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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32630703

RESUMO

This study examines the effects of renewable energy expansion policy on the Korean economy and industries using the computable general equilibrium model, which divides the power generation sector into detailed generation technologies and sources. The scenarios are set to observe the cases where the share of solar photovoltaic and wind power generation reaches 7%. The effects are examined according to differing circumstances, such as when greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are regulated, and the funding source for renewable expansion varies. The results show that renewable expansion policies have negative effects on GDP. However, the magnitude of the GDP decline becomes smaller when GHG emissions are regulated. The expansion of renewable energy induces the growth of upstream industries which supply components for renewable generation modules. Regarding employment, the renewable expansion policy can increase the demand for labor. However, the direction and the extent of the effect vary depending on the funding source. When overlapping regulations, such as the emission trading scheme and renewable energy expansion policies, exist in the power generation sector, the renewable energy expansion policy could provide incentives for GHG emission-intensive power sources.


Assuntos
Política Ambiental/economia , Gases de Efeito Estufa , Energia Renovável , Política Pública , República da Coreia , Vento
2.
Nature ; 583(7815): 242-248, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32641817

RESUMO

Enhanced silicate rock weathering (ERW), deployable with croplands, has potential use for atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) removal (CDR), which is now necessary to mitigate anthropogenic climate change1. ERW also has possible co-benefits for improved food and soil security, and reduced ocean acidification2-4. Here we use an integrated performance modelling approach to make an initial techno-economic assessment for 2050, quantifying how CDR potential and costs vary among nations in relation to business-as-usual energy policies and policies consistent with limiting future warming to 2 degrees Celsius5. China, India, the USA and Brazil have great potential to help achieve average global CDR goals of 0.5 to 2 gigatonnes of carbon dioxide (CO2) per year with extraction costs of approximately US$80-180 per tonne of CO2. These goals and costs are robust, regardless of future energy policies. Deployment within existing croplands offers opportunities to align agriculture and climate policy. However, success will depend upon overcoming political and social inertia to develop regulatory and incentive frameworks. We discuss the challenges and opportunities of ERW deployment, including the potential for excess industrial silicate materials (basalt mine overburden, concrete, and iron and steel slag) to obviate the need for new mining, as well as uncertainties in soil weathering rates and land-ocean transfer of weathered products.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Dióxido de Carbono/isolamento & purificação , Produtos Agrícolas , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Aquecimento Global/prevenção & controle , Objetivos , Silicatos/química , Atmosfera/química , Brasil , China , Política Ambiental/economia , Política Ambiental/legislação & jurisprudência , Aquecimento Global/economia , Índia , Ferro/isolamento & purificação , Mineração , Política , Probabilidade , Silicatos/isolamento & purificação , Aço/isolamento & purificação , Temperatura , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos
3.
Nature ; 583(7814): 72-77, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32612223

RESUMO

Forests provide a series of ecosystem services that are crucial to our society. In the European Union (EU), forests account for approximately 38% of the total land surface1. These forests are important carbon sinks, and their conservation efforts are vital for the EU's vision of achieving climate neutrality by 20502. However, the increasing demand for forest services and products, driven by the bioeconomy, poses challenges for sustainable forest management. Here we use fine-scale satellite data to observe an increase in the harvested forest area (49 per cent) and an increase in biomass loss (69 per cent) over Europe for the period of 2016-2018 relative to 2011-2015, with large losses occurring on the Iberian Peninsula and in the Nordic and Baltic countries. Satellite imagery further reveals that the average patch size of harvested area increased by 34 per cent across Europe, with potential effects on biodiversity, soil erosion and water regulation. The increase in the rate of forest harvest is the result of the recent expansion of wood markets, as suggested by econometric indicators on forestry, wood-based bioenergy and international trade. If such a high rate of forest harvest continues, the post-2020 EU vision of forest-based climate mitigation may be hampered, and the additional carbon losses from forests would require extra emission reductions in other sectors in order to reach climate neutrality by 20503.


