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2.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(7): 422, 2019 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31177407

RESUMO

Modeling spatial-temporal dynamic of land use change is of great necessity for understanding the status of the past, causes of the change, and prediction of the future. This study aims to objectify three topics which include identifying the past land use changes, modeling the future changes, and subsequently considering their driving forces. The change detection analysis has shown that about 12,081.8 ha of the study area has changed since 1984 to 2014. Moreover, the models of cellular automata (CA) and Markov chain were applied in order to predict the land use changes of 2024 and 2034. The simulated transition matrix showed that about 6780 ha and 10,835 ha would change during the periods of 2014-2024 and 2014-2034, respectively. Furthermore, the results of the logistic regression model showed that the human driving forces of distance to roads, distance to wells, distance to streams, and distance to residential areas have had a negative effect on the process land use changes. Additionally, a questionnaire was used to obtain information considering the management factors of preventing land use changes, the perception of the natural resources' experts and in turn finding some socioeconomic and policy forces on land use changes. The Friedman's test analysis indicates that the factors of the official rules of government, economy, weakness of regulatory systems, and development activities, e.g., infrastructure and industrial projects, were identified as the leading causes of converting natural ecosystems to other land uses, particularly to cropland. Therefore, the decision-makers and managers should be assigned comprehensive planning for the protection, restoration, and development of natural resources, especially in this region.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/tendências , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Política Ambiental/tendências , Modelos Teóricos , Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Cadeias de Markov , Fatores Socioeconômicos
3.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 142: 93-102, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31232353

RESUMO

The coastlines of many Arabian cities are now dominated by structures such as seawalls, breakwaters and jetties as urbanization has expanded rapidly in the region. Coastal development has substantially degraded the mangrove forests, saltmarshes, seagrass meadows, oyster beds and coral reefs that traditionally provided invaluable ecosystem goods and services to coastal trading villages of the Arabian Gulf. Regional awareness of environmental issues is growing, however, and local governments are increasingly promoting more sustainable urban development. The use of ecological engineering approaches, along with improved environmental policies, may mitigate some past impacts, and will potentially create new development projects with greater ecological benefits for more sustainable growth in the future. In this paper, we discuss past coastal development in the Gulf, and offer advice on how ecological engineering could be used to enhance the ecological benefits of coastal infrastructure, particularly by encouraging the colonization of juvenile corals and fishes. Such approaches can encourage more sustainable development of this increasingly urbanized seascape.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Recifes de Corais , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Animais , Antozoários , Cidades , Ecossistema , Política Ambiental , Peixes , Oceano Índico , Campos de Petróleo e Gás , Ostreidae , Urbanização
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 683: 729-736, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31150893

RESUMO

Individual low-carbon behavior plays an important role in reducing carbon emissions and improving the ecological health of the environment. This study explored the factors that influence individuals' low-carbon behavior and the variations between different groups. A questionnaire measuring seven dimensions (including low-carbon awareness, low-carbon knowledge, personal norms, social norms, situational factors, private low-carbon behavior, and public low-carbon behavior) was distributed to the residents of Tianjin, yielding 418 valid responses. The results indicated that low-carbon awareness, low-carbon knowledge, personal norms, social norms, and situational factors had an impact on residents' low-carbon behavior. In particular, the level of public low-carbon behavior was higher than private low-carbon behavior. Second, by exploring the effects of situational factors on residents' low-carbon behaviors, we found that situational factors inhibited both private and public low-carbon behaviors. Third, in different groups based on age, gender, income, education, and other variables there were differences in impact effects. This research has significant potential for guiding residents' low-carbon behavior and improving low-carbon management.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Carbono/análise , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Ecologia , Política Ambiental/tendências , China , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/tendências , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(6): 347, 2019 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31055661

