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2.
Georgian Med News ; (312): 168-172, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33964847

RESUMO

The medical support of the Police officers is a complex and multifaceted process, which has two components: the health and medical and legal aspects themselves. We covered the health and medical aspects of the medical care of the RA Police officers in different issues of the "Georgian Medical News" for 2019-2020. The problems of its legal aspects are not fully presented. The object of the study: laws, decisions of the RA Government, orders of the Chief of Police and other documents reflecting various aspects of the state of legal normative acts regulating medical provision of RA police officers. The research methods used were historical, social, comparative. The aim of the study was to assess the usefulness of the current legal acts on medical care of the RA Police officers. Studying the current documents regulating the medical care of employees allows us to draw the following conclusions: - the existing system of departmental health care does not allow to resolve the thealth issues of the RA Police officers; - to improve the medical service of the RA Police there is a need in good medical care program.


Assuntos
Polícia , Armênia , Humanos
3.
Health Promot Pract ; 22(1_suppl): 17S-19S, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33942640

RESUMO

Through poetry, I offer a creative, critical analysis of the intersections of COVID-19, structural racism, and racialized police violence-situating present COVID-19 discourse within a broader historical arc of respiratory distress within communities of color, all while centering Earth Day and climate change as both metaphor and corollary. In doing so, I enact poetry as praxis, reflecting critically on the racialized contexts and consequences of overlapping threats to our health, while simultaneously crafting counternarrative to public health's ahistoric, apolitical, and racist proclivities in times of public health crises.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Racismo , Tulipa , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Polícia
4.
Pan Afr Med J ; 38: 199, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33995805

RESUMO

Introduction: the current pandemic of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) caused by a novel strain (SARS-CoV-2) is enormous and continues to pose a threat to the lives of people. In Nigeria, as of 21st April 2020, 668 confirmed cases, 22 deaths and 188 recoveries have been reported. Police officers are at the forefront of enforcing advisories to ensure public compliance. However, there is a paucity of data on knowledge, risk perception, and adherence to COVID-19 advisories issued by the Health authorities particularly among the police officers. We, therefore, assessed the knowledge, risk perceptions and adherence to NCDC recommended advisory on COVID-19. Methods: we conducted a two-stage sampling cross-sectional study among different cadres of police officers in Benue State, Nigeria using a pretested, semi-structured, interviewer-administered questionnaire. The results of the study were presented in frequencies and proportions. Chi-square test was used for an association between variables at p-value < 0.05. Results: the mean age of the 305 participants was 39.1 ± 8.4 years and most, 124 (40.7%) of the participants were within age-group 30-39 years, 19 (64.3%.8) were male, 250 (82.0%) were married and 160 (52.5%) had secondary education as the highest qualification. Majority of the participants, 301 (98.7%) have heard about COVID-19 and the commonest source of information was via television/radio, 230 (76.4%). Most participants demonstrate a good knowledge of COVID-19 infection, 302 (99.0%) and positive risk perception of COVID-19, 303 (99.3%) but few demonstrated good adherences on COVID-19 prevention practices, 133 (43.6%). Participants' academic qualification (X2 = 10.98, p = 0.001) and cadre (X2 = 112.5, p = 0.001) were found to be associated with good adherence. Conclusion: while most participants had a good knowledge of COVID-19 transmission dynamics, and positive risk perception about COVID-19, good adherence to public health advisories were low. We recommended periodic training, provision of adequate PPE and personal hand-sanitizers as a strategy to improve adherence.


