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1.
AMA J Ethics ; 22(1): E739-740, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880365

RESUMO

This painting memorializes the lives of people who died in the COVID-19 pandemic and people who have died from police brutality.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Homicídio , Medicina nas Artes , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Polícia , Racismo , Beneficência , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Empatia , Esperança , Humanos , Vida , Obras Pictóricas como Assunto , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Respiração , Taraxacum
2.
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak ; 30(7): 735-739, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32811605

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To find out the sero-prevalence of COVID-19 IgG antibodies among policemen performing duties at high risk areas of Lahore, Pakistan. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional, observational study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Chughtai Lab Lahore from 20th to 30th May 2020. METHODOLOGY: One hundred and fifty-four young policemen (mean age 27.1 ±3.8 years) were included in the study after written consent. Squad officers who had any sign of acute respiratory infection were excluded from the study. The participants were asked to fill a questionnaire regarding nature of exposure with the infected cases, kind of personal protective equipment they are provided with and living arrangements. Three ml of blood samples were collected from the participants and immediately sent to the lab for analysis. COVID-19 IgG antibodies were analysed using chemiluminescence immunoassay method on Architect Ci8200 (Abbott). SPSS 23.0 was used for data analysis. RESULTS: All participants were males and mean age was 27.1 ±3.8 years. Out of 154 squad members, 24 were reactive for COVID-19 IgG antibodies and performing duties at the areas of high virus exposure. None of COVID-19 IgG reactive cases exhibited symptoms and most of them performed duties at high risk areas with only masks provided as personal protective equipment. Only 10% of the participants who were exposed to confirmed cases of COVID-19 were found to have anti-COVID IgG. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 IgG antibody reactive cases may not show any symptoms. Police force is at high risk of exposure. Serosurveys can help to find the spread of infection in the community and aid in planning healthcare strategies. Key Words: COVID-19, SARS CoV-2, Seroprevalence, Pandemic, Asymptomatic cases.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Polícia , Adulto , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Infecções Assintomáticas , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Paquistão , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Adulto Jovem
3.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235894, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32697775

RESUMO

States often seek to regulate the use of police force though citizen complaint systems. This paper examines these systems, specifically, whether patterns of bias found in other juridical contexts are mirrored in the adjudication of police assault. The analysis focuses on prosecutors as the first instance of adjudication who determine whether to move forward with investigation, effectively deciding the majority of cases. We ask whether prosecutor sex is associated with the probability that a police assault claim will be investigated. We leverage a natural experiment in Sweden where prosecutors are assigned through a modified lottery system, effectively randomizing appointment. Our findings suggest that prosecutor gender plays a role in judicial outcomes: women prosecutors are 16 percentage points more likely to investigate claims of police assault than their male counterparts. These findings have implications for scholars interested in state human rights abuses, democratic institutions, and judicial inequality.


Assuntos
Função Jurisdicional , Polícia/estatística & dados numéricos , Sexismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Violência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Direitos Humanos/legislação & jurisprudência , Direitos Humanos/normas , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais , Suécia , Violência/legislação & jurisprudência
4.
Georgian Med News ; (302): 167-173, 2020 May.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32672711

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to determine the possibility and basics for the applying medical expertise as a tool for assessing the quality of medical support for police officers of the Republic of Armenia. The object of the study was the data reflecting the activities of the medical commission (MC), the appeal to the Polyclinic and hospitalization in the hospital of the Medical Directorate of the Police (MDP) of the Republic of Armenia (RA). The analysis was conducted for the years 2011-2015. In the course of the study, generally accepted statistical methods were applied with the determination of the specific weight of the phenomenon, the frequency of distribution (medical expertise, appealability and hospitalization) of the phenomenon in the appropriate environment (police of the RA), the reliability of the difference in relative values, matching of the obtained data by applying the Pearson criterion. The activities of the MC of MDP in the RA are regulated by orders of the head of the police of the Republic. Volume indicators and nomenclature of work of the medical commission of the MDP encompass both curative, as well as medical expert evaluations of the work of the medical staff of the police, all police officers of the Republic of Armenia, entrants of the Academy and college of police; determining the causal relationship of the disease of police themselves and deaths of former police officers of the RA. The analysis shows that the solutions medical commission of the Medical Police Department are general indicators for assessing the state of health of the police of the RA and their further performance; viewed a certain incoherence in the activities of the three main structures of the MDP of the RA, due to the development of 15-20 years ago and the current orders and decisions of the Government of the RA. Thus, it should be emphasized that the need has ripened for the development of a new methodology and modern methods for assessing the quality of medical support for police officers, at the same time, medical expertise is a quite respective tool for assessing the medical support the police of the Republic of Armenia.