RESUMO

In developing countries, conflict between the objectives of environmental policies and those focused on economic development, a low availability of human resources and infrastructure, and the lack of continuity and incentives, contribute to the inability to successfully implement environmental policies. Moreover, in these countries, population growth in the peri-urban areas has resulted in serious water pressures, poor water management, and severe non-point source pollution. The aim of this paper is to implement a procedure of aquifer pollution risk assessment for identifying priority areas in an urban-rural interface based on multi-criteria decision tools. In this sense, a multi-criteria decision model was designed, in terms of environmental and socio-economic criteria and sub-criteria relevant to water resource management, by using the software Criterium Decision Plus 4.0. This model was applied to the northwestern peri-urban area of Mar del Plata City, Argentina, which is embedded in the second most important fruit-horticultural belt of the country. Here, groundwater is the only source of water supply. The proposed decision model allowed establishing a ranking of priority areas for defining action guidelines in order to minimize the risk of pollution of the aquifer. Aquifer pollution hazard criterion mainly contributes to alternatives classified as very high priority whilst in the case of low and very low priority classes, social vulnerability criterion mostly influences the final results. The first alternatives will require an intervention in a short-term time horizon, and the last ones must be monitored in order to avoid their shift to a worse environmental condition.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões Assistida por Computador , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Água Subterrânea/química , Medição de Risco/métodos , Poluição da Água/análise , Argentina , Cidades , Política Ambiental , Humanos , Recursos Hídricos , Abastecimento de Água
6.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2346, 2019 05 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31138792

RESUMO

Understanding pressure pathways and their cumulative impacts is critical for developing effective environmental policy. For coral reefs, wide spread bleaching resulting from global warming is occurring concurrently with local pressures, such as increases in suspended sediments through coastal development. Here we examine the relative importance of suspended sediment pressure pathways for dredging impacts on corals and evidence for synergistic or antagonistic cumulative effects between suspended sediments and thermal stress. We show that low to moderate reductions in available light associated with dredging may lead to weak antagonistic (less than expected independently) cumulative effects. However, when sediment loads are high any reductions in mortality associated with reduced bleaching are outweighed by increased mortality associated with severe low light periods and high levels of sediment deposition and impacts become synergistic (greater than what would occur independently). The findings suggest efforts to assess global cumulative impacts need to consider how pressures interact to impact ecosystems, and that the cumulative outcome may vary across the range of realised pressure fields.


Assuntos
Antozoários , Sedimentos Geológicos , Aquecimento Global , Estresse Fisiológico , Animais , Recifes de Corais , Ecossistema , Política Ambiental , Temperatura Alta , Luz Solar
7.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2095, 2019 05 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31064982

RESUMO

The health co-benefits of CO2 mitigation can provide a strong incentive for climate policy through reductions in air pollutant emissions that occur when targeting shared sources. However, reducing air pollutant emissions may also have an important co-harm, as the aerosols they form produce net cooling overall. Nevertheless, aerosol impacts have not been fully incorporated into cost-benefit modeling that estimates how much the world should optimally mitigate. Here we find that when both co-benefits and co-harms are taken fully into account, optimal climate policy results in immediate net benefits globally, overturning previous findings from cost-benefit models that omit these effects. The global health benefits from climate policy could reach trillions of dollars annually, but will importantly depend on the air quality policies that nations adopt independently of climate change. Depending on how society values better health, economically optimal levels of mitigation may be consistent with a target of 2 °C or lower.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , Análise Custo-Benefício , Política Ambiental/economia , Saúde Global/economia , Efeito Estufa/economia , Aerossóis , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/economia , Mudança Climática , Política Ambiental/tendências , Saúde Global/tendências , Humanos
8.
Water Sci Technol ; 79(6): 1060-1070, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31070586

RESUMO

Brazil faces a severe lack of wastewater coverage. Even in urban areas, wastewater is directly disposed of in watercourses without any treatment for a large part of the population. Although the federal, state, and local governments have invested in water and wastewater services (WWS), the expected results have not been achieved. To overcome this problem, the present paper provides an opportunity to observe an ex-ante regulatory impact assessment (RIA) as a policy tool in Brazil. The regulatory policy options will be appraised through the multiple criteria decision analysis (MCDA) according to the following objectives: (i) protect the customers with respect to social aspects; (ii) safeguard the economic, operational and infrastructure sustainability; and (iii) protect the environment. The results show that by making decisions based on evidence, policy makers should reduce the households not connected to wastewater services by 75% and for that they should incur BRL 33 million to the year 2023. Hence, the extra revenues to be obtained with these new connections are capable of making a surplus estimated as BRL 42 million for the same period. This study promotes the use of RIA as a rational, robust and transparent decision framework by the regulatory agencies worldwide.


