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1.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(10): 637, 2020 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32920681

RESUMO

The process of urbanization promotes the development of economy and society, and also brings great pressure to the environment. In order to better understand the harmonious and interactive relationship between environment and urbanization, by selecting 13 cities in Hunan province of China as cases, this paper establishes a correlation model and a comprehensive evaluation system, uses entropy weight method to weight the index, the coupling coordination model to analyze the coupling coordination relationships empirically, and gray prediction model to predict the trend and make corresponding decision recommendations. The results show with novelty that the overall performances of environment and urbanization for the 13 cities in Hunan province have similarities, the coupling coordination degrees are mild with slight fluctuations, and the next years will keep the similar trends. However, the coupling coordination development is unbalanced with the coupling degree of the east higher than that of the west; therefore, corresponding measures for better environmental governance and urban planning need to be taken in different cities.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Urbanização , China , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental , Política Ambiental
2.
J Environ Manage ; 275: 111225, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32889416

RESUMO

Many studies demonstrate that the booming number of environmental non-governmental organizations (ENGOs) in China have substantially affected on the environmental issues. However, little research has paid attention to discern the different types of ENGOs' activities. Thus, this study aims to provide the first set of quantitative data analysis to demonstrate the effects of different types of ENGOs' effects on the governance from two major perspectives, namely, top-down and grassroots. Both perspectives offer different assumptions of whether the effects of key ENGOs on promoting urban environmental governance are national or local. This paper collects unique data from the websites of several NGO list-collecting organizations, the urban statistical yearbooks published by the Chinese government, and the pollution information transparency index released by ENGOs annually, to accurately identify the characteristics and activities of ENGOs. By using the Ordinary Least Squares regression model in which the city fixed effects are included, this study analyzes the influences of ENGOs on the levels of environmental information disclosure among over 100 prefecture-level cities from 2008 to 2015. The results primarily support the grassroots perspective. Cities with more local ENGOs have better performance in terms of environmental information disclosure. In addition, although local ENGOs allying with national NGOs have certain influences in 2014-2015, they downgrade the effects of other local ENGOs. Taken together, the findings illustrate that, while national ENGOs have received great deal of attention, possessed more resources to align local ENGOs, and had extensive opportunities to connect with international ENGOs, local ENGOs within local contexts and activities play crucial roles in the local environmental governance. Furthermore, the results also imply that although the Chinese government has reinforced control over the civil society after 2012, local ENGOs still strengthen their influences on the environmental governance.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Política Ambiental , China , Cidades , Revelação
3.
J Environ Manage ; 273: 111117, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32763745

RESUMO

Climate Change related concerns affect multiple international and national policy forefronts. Globally, conflicts over renewables industry between the developed and emerging economies have affected the provision of green goods-thus slowing the overall welfare of global environmental governance. This article argues that the above phenomenon is a new form of green dilemma which arises from the long-lasting issue of balancing environmental protection and economic gains. It further tracks the historical evolutionary change of green dilemma, from version 1.0 to 2.0 to the current avatar of Green Dilemma 3.0. By developing the Green Dilemma Framework, the article aims to uncover the logic underlying the industrial policies and trade conflicts between the developed and emerging economies in their energy transitions. Utilizing the US vs China and US vs India conflicts in the solar PV industries as the two group of cases, the key feature of Green Dilemma 3.0 is illustrated as the conflict over status and control of the global division of labor in the new energy industry. This article offers a novel perspective on global inequality by deconstructing the unequal global production system that can act to restrict the optimization of energy use and production in tackling climate change and thus successively hindering global environmental governance in its realization of optimal results. Underneath global climate change governance, there is an unequal global production network and political system, and both these follow a core, semi-periphery, and periphery distribution of power structure. We argue that the inequality of global production system suppresses the effects of subsidy competition and erodes the economic foundation of global climate governance.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Política Ambiental , China , Índia , Energia Renovável , Fatores Socioeconômicos
4.
J Environ Manage ; 274: 111209, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32798847

