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1.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(10): 624, 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34477980

RESUMO

Monitoring and Assessment (M&A) of environmental resources aims to support the formulation of policies and follow up on outcomes of their implementation. In this study, the state of M&A is explored for Ethiopia with a focus on forests and water resources. The study is intended to serve as recommendations for future M&A applications in Ethiopia, as well as fulfillment of SDGs and other national and international commitments. Expert meetings, key informant interviews, and selected document analysis served as sources of information. The findings were summarized using qualitative grading and institutional mapping. Basic results of the study are that monitoring data on climate and streamflow are standardized in forms that can be communicated to policymakers. Scantier and less standardized are environmental data on soils, sediment transport, forests, biodiversity, and air quality. Water quality, soil moisture, groundwater level, forest biomass, and soil carbon are rarely monitored and can only be found in reports or studies for the fulfillment of academic degree requirements. Resources like nutrient fluxes have rarely been documented, not at all in some cases. There is considerable scope for tapping both technological advances and experiences of citizen science and local participation in environmental governance to rapidly expand and improve monitoring from local to regional and national scales. The study showed that there is a need for establishing a coordinated national system for monitoring and assessing the status of the environment, including the use of natural resources. Communicating such data to the scientific and wider public will support evidence-based planning and policy-making towards national development.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Água , Monitoramento Ambiental , Política Ambiental , Etiópia , Florestas
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360509

RESUMO

It is the scientific way to promote the transformation and optimization of an industrial structure to promote the improvement of its green total factor productivity (GTFP) by formulating environmental regulation policies. Based on the GTFP panel data of 30 provinces in China from 2004 to 2017, this paper takes the "Air Pollution Control and Prevention Action Plan" (APCP Action Plan) as the proxy dummy variable of environmental regulation, and uses the difference-in-differences (DID) model to explore the impact of the implementation of the APCP Action Plan on GTFP. In addition, by constructing the industrial structure optimization index, this paper analyzes how the APCP Action Plan policy affects GTFP through the transformation and optimization of industrial structure. The following basic conclusions are obtained: First, environmental regulation policies like the APCP Action Plan can improve GTFP. Second, the APCP Action Plan has regional heterogeneity in promoting GTFP in different regions. The policy only significantly affects the GTFP in the Pearl River Delta region in southern China. Third, the "quantity" and "quality" of the optimization of industrial structure will weaken the promoting effect of the APCP Action Plan on GTFP. In contrast, the rationalization of industrial structure will aggravate this promoting effect.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Política Ambiental , Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , China , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Eficiência , Poluição Ambiental
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360064

RESUMO

China and other emerging market countries have suffered from the problem of environmental pollution while developing rapidly in the past few decades. In recent years, many countries have introduced strict environmental regulations in order to achieve sustainable development. This paper discusses the relationship between environmental regulations and corporate green innovation from the perspective of regional leaders' promotion pressure. The empirical results show that direct policy regulation within the region stimulates green innovation on the part of enterprises, and the promotion pressure of city leaders has a further positive moderating effect on the positive correlation between environmental regulations and enterprises' green innovation. The conclusion of the study proves that a strict environmental policy can promote the effectiveness of an environmental performance appraisal system in the sustainable development plans of cities and enterprises. This paper not only reveals the influence path of official promotion pressure on the sustainable development of enterprises in the administrative area from the micro perspective but also sheds some light that may improve government governance and promote the transformation of enterprises.