Assuntos
/prevenção & controle , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/estatística & dados numéricos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Polícia/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria , Percepção , Saúde Pública , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
5.
BMC Womens Health ; 21(1): 217, 2021 05 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34022858

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sexual assault is a prevalent crime against women globally with known negative effects on health. Recent media reports in Canada indicate that many sexual assault reports are not believed by police. Negative reporting experiences of sexual assault have been associated with secondary victimization and trauma among survivors. However, little is known about the impact that being sexually assaulted and not believed by police has on a survivor's health and well-being. The purpose of this study was to explore women's experiences of not being believed by police after sexual assault and their perceived impact on health. METHODS: We conducted open-ended and semi-structured interviews with 23 sexual assault survivors who were sexually assaulted and not believed by police. The interviews explored the self-reported health impacts of not being believed by police and were conducted from April to July, 2019. All interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and entered into NVIVO for analysis. Data were analyzed using Colaizzi's analytic method. RESULTS: Analysis revealed three salient themes regarding the health and social impact of not being believed by police on survivors of sexual assault: (1) Broken Expectations which resulted in loss of trust and secondary victimization, (2) Loss of Self, and (3) Cumulative Health and Social Effects. The findings showed that not being believed by police resulted in additional mental and social burdens beyond that of the sexual assault. Many survivors felt further victimized by police at a time when they needed support, leading to the use taking of alcohol and/or drugs as a coping strategy. CONCLUSION: Reporting a sexual assault and not being believed by police has negative health outcomes for survivors. Improving the disclosure experience is needed to mitigate the negative health and social impacts and promote healing. This is important for police, health, and social service providers who receive sexual assault disclosures and may be able to positively influence the reporting experience and overall health effects.


Assuntos
Vítimas de Crime , Delitos Sexuais , Canadá , Feminino , Humanos , Polícia , Sobreviventes , Saúde da Mulher
6.
Rev. crim ; 63(1): 77-89, 20/04/2021.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1248332

RESUMO

El diseño de esta investigación es de corte empírico y cuantitativo, además, es de tipo psicométrico, bajo el criterio de estudio instrumental. Su objetivo principal fue diseñar y validar una escala de actitudes hacia la Policía Nacional para una muestra colombiana. Para ello, se realizó una revisión teórica y se diseñó una tabla de especificaciones que permitió identificar la cantidad de ítems que se requerían para abarcar las seis funciones principales de dicha entidad. Posteriormente, los ítems fueron sometidos a la validación por parte de jueces, se realizaron algunos ajustes sugeridos a la escala y se aplicó la encuesta a 566 ciudadanos colombianos con edades entre los 18 y 82 años, cuya media fue de 26 años. Se tuvo acceso a la población a través de un muestreo no probabilístico por bola de nieve. Así mismo, se llevó a cabo un análisis factorial exploratorio, que agrupó los reactivos en cuatro factores: pensamientos y creencias hacia la Policía Nacional, emociones y sentimientos hacia la Policía Nacional, accionar propio de la Policía y accionar de la Policía ante riñas y peleas. Además, se realizó un análisis factorial confirmatorio que refiere adecuados índices de bondad de ajuste. Los resultados de los análisis estadísticos demostraron que este instrumento tiene una alta consistencia interna y confiabilidad, lo cual se ve reflejado en el alfa de Cronbach general de 0,875 y una adecuada validez, ya que los ítems tienen apropiados índices de extracción y los cuatro factores en los que se agruparon explican el 47,140% de la varianza total.


This study's design was empirical and quantitative. In addition, it was psychometric, under instrumental study criteria. Its main objective was to design and validate a scale of attitudes towards the National Police for a Colombian sample. To do so, a theoretical review was performed and a table of specifications was created, which allowed identifying the amount of items required to cover the six main functions of said entity. Subsequently, the ítems were submitted to validation by judges. Some suggested adjustment were made to the scale, and the survey was given to 566 Colombian citizens between the ages of 18 to 82. The average age was 26. The population was accessed by means of non-probability, snowball sampling. Moreover, an exploratory factor analysis was performed, which regrouped the reactive items into four factors: thoughts and beliefs regarding the National Police, feelings and emotions towards the National Police, the Police's own actions, and the Police's actions in light of brawls and fights. In addition, a confirmatory factor analysis that refers to proper goodness of fit indices was performed. The results of the statistical analyses demonstrated that this instrument has high internal consistency and reliability, which is reflected in the general Cronbach's alpha of 0,875 and proper validity, since the items have appropriate extraction indices and the four factors in which they were grouped explain 47,140% of total variance.