Assuntos
Agricultura Florestal/estatística & dados numéricos , Agricultura Florestal/tendências , Florestas , Biodiversidade , Biomassa , Sequestro de Carbono , Monitoramento Ambiental , Política Ambiental/economia , Política Ambiental/legislação & jurisprudência , Europa (Continente) , União Europeia/economia , Agricultura Florestal/economia , Agricultura Florestal/legislação & jurisprudência , Aquecimento Global/prevenção & controle , História do Século XXI , Imagens de Satélites , Madeira/economia
4.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0230961, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32374737

RESUMO

Is it appropriate for scientists to engage in political advocacy? Some political critics of scientists argue that scientists have become partisan political actors with self-serving financial agendas. However, most scientists strongly reject this view. While social scientists have explored the effects of science politicization on public trust in science, little empirical work directly examines the drivers of scientists' interest in and willingness to engage in political advocacy. Using a natural experiment involving the U.S. National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship (NSF-GRF), we causally estimate for the first time whether scientists who have received federal science funding are more likely to engage in both science-related and non-science-related political behaviors. Comparing otherwise similar individuals who received or did not receive NSF support, we find that scientists' preferences for political advocacy are not shaped by receiving government benefits. Government funding did not impact scientists' support of the 2017 March for Science nor did it shape the likelihood that scientists donated to either Republican or Democratic political groups. Our results offer empirical evidence that scientists' political behaviors are not motivated by self-serving financial agendas. They also highlight the limited capacity of even generous government support programs to increase civic participation by their beneficiaries.


Assuntos
Comportamento/ética , Financiamento Governamental , Pessoal de Laboratório/ética , Política , Política Ambiental/economia , Política Ambiental/legislação & jurisprudência , Financiamento Governamental/ética , Financiamento Governamental/normas , Programas Governamentais/economia , Programas Governamentais/ética , Programas Governamentais/normas , Política de Saúde/economia , Política de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Pessoal de Laboratório/economia , Pessoal de Laboratório/psicologia , Má Conduta Profissional/ética , Política Pública , Setor Público/ética , Publicações/economia , Publicações/ética , Publicações/legislação & jurisprudência , Publicações/normas , Ciência/economia , Ciência/ética , Confiança , Estados Unidos
8.
Environ Geochem Health ; 42(3): 819-840, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31087229

RESUMO

An effective and powerful regulation is indispensable for the development and smooth operation of a cap-and-trade emission trading scheme (ETS). Seven regional pilot ETSs have been established and gradually improved in China, from which the experiences and lessons learned may provide useful references to facilitate China's national ETS regulation. This article systematically reviews and compares the practices and policies of carbon trading regulation in China's seven pilot schemes from three major aspects of regulatory institutions and subjects, regulatory objects and content, and regulatory means and techniques, and covering both internal and external regulatory architectures. The comparative analysis has demonstrated that the regional pilot schemes have made notable achievements in developing ETS regulatory systems with Chinese characteristics, but they still have considerable deficiencies. Referencing both international and domestic pilot experiences, this study recommends that China's national ETS improve regulatory institutional basis, foster an extensive participation of pluralistic regulatory subjects with a clear division of powers and responsibilities, establish effective regulatory systems on carbon finance, and continuously enrich regulatory techniques and platforms.


Assuntos
Carbono/economia , Política Ambiental/economia , Política Ambiental/legislação & jurisprudência , China , Clima , Gases de Efeito Estufa/economia , Projetos Piloto
9.
Environ Geochem Health ; 42(3): 745-767, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30761418

RESUMO

The questions of how to mitigate climate change and its impact on human health are currently high on the Chinese agenda for future development. The emission trading scheme (ETS) has become one of China's most important instruments to address climate change through a market mechanism. In the wake of the evolution from regional pilots to a nationwide scheme, it is inevitable to be confronted with tremendous political-economic-institutional challenges. To facilitate a smooth start-up of the upcoming nationwide ETS, this study provides a systematic overview of seven ETS pilots, involving the detailed comparison of ETS design and the in-depth evaluation of market performance, both internal and external performance, based on trading data. Then, the achievements and deficiencies of seven ETS pilots are summarized, several challenges for the current time are discussed, and policy proposals for China's national-level ETS are navigated further coupled with international experience. This study finds that China's ETS pilots, from the short-term perspective, are successful, especially in the reinforcement of China's capacity to develop a market-based scheme in an economy that still cherishes many non-market endowments. However, deficiencies lie in both the internal and external market performance, such as the carbon price lacking a signal function, insufficient incentives for compliance, too low market liquidity, and much too high market fragmentation. Moreover, the retrospective examination of China's ETS pilots suggests that a nationwide ETS should at least be based on an extension of the cap duration from single year to several years, uniform rules on monitoring/reporting/verification and allowance allocation, and the improvement of institutional foundation.