Assuntos
Organizações , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , China , Cidades , Política Ambiental , Poluição Ambiental/prevenção & controle , Humanos
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360311

RESUMO

The rapid economic development has severely damaged the ecological environment and affected public health. Firms are the main source of pollution; thus, corporate environmental responsibility (CER) has attracted great attention from the government, shareholders and the public. This study used both the fixed effects model and the system GMM (Generalized Method of Moments) model to examine the relationship between environmental pollution, environmental regulations and CER for 30 provinces in China, over the period 2005 to 2015. This study drew the following results: first, mandatory CER disclosure policy can significantly decrease environmental pollution. Second, an inverted U-shaped relationship exists between environmental regulations and environmental pollution. Third, environmental pollution has a positive impact on CER. Fourth, an inverted U-shaped relationship exists between environmental regulations and CER. Therefore, it is necessary to find a balance between environmental regulations affecting environmental pollution and CER so that they can effectively reduce environmental pollution and increase the enthusiasm of firms to carry out environmental responsibility activities.


Assuntos
Poluição Ambiental , Responsabilidade Social , China , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Meio Ambiente , Política Ambiental , Humanos , Políticas
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299837

RESUMO

Although the community environment is a known determinant of older adults' health, it is unclear about the logical relationships among the community environment, behavior, activity ability, and health of older adults, and the differences between the different age groups. This study used a two-stage sampling method to conduct a household survey of people over 60 years old living in Xinhua Street, Shanghai, China. In total, 2783 valid samples were obtained. Of these, 1256 were males and 1627 were females, with an average age of 71.1 years. The statistical method used in this study was the structural equation modeling method. The effects of the community environment and behavior on the activity ability and self-rated health of older adults are different, and the path of health influence of older adults is different in different age groups. Community environment has more wider effects on older adults' self-rated health, while behavior, including walking behavior and neighbor contacts, have a more intensive effect on the activity ability of older adults. The community environment has a significant positive effect on the activity ability of the younger group but not on that of the older group, which instead was significantly affected by the neighbor contacts. Therefore, refined environmental governance and targeted improvement and resolution of different types of health problems among different groups of older persons will contribute to the overall health of older adults.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Política Ambiental , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , China , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Meio Social , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
J Environ Manage ; 296: 113159, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34237675

RESUMO

To direct financial resources to cleaner production enterprises and achieve the goal of environmental governance, the Chinese government has devoted increasing efforts to facilitating green finance. As one of the major policies of green finance, the Green Credit Policy (GCP) was issued in 2012. Evaluating whether the GCP can promote green development has important significance, but few studies have explored its policy effects for the investment and financing behavior of "two high" (high energy consumption and high pollution) enterprises and environmental quality from both micro and macro perspectives. Taking the promulgation of the GCP as a quasi-natural experiment, based on a panel dataset involving 945 A-share listed companies and 30 provinces for the period of 2004-2017, this paper adopts the difference-in-difference model to explore the investment and financing behavior changes of enterprises and environmental impacts of the GCP. The following conclusions are derived. (1) The GCP provides incentives for the short-term financing behavior of "two high" enterprises, but it has a punitive effect in the long term and significantly inhibits the investment behavior of such enterprises. (2) The GCP contributes to the mitigation of sulfur dioxide and wastewater emissions. (3) The GCP has a greater effect on investment and financing behavior among state-owned and large-scale "two high" enterprises than among medium-sized and micro enterprises. (4) There exists regional heterogeneity in the effects of the GCP on the investment and financing of "two high" enterprises and environmental quality. The GCP has positive impacts in the eastern and western regions, and the policy effect is not obvious in the central region.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , China , Política Ambiental , Políticas
8.
J Environ Manage ; 296: 113232, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34246901