Assuntos
Drenagem Sanitária/métodos , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Águas Residuárias , Brasil , Tomada de Decisões , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Drenagem Sanitária/legislação & jurisprudência , Política Ambiental
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 676: 756-766, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31055207

RESUMO

An overview about the presence of arsenic (As) in groundwaters of Argentina, made by a transdisciplinary group of experts is presented. Aspects on As occurrence, effects of As on human health, regulations regarding the maximum allowable amount of As in drinking water as well as bottled water, and analytical techniques for As determination are presented. The most affected region in Argentina is the Chaco-Pampean plain, covering around 10 million km2, where approximately 88% of 86 groundwater samples collected in 2007 exceeded the World Health Organization (WHO) guideline value. In the Salí river basin, As concentrations ranged from 11.4 to 1660 µg/L, with 100% of the samples above the WHO guideline value. In the Argentine Altiplano (Puna) and Subandean valleys, 61% of 62 samples collected from surface and groundwaters exceeded the WHO limit. Thus, it can be estimated that, at present, the population at risk in Argentina reaches around four million people. Pathologies derived from the chronic consumption of As, the metabolism of As in the human body and the effects of the different As chemical forms, gathered under the name HACRE (hidroarsenicismo crónico regional endémico in Spanish, for chronic regional endemic hydroarsenicism) are described. Regarding the regulations, the 10 µg/L limit recommended by the WHO and the United States Environmental Protection Agency has been incorporated in the Argentine Food Code, but the application is still on hold. In addition, there is disparity regarding the maximal admitted values in several provinces. Considerations about the As concentrations in bottled water are also presented. A survey indicates that there are several Argentine laboratories with the suitable equipment for As determination at 10 µg/L, although 66% of them are concentrated in Buenos Aires City, and in the Santa Fe, Córdoba and Buenos Aires provinces. Conclusions and recommendations of this first part are provided.


Assuntos
Arsênico/análise , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Política Ambiental/legislação & jurisprudência , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluição Química da Água/estatística & dados numéricos , Argentina , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Poluição Química da Água/legislação & jurisprudência , Abastecimento de Água/legislação & jurisprudência , Abastecimento de Água/estatística & dados numéricos
10.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(19): 19305-19319, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31073837

RESUMO

The nexus among real income, energy consumption, financial development, and carbon emission has broadly conferred area in energy and environmental literature. However, there is no study in the literature which investigates the moderating role of financial development between real income, energy consumption, and CO2 emission in Pakistan. This study reveals the role of financial development as a moderator in the conventional environmental Kuznets curve (EKC). To achieve the objectives of this study, two approaches are employed, (i) with main effects and (ii) with interaction variables, using autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) bounds testing approach in the case of Pakistan covering the period 1970 to 2016. Findings of the empirical analysis confirm the EKC hypothesis in the first case (without interaction effect) and our second estimations (with interaction effect) show that financial development significantly moderates the association of real output with CO2 emission (both for the long run and short run). The negative effect of financial development on carbon emission reveals to efficacious energy management with effective environmental performance. More precisely, the results of second estimations reveal that all three interaction variables are statistically significant but the EKC curve is no more. Thus, the current study proposes that the moderating effect of the financial sectors may be the possible reason which has been ignored by prior researchers and they found mix results regarding the existence of EKC in Pakistan. In addition, the Granger causality test confirms the feedback effect between real income and carbon emission and one-way causality from all the three interaction variables and financial development to CO2 emission. Lastly, this study posits some important policy inferences in the perspective of new economic policy formation in Pakistan.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/economia , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Conservação de Recursos Energéticos/economia , Desenvolvimento Econômico/tendências , Política Ambiental/economia , Renda , Paquistão
11.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(19): 19389-19402, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31073834