O desenho desta pesquisa é empírico e quantitativo, além disso, é psicométrico, sob o critério de estudo instrumental. Seu principal objetivo foi desenhar e validar uma escala de atitudes em relação à Polícia Nacional para uma amostra colombiana. Para isso, foi realizada uma revisão teórica e foi elaborado um quadro de especificações para identificar o número de itens necessários para cobrir as seis funções principais da referida entidade. Posteriormente, os itens foram submetidos à validação de juízes, alguns ajustes sugeridos foram feitos na escala e a pesquisa foi aplicada a 566 cidadãos colombianos com idade entre 18 e 82 anos, cuja média foi de 26 anos. A população foi acessada por amostragem não probabilística em bola de neve. Da mesma forma, foi realizada uma análise fatorial exploratória, que agrupou os itens em quatro fatores: pensamentos e crenças em relação à Polícia Nacional, emoções e sentimentos em relação à Polícia Nacional, atuação característica da Polícia e atuação da Polícia frente a rixas e brigas. Além disso, foi realizada uma análise fatorial confirmatória que se refere a índices adequados de bondade de ajuste. Os resultados das análises estatísticas demonstraram que este instrumento possui alta consistência interna e confiabilidade, o que se reflete no alfa de Cronbach geral de 0,875 e validade adequada, uma vez que os itens apresentam taxas de extração adequadas e os quatro fatores nos quais foram agrupados explicam 47,140% da variância total.


Assuntos
Humanos , Polícia , População , Atitude
7.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0249672, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33886596

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Limited data is available regarding the frequency of COVID-19 in populations that are highly exposed to SARS-CoV-2. In this cross-section study we evaluated COVID-19 seroprevalence in military police forces of 10 major cities in Rio Grande do Sul, South of Brazil. METHODS: Sampling was randomly performed in clusters, in respect to the number of professionals at service per city and military unit. Research subjects were evaluated on July 23, 2020 (first wave peak in Brazil). Clinical information was obtained, and venous blood was taken for ELISA testing (IgA, and IgG antibodies). Sample size consisted of 1,592 military workers (33.6% of study population). They were mostly man (81.2%) and young (median 34 years-old). Most had been asymptomatic (75.3%) during pandemic, and 27.5% reported close contact with COVID-19 cases (after a median time of 21 days). Antibodies were detected in 3.3% of the participants, mostly IgA (2.7%), and IgG (1.7%). After 3 weeks, 66.7% of IgA and IgG results turned negative, in addition to 78.3% and 100% of borderline IgA and IgG results, respectively. CONCLUSION: The seroprevalence of COVID-19 amongst military police was at least 3.4 higher than the findings of other studies performed in the general population, in the same cities and dates. Most detectable antibodies were of IgA class, which implies recent exposure. Asymptomatic people were more prone to have negative antibody titters in the second run.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Militares , Pandemias , Polícia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
8.
Crim Behav Ment Health ; 31(2): 80-95, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33818834