RESUMO

Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) has become a major pressing challenge for China and remains a concern of its central government. This paper draws on a natural experiment generated by the National Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Network (NAAQMN) program in China to explore whether national air quality monitoring reduces local air pollution. In this study, we use a city-level dataset for 4200 Chinese cities covering 2001-2015 and a difference-in-differences (DID) assessment design to assess the impact of the NAAQMN program on local PM2.5 emissions in China. The results suggest that the NAAQMN program significantly reduces the local PM2.5 concentrations by 1.325 mg/m3, and each additional NAAQMN program will cause a decrease of 0.154 mg/m3 in the local PM2.5 concentrations. Furthermore, we determine the heterogeneous impacts of the NAAQMN program on local PM2.5 emission levels through the local government leaders' characteristics, PM2.5 emission levels, and economic development levels. In addition, a mediation effect is found between the NAAQMN program and local PM2.5 emissions through the efficiency of environmental governance. The Chinese government should continue to promote the implementation of the NAAQMN program by promoting the NAAQMN program to the county and rural areas as well as adding the sites of the NAAQMN program in the existing cities. Also, during the process of promoting the NAAQMN program, sufficient differentiation in policies should be developed for different cities.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , China , Cidades , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Política Ambiental , Governo Local , Material Particulado/análise
12.
J Environ Manage ; 295: 113119, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34216897

RESUMO

To achieve zero carbon or achieving carbon neutrality target is of great importance to many countries around the globe especially post Paris climate agreement. This study, unlike previous studies, evaluates the role of environmental policy, green innovation, composite risk index, and renewable energy R&D in achieving carbon neutrality targets for G7 economies from 1990 to 2019. The results confirmed the validity of the EKC hypothesis for G7 economies. Further, the result shows that environmental policy, green innovation, composite risk index, and renewable energy R&D help control carbon emissions. In contrast, income reveals a positive influence on environmental degradation. Furthermore, bidirectional causality has been reported in environmental policy, composite risk index, green innovation, and the CO2 emissions, while unidirectional causality running from GDP and renewable energy R&D to CO2 emissions. Based on the empirical findings, it is suggested that environmental policies should be strengthened, promote green innovation and renewable energy research and development expenditures, and political stability and institutional quality must be stabilized to lowers sectoral risks that would help a sustainable environment.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Econômico , Política Ambiental , Carbono , Dióxido de Carbono , Energia Renovável
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206509

RESUMO

This study explores the impact of environmental policies and human development on the CO2 emissions for the period of 1995-2015 in the Group of Seven and BRICS economies in the long run through panel cointegration and causality tests. The causality analysis revealed a bilateral causality between environmental stringency policies and CO2 emissions for Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States of America, and a unilateral causality from CO2 emissions to the environmental stringency policies for Canada, China, and France. On the other hand, the analysis showed a bilateral causality between human development and CO2 emissions for Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States of America, and unilateral causality from CO2 emissions to human development in Brazil, Canada, China, and France. Furthermore, the cointegration analysis indicated that both environmental stringency policies and human development had a decreasing impact on the CO2 emissions.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono , Política Ambiental , Brasil , Canadá , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , China , Desenvolvimento Econômico , França , Alemanha , Humanos , Japão , Reino Unido
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208930

RESUMO

Water is an unpredictable and often overallocated resource in the American West, one that strains policy makers to come up with viable, and politically acceptable policies to mitigate water management concerns. While large federal reclamation projects once dominated western water management and provided ample water for large scale agricultural development as well as the urbanization of the West, water engineering alone is no longer sufficient or, in some cases, a politically acceptable policy option. As demand for water in the West increases with an ever-growing population, climate change is presenting a more challenging and potentially untenable, reality of even longer periods of drought and insufficient water quantity. The complexity of managing water resources under climate change conditions will require multifaceted and publicly acceptable strategies. This paper therefore examines water policy preferences of residents in four western states: Washington, Oregon, California, and Idaho. Using a public survey conducted in these states in 2019, we examine preferences pertaining to infrastructural, education, incentives and regulation specifically examining levels of support for varying policies based on climate change and environmental efficacy beliefs as well as geography, demographic variables, and political ideology. Results show support for all water policies surveyed, with the exception of charging higher rates for water during the hottest part of summer. The most preferred water policies pertained to tax incentives. Some variation of support exists based on gender, education, environmental values, efficacy, state residency and belief in anthropogenic climate change.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Água , Política Ambiental , Oregon , Política Pública , Washington
15.
J Environ Manage ; 297: 113230, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34303199