RESUMO

The study investigates the long-run impact of tourism development on ecological footprint by employing the time-varying coefficient cointegration approach (TVC), in addition to the conventional cointegration techniques in the case of Azerbaijan for the period of 1996-2014. Based on the TVC estimation results, the coefficient of tourism development, which is the income elasticity of environmental degradation, was found to be time invariant. The paper uses energy consumption, trade, urbanization, and institutional quality indicators as control explanatory variables. The estimation results revealed that trade and energy consumption have statistically significant and positive impact on ecological footprint, while the coefficients of the other explanatory variables were found to be insignificant. Both the conventional estimation methods and the TVC concluded that, for the relationship between ecological footprint and tourism development, the EKC hypothesis is not present in Azerbaijan. Policy implications for the resource-rich economies have been discussed.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/economia , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/tendências , Política Ambiental/economia , Atividades de Lazer/economia , Azerbaijão , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Ecologia , Renda , Indústrias , Modelos Teóricos , Urbanização
12.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(20): 20264-20276, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31098905

RESUMO

In this study, the validity of the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis is examined with the newly developed bootstrap autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) approach by incorporating the effects of trade openness for Turkey from 1969 to 2017. The bootstrap ARDL approach results show that there is a long-run relationship between per capita carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, per capita real income, and trade openness in the presence of one structural break. The results of the long-run estimators indicate that the inverted U-shaped EKC hypothesis is valid, and trade openness has an increasing impact on CO2 emissions. However, Turkey has not yet reached the level of income necessary to reduce pollution. The results of the Fourier Toda-Yamamoto Granger causality test also show that unidirectional causality runs through per capita real income and trade openness to per capita CO2 emissions. In addition to these findings, it has been determined that the decrease in growth rate and production experienced during the 2001 financial crisis in Turkey reduced environmental pollution in both the short and long runs. Consequently, these results show that the scale and composition effects outweigh for economic growth and trade openness in Turkey.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Desenvolvimento Econômico/tendências , Política Ambiental/tendências , Poluição Ambiental/economia , Dióxido de Carbono/economia , Recessão Econômica/tendências , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Produto Interno Bruto/tendências , Humanos , Turquia
13.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(20): 20219-20231, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31098911

RESUMO

This paper aims to explore the impact of real interest rates (RIN), income, trade, foreign direct investment (FDI), and energy consumption on Turkey's carbon dioxide emissions (CO2) over the period from 1980 to 2014. This study differs from the existing literature by introducing a new discussion in the determination of environmental degradation, namely real interest rate. Hatemi-J (HJ) cointegration with two structural breaks and the newly developed Bayer-Hanck (BH) combined cointegration tests are used to enhance and support the robustness of the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) bounds test. The Granger causality test within the vector error correction model (VECM) is employed to examine the causality direction among the variables in both the short and long run. The empirical results demonstrate that RIN negatively effects CO2 emissions. This impact is also supported through energy, income, and FDI channels. It is suggested that policy makers should promote the stability of the real interest rates channel to reduce CO2 emissions and encourage the renewable energy investment through the production of electricity using renewable sources.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/economia , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Modelos Teóricos , Energia Renovável/economia , Política Ambiental , Renda , Internacionalidade , Investimentos em Saúde , Turquia
14.
Sci Total Environ ; 682: 514-522, 2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31129539