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Internationally, there is evidence of high rates of mental disorders amongst police custody detainees but this literature is limited, and there has been little research into the unmet needs of police detainees in the UK, or elsewhere. Such research could support better focussed interventions for improving health and recidivism outcomes. AIM: To examine psychiatric and developmental morbidity amongst police detainees, and ascertain differences in need between morbidity categories. METHOD: We used a cross-sectional study design and interviewed a 40% sample of people entering police custody in one South London police station over a 2-week period. A series of standardised measures was administered to screen for the presence of mental illness, general health and social care needs. RESULTS: A cohort of 134 people was generated, of whom nearly one-third (39, 29%) had current mental illness (major depression and/or psychosis); more had a lifetime diagnosis (54, 40%). Just under a fifth met the threshold for post-traumatic stress disorder (11, 8%). Clinically relevant alcohol or daily cannabis use affected about one quarter of the sample. Twenty-one percent (or 28) screened positive for personality disorder, 11% (or 15) for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and 4% (6) for intellectual disability. Nearly one-fifth (24, 18%) were at risk for suicide. Those with psychosis, and those deemed at risk for suicide, had the highest levels of unmet need and, indeed, overall need. The most frequent unmet need was for accommodation. CONCLUSION: Our findings not only confirm high rates of mental health problems amongst police detainees but also demonstrate their high risk of suicide and high levels of unmet need, especially as regards accommodation. This underscores the need to provide mental health services in police stations, to help identify and resolve these issues at this early stage in the criminal justice system. Extending accommodation capacity to help some arrestees may help to save lives and interrupt cycling through the criminal justice system.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Prisioneiros , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Londres/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Polícia , Prevalência
9.
J Strength Cond Res ; 35(5): 1287-1295, 2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33900262

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Lockie, RG, Carlock, BN, Ruvalcaba, TJ, Dulla, JM, Orr, RM, Dawes, JJ, and McGuire, MB. Skeletal muscle mass and fat mass relationships with physical fitness test performance in law enforcement recruits before academy. J Strength Cond Res 35(5): 1287-1295, 2021-The purpose of this study was to analyze relationships between skeletal muscle mass percentage (SMM%) and fat mass percentage (FM%) relative to fitness test performance in law enforcement recruits. Retrospective analysis was conducted on 338 recruits (271 men and 67 women) from 4 academy classes. Skeletal muscle mass percentage and FM% were measured using cost-effective and practical bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) equipment that used hand and foot placement. The fitness tests included grip strength; vertical jump; 75-yard pursuit run; 2-kg medicine ball throw (MBT); push-ups and sit-ups completed in 60 seconds; and the 20-m multistage fitness test. Partial correlations controlling for sex-derived relationships between SMM%, FM%, and the tests. Recruits were split into quartile groups for SMM% and FM% (group 1 had the lowest SMM% or highest FM% and group 4 the highest SMM% or lowest FM%). A 1-way multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA), with sex as a covariate and Bonferroni post-hoc, compared between-group results. Skeletal muscle mass percentage correlated with all fitness tests expect for MBT; FM% with all but grip strength and MBT (r = ±0.107-0.293). Greater SMM% or lesser FM% tended to relate to better fitness test performance. The MANOVA data indicated groups 3 and 4 (better SMM% or FM% profiles) exhibited superior fitness than group 1 (poorest SMM% or FM% profile) (p ≤ 0.048). Recruits should ideally increase SMM% and decrease FM% before academy to optimize fitness training and testing performance, although specific guidelines should be agency specific. Staff could use BIA to monitor body composition during academy to indicate how recruits are tolerating training.


Assuntos
Aplicação da Lei , Aptidão Física , Teste de Esforço , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético , Polícia , Estudos Retrospectivos
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33807636

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Significant exposure to critical incidents characteristic of military police work has a potentially traumatic effect and multiple consequences for the mental health of these professionals, such as Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). This study aims to investigate the occurrence of PTSD in this occupational group and its correlations with socio-demographic and occupational variables. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study of Rio de Janeiro's Military Police officers (n = 3.577). Data was collected from self-reported questionnaires applied in an institutional health program. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Civilian version was used to assess PTSD. RESULTS: Rates of 16.9% for full PTSD and 26.7% for partial PTSD were found. Based on logistic regression analysis, female officers and police officers in lower ranks of the military hierarchy and performing administrative duties were found to be at most risk of developing PTSD. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest the need to further understand the predictive organizational and individual variables of PTSD correlated with the increased vulnerability of professionals in order to contribute to institutional policies for the prevention and rehabilitation of these cases.