RESUMO

Since the parties to Paris agreement ink ambitious emissions reduction targets, there is a growing debate - whether the existing environmental regulations have potential to spur enough technological base that could help to achieve the targets by 2030? Thus, this study attempts to empirically investigate the role of stringent environmental regulations towards environmentally friendly technological innovation, carbon emissions, GDP, exports and imports for 20 OECD countries. The results find long-run equilibrium relationship among the variables and suggest that the current environmental regulations encourage green innovation in the panel countries. Furthermore, stringent environmental policies couple with environmentally friendly innovation are impetus to sustainable development. Exports and imports have little to contribute green innovation but, exports reduce carbon emissions in the short-run only and imports are emissions intensive. The study suggests that the OECD countries need to revisit trade related environmental regulations.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Econômico , Política Ambiental , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Organização para a Cooperação e Desenvolvimento Econômico , Paris
5.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 159: 111438, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32692668

RESUMO

The Indian Ocean hosts a wide range of living resources including fish stocks. Marine resources contribute significantly to economies and livelihoods, and seafood is a major source of protein in Indian Ocean nations. Fisheries resources in the Indian Ocean have started showing symptoms of depletion. Several regional fisheries management organisations (RFMOs) have been established for sustainable management of the fisheries resources in the Indian Ocean region. These RFMOs were created at different times with various particular mandates, and in some cases prior to the emergence of contemporary scientific concepts and legal approaches to marine environmental governance. In this article, eight such RFMOs are studied to determine the implementation of ecosystem-based fisheries management (EBFM) and the precautionary approach (PA), which are now widely accepted norms of fisheries management and international law. This article argues that there is a mismatch between the legal and governance frameworks, and the fisheries science and management.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Pesqueiros , Animais , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Política Ambiental , Peixes , Oceano Índico
6.
J Environ Manage ; 270: 110890, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32721328

RESUMO

How do different multi-level governance models influence the adaptive capacity of environmental management? This paper examines the connection between different types of governance models, distinguished by diverse institutional features, and elements of adaptive capacity. The task is undertaken through a comparative study of two differently organized management systems within the same national context: Swedish water and large carnivore management. The systems' governance models are defined through an institutional analysis of polycentric features, logics of design and knowledge arrangements. Assessments of adaptive capacity are based on survey data describing the involved actors' perceptions of the knowledge base, use of an experimental approach and the presence of learning. The empirical results suggest that institutional features influence some, but not all, elements of adaptive capacity. The results lend support to the idea that polycentric governance models, based on an ecological rationale, sustain participation in knowledge mobilization, support the use of an experimental approach and promote learning to a larger extent than more centralized and hierarchical governance models do; while there is no connection between governance model and the perceived reliability of knowledge base. The study contributes to environmental governance research, policy and practice by evaluating the adaptive capacity of current water and wildlife management systems in Sweden and by increasing our knowledge about how different governance models influence the adaptive capacity in environmental management.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Água , Política Ambiental , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Suécia
7.
Nature ; 583(7815): 242-248, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32641817

RESUMO

Enhanced silicate rock weathering (ERW), deployable with croplands, has potential use for atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) removal (CDR), which is now necessary to mitigate anthropogenic climate change1. ERW also has possible co-benefits for improved food and soil security, and reduced ocean acidification2-4. Here we use an integrated performance modelling approach to make an initial techno-economic assessment for 2050, quantifying how CDR potential and costs vary among nations in relation to business-as-usual energy policies and policies consistent with limiting future warming to 2 degrees Celsius5. China, India, the USA and Brazil have great potential to help achieve average global CDR goals of 0.5 to 2 gigatonnes of carbon dioxide (CO2) per year with extraction costs of approximately US$80-180 per tonne of CO2. These goals and costs are robust, regardless of future energy policies. Deployment within existing croplands offers opportunities to align agriculture and climate policy. However, success will depend upon overcoming political and social inertia to develop regulatory and incentive frameworks. We discuss the challenges and opportunities of ERW deployment, including the potential for excess industrial silicate materials (basalt mine overburden, concrete, and iron and steel slag) to obviate the need for new mining, as well as uncertainties in soil weathering rates and land-ocean transfer of weathered products.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Dióxido de Carbono/isolamento & purificação , Produtos Agrícolas , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Aquecimento Global/prevenção & controle , Objetivos , Silicatos/química , Atmosfera/química , Brasil , China , Política Ambiental/economia , Política Ambiental/legislação & jurisprudência , Aquecimento Global/economia , Índia , Ferro/isolamento & purificação , Mineração , Política , Probabilidade , Silicatos/isolamento & purificação , Aço/isolamento & purificação , Temperatura , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 744: 140780, 2020 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32693276