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Air pollution is an important trigger of cardiovascular disease worldwide, but few studies have determined the cardiovascular disease, health, and economic burdens attributable to ambient carbon monoxide (CO). This study aimed to examine the association between CO and CVD hospitalizations, and quantified the attributable CVD hospitalizations, associated hospital stays and hospitalization costs for CO in Lanzhou, one of the most air-polluted Chinese cities historically. METHODS: Daily data on CVD hospitalizations, air pollutants, and weather records from 2013 to 2017 were obtained for Lanzhou, China. Generalized additive model with a quasi-Poisson link was used to model the association between CO and CVD hospitalizations, after controlling for other air pollutants, weather conditions, day of week, long-term trend, influenza and pneumonia incidence. The effects of CO on hospital stays and hospitalization expenses from CVD were also quantified. RESULTS: CO concentrations below the current Chinese ambient air quality standard had a significant impact on CVD hospitalizations. Each 1 mg/m3 increase in CO concentration on the present day and previous 4 days (lag 0-4) was associated with an 11% (95% confidence interval: 3%-20%) increase in total CVD hospitalizations. During the study period, CO was responsible for 11.74% of total CVD hospitalizations, equating to 62,792 inpatient days and 149 million RMB. Each adult patient on average spent approximately 5% of annual salary on medicine from CO-related CVD treatment during hospitalization. Maintaining the historical CO concentration within 1 to 3 mg/m3 could avert hundreds of total CVD hospitalizations and save millions of RMB annually in Lanzhou, China. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to low-level ambient CO concentration increased the risk of CVD hospitalizations and resulted in substantial health and economic burdens in Lanzhou, China. Our findings can be used for evidence-based practice and policy making to assess the cost-effectiveness of prevention measures.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Monóxido de Carbono/análise , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Política Ambiental , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Hospitalização , Humanos
15.
Chemosphere ; 231: 357-368, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31136903

RESUMO

The country of Lebanon banned organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in 1982 and 1997, respectively, and adopted the Stockholm Convention on persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in 2003. Compliance with the Stockholm Convention began immediately, and research related to POPs in Lebanon had already been completed. A National Implementation Plan for POPs was formulated and updated several times, and includes a national inventory of PCBs that were mainly detected in insulating oils and equipment in power stations. High levels of PCBs have also been detected in sediments from the Port of Tripoli, the second major sea port in Lebanon. High levels of OCPs, which are illegally smuggled into Lebanon and improperly handled and used by farmers, have been detected in underground and surface waters for many years. There have also been human biomonitoring studies of PCBs and OCPs; for example, in 1999, measurable amounts of DDE were found in breast milk, and a 2018 study reported measurable amounts of PCBs and OCPs in human serum. While these levels were well below concentrations observed in other countries, they were slightly higher than the levels observed by the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). This review provides an overview of the available PCB and OCP data from Lebanon between 1999 and 2017. In total, 12 studies of PCBs and OCPs in environmental samples, human serum samples, and human milk samples are included in this review, and the results of these studies are compared in terms of geography and chronology.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/análise , Poluição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Praguicidas/análise , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Exposição Ambiental/legislação & jurisprudência , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Política Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Poluição Ambiental/legislação & jurisprudência , Feminino , Humanos , Líbano , Leite Humano/química , Inquéritos Nutricionais
16.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(18): 18913-18920, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31102216

RESUMO

The ecosystem of the Seocheon coastal wetland (SCW), one of the wetland protected areas in South Korea, was registered in the Ramsar Wetlands in 2009 as an area rich in biodiversity and inhabited by endangered wild animals and plants. Since then, preserving the ecosystem of the SCW has emerged as an important task. Thus, the South Korean government is carrying out various research and management projects to preserve the ecological integrity of the SCW. This article aims to analyze public willingness to pay for preserving the SCW. For this purpose, 1000 households were surveyed, applying the contingent valuation (CV) method during September 2017. The respondents clearly understood the CV question and gave meaningful answers. The results show that an average value for the preservation was statistically significantly estimated to be KRW 2341 (USD 2.04) for all respondents. The national value expanded from the sample to the population is worth KRW 47.79 billion (USD 42.15 million) per year. Therefore, it can be seen that the public have sufficient acceptance for preserving the SCW.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Política Ambiental , Áreas Alagadas , Animais , Biodiversidade , Ecologia , República da Coreia , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(21): 21598-21608, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31127509