RESUMO

The environmental and socioeconomic considerations of energy production have become crucial because of the increasingly complex relationship between energy and the environment. This study aims to develop possible mechanisms for perspectives on energy policy and the environment by exploring the mediating role of renewable energy patents. Non-radial data envelopment analysis and panel data models are applied using the panel data from 2010 to 2017 from 30 Chinese provinces. The results show an overall improvement in the environmental performance index (EPI) of China's provinces, but the average EPI is still relatively weak, with an average value between 0.44 and 0.52, which is far below the optimal value 1.. Furthermore, the econometric model offers evidence that provincial renewable energy and emission reduction policies positively impact the enhancement of EPI. The findings have several implications for energy and environmental policies.


Assuntos
Política Ambiental , Energia Renovável , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Modelos Econométricos
16.
J Environ Manage ; 297: 113348, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34325362

RESUMO

In the reforms pertaining to the energy structure in the automotive industry, new energy vehicles (NEVs) have long been the focus of government attention, as an effective means to reduce air pollution. Therefore, this paper employs the rolling-window Granger causality test, in order to discuss the environmental benefits of new energy vehicles, so as to explore the active role of the transportation sector in reducing air pollution. By studying the interactions between NEVs and particulate matter (PM2.5) from the time period spanning from 2013:M1 to 2020:M9, we have found that the positive influences from NEVs to PM2.5 ascertain that NEVs cannot be considered as an efficient measure to mitigate air pollution. Moreover, these results are not supported by the energy and environment interaction model, which essentially indicates that replacing traditional energy with renewable energy is an effective measure for controlling environmental pollution. In fact, PM2.5 tends to have a negative impact on NEVs, which underlines that the air quality index is a leading indicator, particularly when it comes to analyzing the development of the NEVs market. This essentially highlights that in China, NEVs still do not account for a high proportion of car sales, and therefore, its environmental protection effect is not obvious. At the same time, the factor of public awareness regarding environmental protection will thus occupy a considerable proportion in the transmission of NEVs sales. These revelations will help the government to formulate environmental governance policies, and expand the new energy vehicle market to achieve carbon neutrality targets in China.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , Carbono , China , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Política Ambiental , Material Particulado/análise
17.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 32(6): 1903-1918, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34212594

RESUMO

Co-driven by environmental change and human activity, global ecosystem has been experiencing rapid changes, with cascading effects on resources and environment. The changes of ecosystem status and its spatiotemporal evolution drivers, and the related resource and environmental effects have been recognized as the long standing topics of large-scale terrestrial ecosystem science. The coordinated observation networks distributed across different continents and the globe provide the valuable tools for observing and evaluating ecosystem state change, for revealing and elaborating mechanisms underlying ecosystem response, for cognizing and understanding ecosystem evolution, and for predicting and early-warning of ecosystem change. Committing to serving the continental-scale ecosystem science and supporting regional ecological environmental governance, this review first comprehensively analyzed the current status of ecological environment observation research networks, then proposed their development directions. This review advocated to develop a collaborative observation system with characteristics of multi-element, multi-interface, multi-medium, multi-process, multi-scale and multi-method, and to establish the new generation of continental ecosystem observation-experiment research network composed of high technology integration, regional distribution network, network management intellectualization, long-term observation & experiment, multi-functional model simulations, and remote data integration and resource sharing. We elaborated on the function orientation, design philosophy, design scheme, construction objectives and technical system of the research network. We hoped provide references for the development of terrestrial ecosystem observation network in China.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , China , Clima , Política Ambiental , Humanos
18.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 32(6): 2180-2190, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34212624