RESUMO

Molecular-based approaches can provide timely biodiversity assessments, showing an immense potential to facilitate decision-making in marine environmental management. However, the uptake of molecular data into environmental policy remains minimal. Here, we showcase a selection of local to global scale studies applying molecular-based methodologies for environmental management at various stages of implementation. Drawing upon lessons learned from these case-studies, we provide a roadmap to facilitate applications of DNA-based methods to marine policies and to overcome the existing challenges. The main impediment identified is the need for standardized protocols to guarantee data comparison across spatial and temporal scales. Adoption of Translational Molecular Ecology - the sustained collaboration between molecular ecologists and stakeholders, will enhance consensus with regards to the objectives, methods, and outcomes of environmental management projects. Establishing a sustained dialogue among stakeholders is key to accelerating the adoption of molecular-based approaches for marine monitoring and assessment.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Ecologia , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , DNA , Política Ambiental
10.
Nature ; 583(7814): 72-77, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32612223

RESUMO

Forests provide a series of ecosystem services that are crucial to our society. In the European Union (EU), forests account for approximately 38% of the total land surface1. These forests are important carbon sinks, and their conservation efforts are vital for the EU's vision of achieving climate neutrality by 20502. However, the increasing demand for forest services and products, driven by the bioeconomy, poses challenges for sustainable forest management. Here we use fine-scale satellite data to observe an increase in the harvested forest area (49 per cent) and an increase in biomass loss (69 per cent) over Europe for the period of 2016-2018 relative to 2011-2015, with large losses occurring on the Iberian Peninsula and in the Nordic and Baltic countries. Satellite imagery further reveals that the average patch size of harvested area increased by 34 per cent across Europe, with potential effects on biodiversity, soil erosion and water regulation. The increase in the rate of forest harvest is the result of the recent expansion of wood markets, as suggested by econometric indicators on forestry, wood-based bioenergy and international trade. If such a high rate of forest harvest continues, the post-2020 EU vision of forest-based climate mitigation may be hampered, and the additional carbon losses from forests would require extra emission reductions in other sectors in order to reach climate neutrality by 20503.


Assuntos
Agricultura Florestal/estatística & dados numéricos , Agricultura Florestal/tendências , Florestas , Biodiversidade , Biomassa , Sequestro de Carbono , Monitoramento Ambiental , Política Ambiental/economia , Política Ambiental/legislação & jurisprudência , Europa (Continente) , União Europeia/economia , Agricultura Florestal/economia , Agricultura Florestal/legislação & jurisprudência , Aquecimento Global/prevenção & controle , História do Século XXI , Imagens de Satélites , Madeira/economia
11.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(32): 40552-40562, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32666448

RESUMO

Recently, there has been renewed interest in the relationship between economic globalization and environmental pollution since various globalization indices are developed. Although several attempts have been made to investigate the impact of globalization on the environment, no known empirical research has focused on exploring the causal relationship between ecological footprint and economic globalization index (provided by KOF Swiss Economic Institute) considering also its subcomponents-trade and financial globalization indices. In this study, a new panel data technique for the causality analysis is developed (namely, panel Fourier Toda-Yamamoto approach) and applied to ecological footprint-economic globalization nexus in 14 MENA (Middle East and North Africa) countries during the period 1981-2016. The empirical results highlight that ecological footprint Granger causes economic, trade, and financial globalization for the panel. Besides, it is found that financial globalization has a predictive power to predict further values of environmental degradation in the MENA countries. The empirical results of this paper have a number of practical implications for policymakers. Especially, policymakers should be careful about implementing environmental policies since they may affect economic (trade and financial) activities negatively.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Econômico , Internacionalidade , África do Norte , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Política Ambiental , Oriente Médio
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32599737

RESUMO

The implementation of effective waste separation policy is an important pathway to guide the public to actively participate in the waste separation action. This study focused on exploring the Chinese public's response to the rigid and flexible waste separation policies from the perspectives of understanding, willingness to support, and willingness to implement. We used a big data mining technique to obtain 10,057 entries of the Chinese public's response to the mandatory waste separation policy. The results showed that "public's understanding-support willingness-implement willingness" regarding mandatory waste separation policy was characterized by a U-shaped response. Specifically, the public's understanding and willingness to implement the rigid waste separation policy were relatively high in the short term, but their willingness to support this policy was relatively low and became increasingly low over time. Particularly, "troublesome" implementation was deemed to the main reason for the public's low willingness to support the rigid waste separation policy. In addition, we further obtained the sample data of the Chinese public regarding the flexible waste separation policy through the situational survey. Contrary to the response characteristics of mandatory waste separation policy, the results showed that "public's understanding-support willingness-implement willingness" regarding flexible waste separation policy was characterized by an inverted U-shaped response, and the Chinese public showed more positive sentiment regarding the willingness to support and implement. The results have important implications for guiding the public to actively participate in the waste separation action.