Assuntos
Militares , Doenças Profissionais , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Polícia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33807797

RESUMO

The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime-World Health Organization International Standards on Drug Use Prevention-reflects the value of safe, nurturing and supportive social institutions around the lives of youths to benefit from the prevention of risky behavior extending beyond individually-developed resilience for healthy adolescent development. Schools are valuable social institutions to this effect and school safety and adolescent health outcomes can be threatened by drug use and violence. As such, collaborative, multi-level, evidence-based, developmentally sensitive, substance use prevention programs are imperative. The International Standards, in their latest version, did not reflect specific evidence of law enforcement officer-based programs with effect on drug use prevention, including in school settings. Nevertheless, the collaboration between law enforcement agencies and school-based substance use prevention programs continue to be the focus of research and policy. In this project, we aim to explore in more detail the role of law enforcement in preventing substance use in schools. We use mixed methods, including three phases: (i) scoping review on the best practices for effective law enforcement in school-based drug and crime prevention; (ii) interviews with experts, using the Delphi method, in substance use prevention and training law enforcement in school-based drug prevention; and iii) developing guidelines for law enforcement based on the findings. Initially, we identified a total of 17 papers that were categorized in four categories based on their results (negative or null effect n = 11 studies, positive effect n = 1 study, mixed effects n = 4 studies and indefinite conclusion n = 1 study). However, the authors of the studies with negative or null effect did recommend being cautious about these results due to the respective studies' methodological limitations. The actual and perceived roles of police are largely unclear and/or variable. Therefore, clear outlines regarding law enforcement's role within schools are crucial as one study showed that an officer's role influences how they respond to student conduct. A secondary emergent theme from this review indicates that there is potential for positively impacting a youth's perceptions of police through collaborative and engaging school-based programs. Currently the project is gradually moving to Phase II, where we are identifying the key experts based on scientifically published peer reviewed and grey literature/guidelines to investigate elements that make the role of law enforcement officers in school-based prevention more effective. Given the frequency with which policy makers around the world request information about the role of law enforcement in effective prevention efforts, guidelines on their roles within schools is a gap that needs to be filled. Such efforts would improve drug prevention in schools and better orient law enforcement's role in drug prevention within educational settings.


Assuntos
Preparações Farmacêuticas , Polícia , Adolescente , Crime , Humanos , Aplicação da Lei , Literatura de Revisão como Assunto , Instituições Acadêmicas
13.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 952021 Apr 21.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33881013

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Civil Guards are deployed throughout Spain and susceptible to being the first responders in out-of-hospital cardiorespiratory arrest. However, their level of training to perform Basic Life Support (BLS) is unknown. The aim of this work was to evaluate the level of knowledge on BLS of Civil Guards, and to explore the association between periodicity of training and knowledge. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 839 Civil Guards in Asturias (Spain). A questionnaire with 14 multiple-choice questions assessed knowledge on cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and use of automatic defibrillator, which were transferred to 0-10 points scales (higher score indicted higher knowledge). Multiple linear regressions were used to estimate mean knowledge scores according to training on BLS (never, >2 years ago and ≤2 years ago), adjusted by sociodemographic and occupational variables. RESULTS: Around 1 out of 10 Civil Guards performed some real CPR (11.2%). Regarding training, 42.5% had never participated in courses and 33.4% were trained >2 years ago. There was a discordance between willingness to perform BLS (65.6%) and self-perception of preparation (21.8%). A dose-response association was detected between training periodicity and knowledge: 4.26 points (95% CI: 4.07-4.45) of those never formed, 5.93 (95% CI: 5.71-6, 15) of those trained >2 years ago, 7.18 (95% CI: 6.92-7.44) of those trained ≤2 years ago (p-trend <0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The level of training and knowledge on BLS of the Civil Guards is low. Receiving training every two years is significantly associated with greater knowledge.