Assuntos
Aplicação da Lei , Polícia , Armênia , Hospitais , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
6.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236158, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32722714

RESUMO

In response to Gabriel Schwartz and Jaquelyn Jahn's descriptive study, "Mapping fatal police violence across U.S. metropolitan areas: Overall rates and racial/ethnic inequalities, 2013-2017," I provide three reflections. First, the framing of this issue is vitally important. Second, police-involved fatalities represent a nonrandom sample of all incidents involving police use of deadly force (i.e., physical force that causes or is likely to cause death), and unfortunately, we lack comprehensive data on use of deadly force that does not result in fatalities. Finally, to make sense of who is killed by the police, researchers must also identify who was exposed to the risk of being killed by the police.


Assuntos
Polícia , Violência , Grupos de Populações Continentais , Grupos Étnicos , Humanos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos
9.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0229686, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32579553

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & METHODS: Recent social movements have highlighted fatal police violence as an enduring public health problem in the United States. To solve it, the public requires basic information, such as understanding where rates of fatal police violence are particularly high, and for which groups. Existing mapping efforts, though critically important, often use inappropriate statistical methods and can produce misleading, unstable rates when denominators are small. To fill this gap, we use inverse-variance-weighted multilevel models to estimate overall and race-stratified rates of fatal police violence for all Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs) in the U.S. (2013-2017), as well as racial inequities in these rates. We analyzed the most recent, reliable data from Fatal Encounters, a citizen science initiative that aggregates and verifies media reports. RESULTS: Rates of police-related fatalities varied dramatically, with the deadliest MSAs exhibiting rates nine times those of the least deadly. Overall rates in Southwestern MSAs were highest, with lower rates in the northern Midwest and Northeast. Yet this pattern was reversed for Black-White inequities, with Northeast and Midwest MSAs exhibiting the highest inequities nationwide. Our main results excluded deaths that could be considered accidents (e.g., vehicular collisions), but sensitivity analyses demonstrated that doing so may underestimate the rate of fatal police violence in some MSAs by 60%. Black-White and Latinx-White inequities were slightly underestimated nationally by excluding reportedly 'accidental' deaths, but MSA-specific inequities were sometimes severely under- or over-estimated. CONCLUSIONS: Preventing fatal police violence in different areas of the country will likely require unique solutions. Estimates of the severity of these problems (overall rates, racial inequities, specific causes of death) in any given MSA are quite sensitive to which types of deaths are analyzed, and whether race and cause of death are attributed correctly. Monitoring and mapping these rates using appropriate methods is critical for government accountability and successful prevention.


Assuntos
Cidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Polícia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Violência/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estados Unidos
10.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(3): 731-736, June 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098313

RESUMO

Regardless of sex or body size, police tasks may require officers to change direction speed (CODS) under occupational loads. The purpose of this study was to investigate body composition and CODS in female and male police cadets in both unloaded and occupationally loaded conditions. Body composition and CODS of 51 female (FPC) and 70 male police cadets (MPC) were assessed. Six body composition indices were used: Body mass index (BMI), percent body fat (PBF), percent of skeletal muscle mass (PSMM), protein fat index (PFI), index of hypokinesia (IH), and skeletal muscle mass index (SMMI). The CODS was assessed by Illinois Agility Test (IAT) and IAT while carrying a 10-kg load (LIAT). An independent sample t-test was used to identify the differences between the sexes. The regression determined associations between body composition and LIAT. The alpha level was set at p < 0.05 a priori. MPC had significantly higher (p < 0.001) BMI, PSMM, PFI and SMMI and lower PBF and IH than FPC. MPC were also faster in IAT and LIAT, carrying lower relative loads that imparted less of an impact on CODS performance. Body composition was strongly associated with the time to complete LIAT (R2 = 0.671, p < 0.001). Difference in relative load and body composition influenced CODS performance in both unloaded and loaded conditions. Thus, optimizing body composition through increasing skeletal muscle mass and reducing fat mass could positively influence unloaded and loaded CODS performance and improve elements of police task performance.