Assuntos
Opinião Pública , Reciclagem , Eliminação de Resíduos , China , Política Ambiental , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(31): 39375-39390, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32648222

RESUMO

Increasingly severe environmental issues, especially those in developing countries such as China, drive the evolution of the environmental protection institution (EPI) to its strictest levels. However, the implementation of the strictest EPI still confronts various challenges and barriers, and the multi-stakeholder features of EPI determine these barriers are not independent of one another but rather present complex interactive relationships. This paper identifies the barriers to implementing China's EPI from four aspects of environmental legal, economic, regulatory, and public participation institutions. A variable precision rough DEMATEL approach is proposed to visualize the causal relationships and intensities among barriers from the similarities and differences in perspectives of stakeholders from the government, company, and public levels. The obtained causal interactive mechanism among barriers highlights the need to prioritize the improvement of environmental policy assessment, and the concrete measures in policies or plans should be integrated into legislation to ensure they are mutually supportive early. The non-substantive contributions achieved by China's public participation in environmental protection reveal prejudices that the public is often regarded as a supporter or spectator by both government and company groups, which makes the transparent environmental information disclosure, transfer and feedback into an effective mediation among stakeholders. Comprehensive coordination and feedback mechanisms including source prevention, process control, and severe punishment for consequences while enhancing linkages among stakeholders are put forward to overcome barriers and help implement the strictest EPI.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Política Ambiental , China , Participação da Comunidade , Governo , Humanos
14.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(31): 39560-39571, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32651779

RESUMO

This paper has empirically explored the impact of macroeconomic and financial development on CO2 emissions by utilizing a novel dynamic simulated ARDL model for annual time series data from 1982 to 2018 for Pakistan. The results of a novel dynamic simulated ARDL disclosed that the growth of stock market, FDI, economic growth, and consumption of oil wield a positive impact on CO2 emission, while domestic credit exerts a negative effect on CO2 emission both in the short and the long run in Pakistan. The stock market development and domestic credit wield a significant influence on carbon dioxide emission in Pakistan both in the long and the short run. FDI exerts significant impact only in the long run, while economic growth and consumption of oil wield significant impact only in the short run on CO2 emission in Pakistan. This study opens up new visions for the economy of Pakistan to sustain financial and economic growth by protecting environment from pollution through its efficient national environmental policy, fiscal policy, and monetary policy.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Política Ambiental , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Paquistão
15.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233888, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32603333

RESUMO

Urban development relies on many factors to remain viable, including infrastructure, services, and government provisions and subsidies. However, in situations involving federal or state level policy, development responds not just to one regulatory signal, but also to multiple signals from overlapping and competing jurisdictions. The 1982 U.S. Coastal Barrier Resources Act (CoBRA) offers an opportunity to study when and how development restrictions and economic disincentives protect natural resources by stopping or slowing urban development in management regimes with distributed authority and responsibility. CoBRA prohibits federal financial assistance for infrastructure, post-storm disaster relief, and flood insurance in designated sections (CoBRA units) of coastal barriers. How has CoBRA's removal of these subsidies affected rates and types of urban development? Using building footprint and real estate data (n = 1,385,552 parcels), we compare density of built structures, land use types, residential house size, and land values within and outside of CoBRA units in eight Southeast and Gulf Coast states. We show that CoBRA is associated with reduced development rates in designated coastal barriers. We also demonstrate how local responses may counteract withdrawal of federal subsidies. As attention increases towards improving urban resilience in high hazard areas, this work contributes to understanding how limitations on infrastructure and insurance subsidies can affect outcomes where overlapping jurisdictions have competing goals.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Política Ambiental , Financiamento Governamental , Reforma Urbana/economia , Desastres , Inundações , Humanos , Seguro , Sudeste dos Estados Unidos
17.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(26): 32742-32753, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32519095

