual operation process of fiber counting to form a laboratory standard in China.


Assuntos
Asbestos , Mesotelioma , Asbestos/análise , China , Poeira/análise , Humanos , Fibras Minerais/análise
13.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239010, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925951

RESUMO

Enclosed underground excavation worksite has an environment with poor ventilation and exposure to hazardous substances from diesel engine exhaust and construction materials. The objective of this study was to evaluate the exposure level of elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), total carbon (TC), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), dust and crystalline silica (CS) during underground excavation work for top down construction buildings. Active local air sampling for EC, OC, and TC (n = 105), PAHs (n = 50), dust (n = 34) and CS (n = 34) was conducted from inside and outside the excavator at underground excavation workshop in four different construction sites. EC, OC, TC and CS were sampled with each respirable and total particulates. EC, OC, and TC were collected on quartz-filter and analyzed using the thermal optical transmittance method. PAHs was collected on polytetrafluorethylene filter with XAD-2 and analyzed using liquid chromatography with fluorescence detector. CS and particulates were collected on poly vinyl chloride filter and analyzed using fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The geometric mean of respirable EC, OC, TC, total PAHs, respirable dust and respirable CS were 8.69 µg/m3, 34.32 µg/m3, 44.96 µg/m3, 6.818 µg/m3 0.13 mg/m3 and 0.02 mg/m3 from inside the excavator and 33.20 µg/m3, 46.53 µg/m3, 78.21 µg/m3, 3.934 µg/m3, 0.9 mg/m3 and 0.08 mg/m3 from outside the excavator (underground excavation workshop), respectively. The EC and RCS concentration from outside the excavator is significantly higher than that of inside the excavator (p<0.01). The worksite with rock ground, higher vehicle density, blasting and enclosed environments had higher exposure to EC than other sites (p<0.05). There was no significant difference of EC concentration between total and respirable particulates. In top down construction sites, EC concentrations during underground excavation work exceeded recommended exposure limits as 20 µg/m3, accounted for about 50% of the total sample, and the level of concentration of RCS exceeded 1.5 times of occupational exposure limit, 0.05 mg/m3. Efforts are needed to minimize exposure to diesel engine exhaust and silica in underground excavation sites. Management of diesel engine vehicle, supply of fresh air and ventilation and introducing water facilities to create wet environment in underground worksites are strongly suggested.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/análise , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Carbono/análise , Poeira/análise , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Exposição por Inalação/análise , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , República da Coreia , Dióxido de Silício/análise , Emissões de Veículos/análise , Local de Trabalho
14.
Chemosphere ; 258: 127342, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32947679

RESUMO

Environmental contaminations by potentially toxic metals (PTMs) are associated with energy exploitation and present a significant problem in urban areas due to their impacts on human health. The PTMs status in Urumqi total environment inevitably impacted by extensive development of coal and oil industries has been lack of understanding comprehensively. A series of PTMs (As, Ba, Ce, Co, Cr, Cu, Ga, La, Mn, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sr, Th, U, V, Y, Zn, Zr) in the soil-dust-plant (foliage of Ulmus pumila L.) system of Urumqi (NW China) were screened by XRF and ICPMS. Multivariate statistics, risk models, GIS-based geostatistics, Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) receptor modelling and blood lead levels of 0-6 aged children evaluated by IEUBK model are used to determine the priority pollutants, sources and health effects of the investigated elements. The spatial distribution of PTMs in soil-dust-plant system significantly coincides with coal combustion, traffic emission, and industrial activity. Although all PTM toxicants in soil, dust and tree foliage show some effects, the priority contaminants are observed for Cu, Pb and Zn as single element. The total carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks from PTMs are beyond the tolerance range of 0-6 year's old children, and the dust (TCR = 1.07E-04) PTMs pose approximatively equivalent carcinogenic risk to soil PTMs (TCT = 1.09E-04). The predicted BLLs (75-83 µ g·L-1) of 1-2 years children are most strongly influenced by Pb in soil and dust, and therefore more attention should be focused on sources of Pb to support the primary health care of the toddlers in Urumqi.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Metais Pesados/sangue , Poluentes do Solo/sangue , Carcinógenos , China , Poeira/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais , Poluição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Substâncias Perigosas , Humanos , Indústrias , Chumbo/sangue , Metais Pesados/análise , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Medição de Risco , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo
15.
Environ Sci Process Impacts ; 22(9): 1809-1827, 2020 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32760963