El trabajo policial puede requerir que los oficiales cambien la velocidad de dirección (CVD) bajo cargas ocupacionales, indistintamente del sexo o tamaño corporal. El propósito de este estudio fue investigar la composición corporal y los CVD en cadetes de policía de ambos sexos, tanto en condiciones de descarga como de trabajo. Se evaluaron la composición corporal y los CVD de 51 mujeres (CPF) y 70 cadetes de policía masculinos (CPM). Se utilizaron seis índices de composición corporal: índice de masa corporal (IMC), porcentaje de grasa corporal (PGC), porcentaje de masa muscular esquelética (PMME), índice de grasa proteica (IGP), índice de hipocinesia (IH) e índice de masa muscular esquelética (IMME). El CVD fue evaluado por Illinois Agility Test (IAT) y IAT mientras transportaba una carga de 10 kg (LIAT). Se usó una prueba t de muestra independiente para identificar las diferencias entre los sexos. La regresión determinó asociaciones entre la composición corporal y LIAT. El nivel alfa se estableció en p <0,05 a priori. CPM registraron un IMC, PMME, PGC y IMME significativamente más altos (p <0,001) y PGC e IH más bajos que las mujeres (CPF). Los CPM también fueron más rápidos en IAT y LIAT, llevando cargas más bajas, las que tuvieron un impacto menor en el rendimiento de CVD. La composición corporal estaba asociada con el tiempo para completar LIAT (R2 = 0,671, p <0,001). La diferencia en la carga relativa y la composición corporal influyeron en el rendimiento de CVD tanto en condiciones descargadas como cargadas. Por lo tanto, la optimización de la composición corporal a través del aumento de la masa del músculo esquelético, y la reducción de la masa grasa podrían influir de manera positiva en el rendimiento de CVD descargados y cargados, mejorando el rendimiento del trabajo policial.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Composição Corporal , Caracteres Sexuais , Polícia , Movimento/fisiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Modelos Logísticos , Fatores Sexuais , Tecido Adiposo , Carga de Trabalho
16.
Lancet Public Health ; 5(6): e333-e341, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32504586

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Homelessness is associated with crime victimisation, which is a leading cause of death, exacerbates health problems, and increases the risk of violence. We aimed to study the risk of police-recorded crime victimisation in individuals with experiences of homelessness compared with the general population. METHODS: We did a nationwide, register-based cohort study of people aged 15 years or older, who were alive in 2001 and born in Denmark between 1980 and 2001. The cohort was constructed using the Danish Civil Registration System, with data linked across other registries (including the Danish Homeless Register, Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register, and the Danish Central Crime Register) by use of personal identification numbers. The exposure, experience of homelessness, was defined as at least one contact with a homeless shelter. The outcome was the date of first police-recorded crime victimisation. We calculated incidence rates per 1000 person-years, incidence rate ratios (IRRs), and cumulative probability of any crime victimisation and of violent crime victimisation. Psychiatric disorders, socioeconomic markers, and history of criminal offences were included as confounders. FINDINGS: Within the study period (Jan 1, 2001, to Dec 31, 2015), 1 182 749 individuals (9 831 776 person-years) aged 15-35 years were included, of which 184 813 (15·6%) had at least one crime victimisation incident (73 999 [40%] of which were violent victimisations). 4286 individuals (22 240 person-years) had at least one homeless shelter contact. Relative to the general population, and adjusting for age and calendar year, individuals with experience of homelessness had an increased risk of any crime victimisation (IRR 2·7 [95% CI 2·4-3·0]) in females and 2·3 [2·1-2·5] in males), and especially of violent crime victimisation (7·2 [6·3-8·2] in females and 3·6 [3·2-4·0] in males). This increased risk remained significant after further adjustments for potential confounders. People with both a psychiatric diagnosis and experience of homelessness had the highest risk of violent victimisation (IRR 10·1 [95% CI 8·6-11·9] in females and 4·3 [3·8-4·9] in males), while people with no psychiatric diagnosis or experience of homelessness (the reference group) had the lowest risk. In the 5 years after an individual's first homeless shelter contact, the cumulative probabilities of any crime victimisation were 23% (95% CI 21-26) in females and 16% (15-18) in males, which were substantially higher than those of the general population. INTERPRETATION: Homeless populations are at substantially increased risk of crime victimisation, highlighting the need for strategic and targeted approaches to prevent homelessness and to help people out of homelessness. Improvements in multiagency working (such as between homeless shelters, health-care services, substance misuse services, and police forces) might be important to reduce the risk of victimisation in marginalised populations, such as those with complex psychiatric or social problems, with experience of homelessness. FUNDING: Lundbeck Foundation.