RESUMO

Due to its vulnerability and anthropogenic disturbance, ecological problems in karst areas are prominent, such as vegetation destruction, soil erosion, and rocky desertification. Comprehensive analysis of ecological vulnerability and influencing factors in karst areas can provide scientific support for regional ecological restoration and environmental governance. With Guangnan County, a typical karst region in southeastern Yunnan, as an example, we constructed a karst regional eco-environmental vulnerability assessment index system from the perspective of natural and factitious factors. We used SPCA to assess the ecological vulnerability in 2000, 2010 and 2018. We further analyzed the temporal and spatial variations and explored its influencing factors by using geographic detectors. From 2000 to 2018, the changes of overall fragility were small, but the degree of fragility had been intensifying. The grade of ecological vulnerability was mainly slight fragile. The area with mild, moderate and severe fragility was increasing, while the area of extremely fragile showed no change. Guangnan County had a higher ecological vulnerability in the south of "Zhetu-Liancheng-Yangliujing-Banbang", and lower in the north. The spatial agglomeration effect of vulnerability was strong in this county. The north part of Guangnan was vulnerable low-low agglomeration areas, while the southwest and southeast parts were in high-fragility-high agglomeration areas. The implementation of ecological engineering was conducive to the improvement of regional ecological fragility, while the disturbance of human activities further deteriorated ecological fragility. The area proportion of rocky desertification and stratum lithology had stronger influence on ecological fragility of the karst area. The most important influencing factor of the karst ecological fragility was the development of karst carbonate rocks.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , China , Política Ambiental , Atividades Humanas , Humanos
19.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3753, 2021 06 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34145227

RESUMO

Climate change will increase the frequency and severity of supply chain disruptions and large-scale economic crises, also prompting environmentally protective local policies. Here we use econometric time series analysis, inventory-driven price formation, dynamic material flow analysis, and life cycle assessment to model each copper supply chain actor's response to China's solid waste import ban and the COVID-19 pandemic. We demonstrate that the economic changes associated with China's solid waste import ban increase primary refining within China, offsetting the environmental benefits of decreased copper scrap refining and generating a cumulative increase in CO2-equivalent emissions of up to 13 Mt by 2040. Increasing China's refined copper imports reverses this trend, decreasing CO2e emissions in China (up to 180 Mt by 2040) and globally (up to 20 Mt). We test sensitivity to supply chain disruptions using GDP, mining, and refining shocks associated with the COVID-19 pandemic, showing the results translate onto disruption effects.


Assuntos
COVID-19/economia , Dióxido de Carbono/química , Cobre/química , Política Ambiental/legislação & jurisprudência , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Resíduos Sólidos/economia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/transmissão , COVID-19/virologia , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Indústrias/economia , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Resíduos Sólidos/estatística & dados numéricos
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 790: 148061, 2021 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34091332

RESUMO

Global warming is one of the major threats to human survival and social development. Agriculture, as an important source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, cannot be ignored. China is the world's largest carbon emitter, and if it does not actively participate, other countries in the world will not be able to achieve the 1.5 degree temperature control target. Hence, the issue of China's agricultural emissions reduction is worthy of attention. As part of this study a framework for estimating agricultural GHG emissions was constructed. A directional distance function was then used to estimate the cost of emission reduction from the perspective of economic output. Furthermore, through the economic elasticity of shadow prices, agricultural economic development and emission reduction were included in the same framework to study the regional gap of agricultural emission reduction models. Finally, reducing agricultural emission reduction costs was discussed from the perspective of economy, technology, and policy. We found that (1) Agricultural emission reduction costs have phased characteristics and regional differences, and differentiated emission reduction cost improvement measures can help with efficient emission reduction. (2) The emission reduction cost in developed regions is more likely to be affected by technological progress and the strength of environmental governance by government. The emission reduction cost in regions dominated by planting is affected by the industrial structure and energy consumption structure. The emission reduction cost in underdeveloped regions is affected by the economic level. (3) We must give full play to the leading role of benchmarking regions in reducing emissions.


Assuntos
Gases de Efeito Estufa , Agricultura , China , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Elasticidade , Política Ambiental , Efeito Estufa , Gases de Efeito Estufa/análise , Humanos
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