RESUMO

The current study examines the importance of asymmetric modelling of tourism-CO2 emissions relationship by incorporating real income per capita and the newly developed globalization index in a multivariate time series model between 1970 and 2014 for Turkey. We used a non-linear autoregressive distributed lag model in analyzing the asymmetric cointegration association between the selected variables. Using Hatemi-J (2012) asymmetric causality testing method, we examined the asymmetric causal relationship among the variables. The empirical outcomes provide evidence for the existence of asymmetric long-run cointegration nexus among the variables. Asymmetric causality results show that both the positive and negative shock of tourism influence the CO2 emissions in the long-term, while in the short-term, only the negative shock of tourism contributes to CO2 emissions. Also discussed are the policy implications with regard to Turkey's environmental and economic policies.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Política Ambiental , Internacionalidade , Turquia
18.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(26): 32809-32819, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32519105

RESUMO

This paper investigates the asymmetric impact of energy consumption and carbon dioxide (CO2) intensity on the environmental quality in Russia. The ecological footprint (a proxy for environmental quality) was used as a dependent variable, while independent variables include energy consumption, CO2 intensity, and gross fixed capital formation as a proxy of capital for time series data spanning from 1992 to 2016. To examine the asymmetric cointegration between the selected variables, the nonlinear autoregressive distributed lag (NARDL) method was used. The structural break unit root and BDS tests were used to check data stationarity and nonlinearity, respectively. Besides, the asymmetric causality test in Gauss software was employed to check the causal relationship among the variables. Among the considered variables, the asymmetric cointegration was found. A significant unidirectional symmetric causality was found running from energy consumption to ecological footprint (Wald test = 3.956*) and from ecological footprint to capital (Wald test = 10.115**), while asymmetrically, ecological footprint granger cause energy consumption (Wald test = 6.054**) and capital (Wald test = 6.739**) respectively. On the contrary, a neutral effect was found between environmental quality and CO2 intensity. From these findings, environmental policies are also discussed. Specifically, policymakers should support modern, controlled emission technologies, including nuclear and renewable energy sources and green portfolio investment. Graphical abstract.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Econômico , Energia Renovável , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Política Ambiental , Federação Russa
19.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(29): 36147-36159, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32556975

RESUMO

To promote county economic prosperity and social development, China enacted a fiscal reform known as "province governing county" (PGC) in the early 2000s. Using the difference-in-differences (DID) method and a massive sample of enterprises from 2003 to 2011, this study investigates the effect of PGC reform on firm environmental performance. The results show that enterprises in reformed counties have significantly decreased their pollution intensity since the fiscal reform. Our research reveals that the environmental effects of fiscal decentralization are related to changes in the political assessment metrics of local officials. It also shows that PGC fiscal reform has a significant positive effect on the environmental performance of large, small, and micro enterprises. Furthermore, it suggests that PGC fiscal reform benefits the environmental performance due to the informational advantages of county governments. In terms of environmental governance, although local governments have an information advantage in the allocation of green fiscal funds, well-designed mechanisms are needed to strengthen their motivation.


Assuntos
Política Ambiental , Política , China , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Governo Local
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32575576

RESUMO

Environmental risks, in particular climate change and environmental pollution, are among the key challenges faced by modern governments nowadays. Environmental risks are associated with specific costs and expenditures necessary to mitigate their negative effects. In this context, the financial system plays a significant role, particularly the public financial system, which allocates and redistributes public resources and has an impact on market participants by imposing environmental taxes. This study assessed the interdependence between environmental degradation and public expenditure, financial sector development, environmental taxes, and related socioeconomic policies. The aim was to diagnose and define the relationship between environmental degradation and sustainable fiscal instruments used in the financial system. The original research approach adopted in the study is the inclusion of variables representing a sustainable approach to assessment of the financial system. Two groups of European Union countries were analyzed for the period 2008-2017, namely, converging economies from Central and Eastern Europe and the largest developed economies of Western Europe. The authors found a strong relationship between greenhouse gas emissions and fiscal instruments, especially expenditure on research and development, and the development of the financial sector. In the case of environmental taxes, their impact differed depending on the country, being predominantly beneficial in countries with higher greenhouse gas emissions but unfavorable in countries with lower emissions levels.


Assuntos
Poluição Ambiental , Gases de Efeito Estufa , Impostos , Política Ambiental , Europa (Continente) , Europa Oriental , União Europeia
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