Assuntos
Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoas em Situação de Rua/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Dinamarca , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Polícia , Sistema de Registros , Adulto Jovem
17.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233966, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32484818

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Laypersons' efforts to initiate basic life support (BLS) in witnessed Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest (OHCA) remain comparably low within western society. Therefore, in order to shorten no-flow times in cardiac arrest, several police-based first responder systems equipped with automated external defibrillators (Pol-AED) were established in urban areas, which subsequently allow early BLS and AED administration by police officers. However, data on the quality of BLS and AED use in such a system and its impact on patient outcome remain scarce and inconclusive. METHODS: A total of 85 Pol-AED cases were randomly assigned to a gender, age and first rhythm matched non-Pol-AED control group (n = 170) in a 1:2 ratio. Data on quality of BLS were extracted via trans-thoracic impedance tracings of used AED devices. RESULTS: Comparing Pol-AED cases and the control group, we observed a similar compression rate per minute (p = 0.677) and compression ratio (p = 0.651), mirroring an overall high quality of BLS administered by police officers. Time to the first shock was significantly shorter in Pol-AED cases (6 minutes [IQR: 2-10] vs. 12 minutes [IQR: 8-17]; p<0.001). While Pol-AED was not associated with increased sustained return of spontaneous circulation (p = 0.564), a strong and independent impact on survival until hospital discharge (adj. OR: 1.85 [95%CI: 1.06-3.23; p = 0.030]) and a borderline significance for the association with favorable neurological outcome (adj. OR: 1.58 [95%CI: 0.96-2.89; p = 0.052) were observed. CONCLUSION: We were able to demonstrate an early start and a high quality of BLS and AED use in Pol-AED assessed OHCA cases. Moreover, the presence of Pol-AED care was associated with better patient survival and borderline significance for favorable neurological outcome.


Assuntos
Socorristas , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Polícia , Idoso , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar , Desfibriladores , Cardioversão Elétrica , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Feminino , Humanos , Sistemas de Manutenção da Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/fisiopatologia
19.
Crim Behav Ment Health ; 30(2-3): 132-140, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32537772

RESUMO

Exhibitionism and frotteurism are often considered just nuisance crimes but may cause serious distress to the victims. Previous studies of victim experience have focused on specific groups, such as healthcare professionals or university students. To estimate the prevalence of victimisation by exhibitionism and frotteurism among young general population adults in Korea and to describe the impact of such experiences, trained researchers randomly recruited young adults for face to face interviews at transport hubs and on university campuses. In addition, we posted the questionnaire as a Google survey to a limited number of local websites. Data were analysed descriptively. Of 900 people directly approached, 747 (83%) agreed participation, as did 423 online. These two samples were similar demographically, so combined for analyses. Two hundred and thirty-five (20%) reported experiencing exhibitionism and 130 (11%) frotteurism. Exposure victims were older (means 23.2:21.1 years) and more likely to be women than frotteur victims. All but two exposure and nine frotteur perpetrators were said to be men. Reporting to police was rare (17 exposure, 2 frotteur); most exposure victims (73%) but under half of frotteur victims told family or friends. All but 15% of each group had bad feelings about the experience, varying by experience type. Ten percent of exposure and 20% of frotteur victims described distress lasting months; more reported enduring behaviour changes, like avoiding subways. Although our sample is unlikely to be wholly representative of the general population, our research examines a broader range of people than previous studies. Most victims of these "nuisance crimes" were distressed by them, and, hitherto less well recognised, at least a fifth of such victims may have long-term distress. Further research could establish the extent to which support outside the family or friends' group or treatment would be indicated.


Assuntos
Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Exibicionismo/epidemiologia , Transtornos Parafílicos/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Bullying , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Exibicionismo/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos Parafílicos/psicologia , Polícia , Prevalência , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
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