Assuntos
Carbono/economia , Mudança Climática , Política Ambiental/economia , Gases de Efeito Estufa/economia , China , Custos e Análise de Custo , Projetos Piloto , Estudos Retrospectivos
12.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(29): 30313-30323, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31432372

RESUMO

The Paris agreement (2015) seems a significant achievement towards a global mitigation policy to climate change. However, implementing the promised Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC) targets by the participating countries has become a real challenge. In this aspect, the input-output life cycle assessment (IO-LCA) model provides an important assessment mechanism to design suitable abatement policies limiting the rising greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The present paper develops an IO-LCA model for Pakistan and estimates all the direct and indirect GHG emissions caused by all the production activities during all the stages of production. This task is achieved in three phases. In phase 1, the Pakistan input-output table (IOT) is constructed. In phase 2, the GHG environmental satellite accounts are created for each sector in the economy. In phase 3, the GHG emissions are linked to different categories of final demand.


Assuntos
Pegada de Carbono/economia , Desenvolvimento Econômico/tendências , Política Ambiental/economia , Efeito Estufa , Modelos Teóricos , Mudança Climática , Congressos como Assunto , Efeito Estufa/economia , Efeito Estufa/prevenção & controle , Paquistão , Formulação de Políticas
13.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(29): 30145-30153, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31418148

RESUMO

This study empirically investigates the role of eco-innovation on the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions (CO2) in an extended version of the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC). Under dynamic framework, second-generation panel econometric techniques such as the CADF and the CIPS unit root tests, DSUR cointegrating test, and DH panel causality test are employed over the period 2007-2016 for the case of top 20 refined oil exporting countries. Results reveal that eco-innovation (i.e. research and development) exerts a negative and significant long-term effect on carbon emissions (CO2). This result indicates that the extended version of EKC and the Porter hypotheses are validated for the selected countries. The findings, which show heterogeneity and cross-sectionally dependence in the panel time-series framework, suggest that rising levels of carbon emissions and real income may encourage more research and development (i.e. eco innovation) and lower energy consumption.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Desenvolvimento Econômico/tendências , Política Ambiental/economia , Modelos Econométricos , Indústria de Petróleo e Gás/economia , Desenvolvimento Econômico/estatística & dados numéricos , Renda , Indústria de Petróleo e Gás/estatística & dados numéricos
14.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 148: 107-115, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422295

RESUMO

Increased visitation rates are expected to further impact ecosystems and local communities depending on them to generate income from tourism. We measure how different sustainable tourism management options of such areas in ways that respect the concept of vanua, the Fijian understanding of the connectiveness of the natural environment, humans and traditions, are perceived by a representative sample of potential visitors of the UK population. We then consider some plausible management options and how these may impact welfare. Results show that prospective UK respondents are willing to donate approximately £73 for a management option that enforces medium restrictions by local communities to enter coastal and marine areas in Fiji, so that vanua is respected. A management option that instead denies access to local communities is not seen favourably by prospective UK visitors to Fiji. In terms of time preference, UK respondents, in particular those with previous experiences of tropical areas, prefer environmental projects that restore and protect coastal and marine ecosystems to be completed as soon as possible. Our findings seem to support the introduction of more sustainable and community-based management practices in Fiji as they appear to increase welfare of visitors respecting local traditions and customs, as long as some access is provided to tourists. Donations from tourists or a change in tourism management from a traditional to a more sustainable practice may support the sustainable development of the local coastal communities in Fiji.


Assuntos
Política Ambiental , Viagem/psicologia , Conscientização , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/economia , Cultura , Ecossistema , Política Ambiental/economia , Fiji , Humanos , Viagem/economia , Reino Unido
15.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(29): 30229-30241, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422533

RESUMO

This paper investigates the CO2 emissions-economic growth relationship in Kazakhstan for the period 1992-2013. Johansen, ARDLBT, DOLS, FMOLS, and CCR cointegration methods are used for robustness purpose. We start with the cubic functional form to rule out any misleading results that can be caused by misspecification. Although the estimation results suggest "U"-shaped relationship, the turning point of income is out of the period. It means that the impact of economic growth on CO2 is monotonically increasing in the long run indicating the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis does not hold for Kazakhstan. Moreover, we calculate that the income elasticity of CO2 is about unity. The paper concludes that the Kazakhstani policymakers should focus on less energy-intensive sectors as well as using more renewable energy in order to avoid higher pollution effects of economic growth. They may also set new policy regulations for CO2 reduction.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Desenvolvimento Econômico/estatística & dados numéricos , Política Ambiental/economia , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Energia Renovável/economia , Países em Desenvolvimento , Desenvolvimento Econômico/tendências , Poluição Ambiental/economia , Renda , Cazaquistão , Energia Renovável/estatística & dados numéricos
16.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(25): 25775-25788, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31267389