Assuntos
Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/educação , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Cuidados para Prolongar a Vida , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/terapia , Polícia/educação , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polícia/estatística & dados numéricos , Espanha , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
14.
Soc Work Public Health ; 36(4): 486-495, 2021 05 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33896405

RESUMO

The present study aimed to determine the effect of burnout and stress levels on law enforcement officers' perceptions and behaviors to emphasize the need for adequate attention and care in these individuals during the COVID-19 outbreak. The research group of this cross-sectional study conducted in July-August 2020 was formed by the law enforcement officers. The Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), Burnout Measure-Short Version (BM-SV) and a personal data form prepared by the researchers were used in the study. Data were analyzed using the IBM SPSS Statistics 16.0 software package program. The PSS scores were higher and significant in the group whose working hours were not increased due to the COVID-19 pandemic and they thought that there was a decrease in crime rates and did not need psychological support (p ≤ .05). The PSS scores were higher and significant in the group who took the warnings about COVID-19 into consideration, were afraid of contracting the virus, did not care about the progress of the epidemic and used the mask correctly. Additionally, the BM-SV scores were higher and significant in the group who stated that they were not afraid of contracting the virus (p ≤.05). A comprehensive crisis prevention and intervention system including epidemiological monitoring/observing, screening, referral and targeted interventions should be established to reduce the perceived level of stress and burnout in law enforcement and prevent further mental health problems.


Assuntos
Esgotamento Profissional/psicologia , Polícia/psicologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Turquia/epidemiologia
15.
Enferm Clin ; 31 Suppl 2: S230-S233, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33849169

RESUMO

Traffic police officers are a group of workers prone to develop Acute Respiratory Tract Infection (ARTI) due to their risky working environment and non-compliance Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) application. This research aims to explore the relationship among the working environment, PPE application, and the occurrence of ARTI on traffic police officers. This study used a cross-sectional design involving 71 participants. Data were collected by questionnaire as a research instrument. The chi-squared analysis shows that there was a relationship between the working environment and the occurrence of ARTI (p=0.024), and there is a significant relationship between using PPE and the occurrence of ARTI (p=0.001). This research is expected to be the base of health promotion programs in workers so nurses can coordinate with the related institution having a health education program related to their health problems that may occur due to their working environment and behavior.


Assuntos
Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Polícia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Local de Trabalho
16.
J Urban Health ; 98(2): 172-182, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33821426

RESUMO

Interactions with the police may result in police brutality, particularly for people of color. Black men who have sex with men (BMSM) face disproportionate risk of police contact and may experience elevated violence risk. We measured longitudinal associations between discriminatory police harassment (DPH) and subsequent risk of a range of interpersonal violence experiences, including intimate partner violence (IPV). In this study, we estimated associations between DPH motivated by racism, homophobia, or both, and subsequent violent experiences (being physically harassed, hit, threatened with weapons, and intimate partner violence) among BMSM. Bivariate and multivariable regression analyses were used to control for demographic and behavioral factors. Among 1160 BMSM included at 12-month follow-up, experiencing DPH motivated by racism and homophobia was associated with over four times the odds of being threatened with violence (AOR 4.85, 95% CI 3.20, 7.33), four times the odds of or experiencing violence defined as being punched, kicked, or beaten, or having an object thrown at them (AOR 4.51, 95% CI 2.82, 7.19), and nearly three times the odds of physical partner abuse (AOR 3.49, 95% CI 1.69, 7.19). Findings suggest that for BMSM, DPH is associated with the threat and experience of violence, with a dose-response relationship between DPH motivated by one or more causes. Given that BMSM are a population particularly vulnerable to both police harassment related to race and sexual orientation and violence coupled with stigma, additional research evaluating mechanisms linking these associations is needed in order to develop additional supportive interventions.