RESUMO

Sources of renewable energy have received wide attention in the literature because of serious threats to the environment. However, some renewable resources, including biomass energy role is debatable in the energy economics literature. This empirical work focuses to analyze the role of biomass energy in carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions using the framework of the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) in Pakistan over the period from 1980 to 2015. The bound testing approach suggests there is cointegration among study variables. The study uses an auto-regressive distributed lag model (ARDL) with a structural break in the series. To summarize the findings of the study, it can be inferred that biomass energy increase CO2 emissions. In addition, biomass energy helps to form a U-shaped relationship between income and CO2 emissions that support the EKC hypothesis. Also, the feedback hypothesis is found between biomass energy and CO2 emissions. The findings would guide policymaker with practical guidelines to formulate policies to utilize a high amount of biomass energy in a sustainable manner.


Assuntos
Biomassa , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Política Ambiental , Energia Renovável/economia , Ecologia , Renda , Paquistão
18.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(21): 21693-21703, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31129900

RESUMO

A gradual increase in the importance of water environment infrastructure has provided an opportunity to bring in various initiatives for the supply of sewage. Such initiatives include the dissemination of public sewage systems and the use of subcontractors in management of sewage systems. However, despite the existence of various methods to increase the rate of sewage supply, there are few studies analyzing each alternative in terms of social, economic, and environmental aspects. Therefore, we investigated investment directions for water environment infrastructure facilities related to the supply of sewage treatment systems in rural areas through cost-benefit analysis. We analyzed the economic costs and social benefits of two sewage treatment systems: installation of a public sewage treatment system and utilization of a private sewage treatment system via service contract. When we considered only economic costs and benefits, the benefit-cost ratio for the public system (0.02) was smaller than that for the private system (0.264). However, the results of the two alternatives changed when we considered the social benefits to people in urban areas from establishment of public sewage treatment systems in rural areas. To be specific, by considering the social benefits for non-rural areas, this study found that the benefit-cost ratio for the public system increased to 0.267, which was higher than the ratio for the private system. Based on these results, we propose appropriate operations and management plans for supplying sewage treatment systems to rural areas. Further, this study indicates that policymakers who conduct cost-benefit analyses of infrastructure related to water environments should consider all social, environmental, and economic factors that can alter the analysis results.


Assuntos
Análise Custo-Benefício , Política Ambiental
19.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(21): 21760-21773, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31134543

RESUMO

Energy affects the economic growth and development of a country. Renewable energy has become an important part of the world's energy consumption. The use of fossil fuel energy contributes to global warming and carbon dioxide emissions, and has a detrimental effect on the environment. The long-run and short-run causality relationships between electric power consumption, renewable electricity output, renewable energy consumption, fossil fuel energy consumption, energy use, carbon dioxide emissions, and gross domestic product per capita for Pakistan over the period of 1990-2017 were investigated in this paper using the autoregressive distributed lag bounds testing approach to cointegration. The augmented Dickey-Fuller unit root test and the Phillips-Perron unit root test were used to check the stationarity of the variables, while the Johansen cointegration test was applied to check the robustness of the long-run relationships. The Granger causality test under the vector error correction model extracted during the short-run estimation showed a unidirectional relationship among all variables except for the relationship between gross domestic product per capita and carbon dioxide emission, which was bidirectional (feedback hypothesis). The evidence showed that in the long run, carbon dioxide emissions, electric power consumption, and renewable electricity output had a positive and significant relationship with the gross domestic product per capita, while the relationship of renewable energy consumption, energy use, and fossil fuel energy consumption with the gross domestic product per capita had a negative effect. Overall, the long-run effects of the variables were found to have a stronger effect on the gross domestic product per capita than the short-run dynamics, which indicated that the findings were heterogeneous. The evidence suggests that the government of Pakistan should take steps to enhance the use of renewable energy resources to resolve the energy crisis in the country and introduce new policies to reduce carbon dioxide emissions.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Fontes Geradoras de Energia , Produto Interno Bruto , Eletricidade , Política Ambiental , Combustíveis Fósseis , Aquecimento Global , Paquistão , Energia Renovável/economia
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