RESUMO

Regulations and the voluntary activities of manufacturers have led to a market shift in the use of flame retardants (FRs). Accordingly, organophosphate ester flame retardants (OPFRs) have emerged as a replacement for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). One of the widely used OPFRs is tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), the considerable usage of which has reached 1.0 Mt globally. High concentrations of TCEP in indoor dust (∼2.0 × 105 ng g-1), its detection in nearly all foodstuffs (max. concentration of ∼30-300 ng g-1 or ng L-1), human body burden, and toxicological properties as revealed by meta-analysis make TCEP hard to distinguish from traditional FRs, and this situation requires researchers to rethink whether or not TCEP is an appropriate choice as a new FR. However, there are many unresolved issues, which may impede global health agencies in framing stringent regulations and manufacturers considering the meticulous use of TCEP. Therefore, the aim of the present review is to highlight the factors that influence TCEP emissions from its sources, its bioaccessibility, threat of trophic transfer, and toxicogenomics in order to provide better insight into its emergence as an FR. Finally, remediation strategies for dealing with TCEP emissions, and future research directions are addressed.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Organofosfatos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Poeira/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Retardadores de Chama/toxicidade , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Humanos , Organofosfatos/toxicidade , Fosfatos
16.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(33): 42168-42174, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32860190

RESUMO

Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are commonly used in consumer products and they shed off these products and eventually build up in household dust. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), in particular, are known endocrine-disrupting chemicals affecting various hormone syntheses. Portable X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) is the most common non-destructive method in identifying BFRs in environmental samples. However, the method is insensitive to bromine speciation. Synchrotron-based XRF has been shown to have very low detection limits (< 1 µg/g) that is suitable for detecting BFRs and can be combined with X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) to identify the bromine species present in the household dust. Twenty indoor dust samples were collected from rural homes in Newfoundland (Canada) to assess the use of synchrotron-based techniques to identify BFRs. Synchrotron-based XRF analysis identified bromine in all the samples, with concentrations ranging from 2-19 µg/g. XANES analysis identified organic-based bromine species in several samples that are likely BFRs based on the spectral line shape. The accuracy of using XANES to identify BFRs is highly dependent on the source and size of the dust samples. Therefore, for future research, it is important to take into account the sources of dust sample and to focus on fine dust particles.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Retardadores de Chama , Hidrocarbonetos Bromados , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Canadá , Poeira/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Bromados/análise , Terra Nova e Labrador , Síncrotrons , Raios X
17.
J Environ Manage ; 272: 111059, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32854877

RESUMO

The main objective was to evaluate whether wearing and weathering of nanofunctionalized photocatalytic pavement in real urban environment can lead to undesirable emission of potentially toxic nanoparticle aerosols in urban air. The photocatalytic material was thoroughly tested before its application for conformity criteria in terms of photocatalytic effectiveness, intrinsic performance and undesired secondary effects, and then applied on a pilot scale in downtown Madrid. The aerosol monitoring on the pilot street before the coating applications as well as on the neighbouring streets during 10 months was used as a benchmark for evaluation of spatial and temporal variations. Analysis of the experimental data did not reveal any statistically significant variations in the aerosol concentrations on the pilot street in comparison with the benchmark. The concentration of Ti-containing particles was assessed by aerosol sampling and yielded values below 10 cm-3 that is more than three orders of magnitude below the toxicological limits. A theoretical model was developed to assess the upper bound of nanoparticle aerosol concentration in air. These findings indicated that photocatalytic pavement materials, which comply with conformity criteria under laboratory tests, can have low impact on the particulate contamination of urban air.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Nanopartículas , Aerossóis/análise , Poeira/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Material Particulado/análise
18.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 202: 110976, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32800235