Assuntos
Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Afro-Americanos , Cidades , Feminino , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Polícia , Violência
17.
Soc Sci Med ; 277: 113878, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33836435

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Despite the growing body of research on the effort-reward imbalance (ERI) model, evidence is scarce for the generalizability of the model across various national and occupational contexts. Also, studies that examine a wider variety of health and well-being outcomes of ERI are warranted, especially in vocations in which effort and stress is known to be high and reward is usually limited - such as policing. OBJECTIVE: The current study examined the relationship between the ERI perception and four employee well-being outcomes (self-reported physical health, sickness absence, job satisfaction, and work-life effectiveness) among a sample of police officers in Singapore. METHODS: Cross-sectional survey data collected from a large representative sample of uniformed police officers from Singapore were used (N = 8729). Missing data were handled with the multiple imputation method and logistic regression analyses were used to test hypotheses. RESULTS: In line with the theory, employees characterized by high intrinsic effort and low reward (ERI > 1) reported significantly elevated odds ratios of poor physical health (OR = 1.25), job dissatisfaction (OR = 1.53), and work-life ineffectiveness (OR = 1.31). Contrary to expectations, an unusual relationship was observed such that police officers who were overcommitted exhibited lower odds ratios of the suboptimal outcomes. Interestingly, police officers in the low effort-low reward condition exhibited the worst outcomes, whereas officers in the high effort-high reward condition reported optimal outcomes. Findings were generally consistent across genders and age groups. CONCLUSIONS: This research bolsters the core proposition of the ERI model and emphasizes the importance of social and occupational contexts in the study of ERI.


Assuntos
Polícia , Estresse Psicológico , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Satisfação no Emprego , Masculino , Recompensa , Singapura , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(5)2021 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33807527

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We aimed to investigate the influence of wearing a ballistic vest on physical performance in police officers. METHODS: We performed a cross-over study to investigate the influence of wearing a ballistic vest on reaction and response time, lumbar muscle endurance and police vehicle entry and exit times. Reaction and response time was based on a perturbation setup where the officers' pelvises were fixed and EMG of lumbar and abdominal muscles was recorded. We used a modified Biering-Sørensen test to assess the lumbar muscle endurance and measured duration of entry and exit maneuvers in a variety of standard-issue police cars. RESULTS: There was a significant difference of 24% in the lumbar muscle endurance test (no vest: 151 s vs. vest: 117 s), and the police officers experienced higher physical fatigue after the test when wearing a vest. Furthermore, officers took longer to both enter and exit police cars when wearing a vest (range: 0.24-0.56 s) depending on the model of the vehicle. There were no significant differences in reaction and response times between the test conditions (with/without vest). DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Wearing of a ballistic vest significantly influenced the speed of movement in entry and exit of police cars and lumbar muscle endurance, although it does not seem to affect reaction or response times. The ballistic vest seems to impair performance of tasks that require maximal effort, which calls for better designs of such vests.


Assuntos
Veículos Automotores , Polícia , Estudos Cross-Over , Dinamarca , Humanos , Desempenho Físico Funcional
20.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 15(2): 247-253, 2021 03 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33690208

RESUMO

The personnel involved in the management of COVID-19 affected dead bodies, including law enforcement personnel at the scene of crime, personnel involved in transportation of the dead bodies, forensic practitioners, autopsy pathologists, mortuary personnel, as well as the family members of the dead, etc. are at risk of exposure to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Post-mortem examination is a high-risk procedure, considering that it involves aerosol generating procedures, and exposure to body fluids. The safety of the forensic practitioners and support staff in the management of suspected or confirmed COVID-19 deaths hence, is of extreme importance, especially in the absence of pre-autopsy testing for COVID-19 and due to non-availability of adequate first-hand medical history of the deceased. This communication aims to highlight the current practices and advises certain guidelines in ensuring occupational health and safety in view of these risks in medico-legal death investigations.


Assuntos
Autopsia , Exposição Ocupacional/prevenção & controle , /prevenção & controle , Vítimas de Crime , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Práticas Mortuárias/métodos , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Polícia , Local de Trabalho
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