RESUMO

In this study, we first reviewed the current research progress regarding the presence of environmental microplastics (MPs) in environment in China from 2010 to 2019. Results showed that: (1) current research has primarily focused on river and marine environments rather than soils and dusts, mainly located in eastern China, i.e., the Yangtze river, Poyang lake, Dongting lake, Yellow sea, and Bohai sea; (2) the abundance of MPs found in water bodies (sediments) of the rivers in China ranged from 3.9 to 7900 items·m-3 (19.0 × 103-13600.5 × 103 items·km-2), and 20-24300 items·kg-2 (170-5500 × 106 items·km-2) in the sediments, respectively; in lake water the range was 340-8900 items·m-3 (5 × 103-340 × 105 items·km-2) and 8 to 1200 items·m-2/25-300 items·kg-1 in the sediments, respectively; in marine water the range was 0.003-540 items·m-3 (0-380,100 item·km-2) and 1.3-14700 item·kg-1 in the sediments, respectively; in fish, shellfish, and natural planktons from ocean and freshwater, the range was 0-57 items·individuals-1 (0-168 items·g-1); (3) The absorption and toxicological effects of MPs in freshwater and oceans have mainly focused on polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), and polystyrene (PS); (4) the sources of microplastics in soils and dusts primarily come from urban/town activities; for rivers and lakes (estuary), they primarily come from urban activities; for coastal waters, fishing gear and nets, and the maritime activities were the main sources.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Lagos/química , Microplásticos/análise , Rios/química , Solo/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , China , Cidades , Poeira/análise , Estuários , Oceanos e Mares , Polietileno/análise , Polipropilenos/análise , Poliestirenos/análise
19.
Environ Pollut ; 266(Pt 1): 115372, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32814266

RESUMO

Global concern exists regarding human exposure to organic pollutants derived from public open spaces and indoor dust. This study has evaluated the occurrence of 18 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 11 organophosphorus flame retardants (OPFRs) and bisphenol A (BPA). To achieve this, a new simple, efficient and fast multi-residue analytical method based on a fully automated pressurised liquid extraction (PLE) and subsequent quantification by gas chromatography coupled to electron ionization-mass spectrometry (GC-EI-MS) in selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode was developed. The developed method was applied to indoor dust (12 sampling households) and soil derived from two public open spaces (POSs). Among all compounds studied, PAHs were the most ubiquitous contaminants detected in POS soils and indoor dust although some OPFRs and BPA were detected in lower concentrations. An assessment of the incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) was done and indicated a high potential cancer risk from the POS sites and some of the indoor dust sampled sites. However, key variables, such as the actual exposure duration, frequency of contact and indoor cleaning protocols will significantly reduce the potential risk. Finally, the ingestion of soils and indoor dust contaminated with OPFRs and BPA was investigated and noted in almost all cases to be below the USEPA reference doses.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Compostos Benzidrílicos , Poeira/análise , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Organofosfatos/análise , Fenóis , Solo
20.
Environ Pollut ; 266(Pt 2): 115222, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822923

RESUMO

Lifetime cancer risk and exposure of daily commuters to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in cities of Northwest China were determined from a study of street dust samples obtained from bus stops in Qingyang city. The sum of 16 priority PAHs (Σ16 PAHs) concentrations in the dust samples ranged from 0.8 to 18.3 mg kg-1 (mean 3.0 mg kg-1) and the distribution of individual, carcinogenic, combustion specific, low (2-3 rings) and high molecular weight (4-6 rings) PAHs was determined. The benzo[a]pyrene toxic equivalents of Σ16 PAHs ranged from 0.01 to 12.2 mg kg-1 (mean 0.8 mg kg-1). Incremental lifetime cancer risk from exposure to PAHs in dust at bus stops in Qingyang city was estimated at 1.9 × 10-6 for adults and 3.5 × 10-6 for children (confidence limit ≥ 95%). Emission source analysis of PAHs in bus stop dust showed that they were mainly derived from residential coal, oil and biomass combustion, e.g. from boilers, traffic vehicles, and Kang heaters. Higher concentrations of PAHs were obtained at bus stops near transport hubs, commercial districts, and administrative institutions.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Adulto , Criança , China , Cidades , Poeira/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Medição de Risco
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