RESUMO

In recent years, as environmental degradation has become more and more serious, the Chinese government has formulated a series of environmental policies and regulations aimed at improving environmental quality. Does environmental regulation significantly inhibit environmental pollution? Environmental regulation will not only directly affect environmental pollution but also have an indirect impact on environmental pollution. This paper uses Bayesian posterior probability, the optimal model structure selection method, based on join 112 kinds of spatial econometric model structure, and the panel data of 30 provinces in China from 2003 to 2016 to study the effects of environmental regulation on environmental pollution base on the industrial agglomeration mechanism of synergy effect. The research covers the national level and four regions, including the eastern, central, western, and northeastern regions of China. The research shows that: (1) environmental regulation at the national level and in the eastern, central and northeastern regions can significantly curb environmental pollution, but the environmental pollution in the western region shows a significant trend of enhancement. (2) Increased industrial agglomeration across China has significantly worsened environmental pollution. (3) Environmental regulation and industrial agglomeration form a significant synergy effect, which has a significant positive impact on environmental pollution in regions other than northeast China, and a significant negative impact on environmental pollution intensity in northeast China.


Assuntos
Política Ambiental/economia , Poluição Ambiental/legislação & jurisprudência , Teorema de Bayes , China , Indústrias , Modelos Econométricos
17.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(26): 26500-26516, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31292875

RESUMO

In this study, we analyze the time-varying causality linkages between energy consumption, economic growth, and environmental degradation in 33 Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development countries, spanning the period 2000 to 2013. The curve causality approach provides evidence of a significant environmental Kuznets curve in 25 countries in the case of the ecological footprint and in 23 countries in the case of the Environmental Performance Index. However, out of them, only Italy, Slovakia, and South Korea have traditional environmental Kuznets curve, in the form of an inverted U-shaped curve. For the remaining countries, different forms of curves are valid. In particular, an N-shaped curve appears to be valid between income and environmental degradation for nearly half of the sample, i.e., for Austria, Belgium, Chile, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland, New Zealand, Turkey, and the USA. Additionally, bidirectional causality relationships are confirmed among all covariates in most countries. In view of the results, some crucial policy implications would be suggested, such as sustainable development that aims to make a balance between economic growth and environmental protection.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Econômico/tendências , Fontes Geradoras de Energia/estatística & dados numéricos , Política Ambiental/economia , Renda , Modelos Econômicos , Desenvolvimento Sustentável/economia , Desenvolvimento Econômico/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Organização para a Cooperação e Desenvolvimento Econômico
18.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(26): 26472-26487, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31290043

RESUMO

Environmental regulations affect employment through productivity output and factor substitution. This paper employs a difference-in-differences (DID) method to investigate the effect of China's Two Control Zones (TCZ) policy on the urban employment in 287 cities from 1994 to 2009. We apply the DID method to two time points: 1998 for policy issuance and 2000 for the policy implementation. From the results of analyses on full-sample cities, the TCZ policy did not contribute to increasing total urban employment. Moreover, a negative impact on employment resulted from sulfur dioxide and acid rain controls in secondary and tertiary industries, respectively. In the acid rain control zone, the TCZ policy increased the average wage of urban workers. Negative effects on employment were observed in larger cities. The policy triggered labor migration from larger to smaller cities, resulting in significant increases in primary and tertiary industry employment in smaller cities, although the effects on mid-size cities were insignificant. This study provides important empirical evidence and insight into the impact of the TCZ policy on urban employment.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Econômico , Emigração e Imigração/tendências , Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Política Ambiental/legislação & jurisprudência , Regulamentação Governamental , China , Cidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Política Ambiental/economia , Humanos
19.
PLoS One ; 14(6): e0218855, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31237924

RESUMO

Sustainable development goals are used as a guidance for strategies development on local, regional and national levels. The importance of including young people in this complex process is recognized in all relevant documents (i.e. Agenda 21), however it is not an easy task to elicit opinions and preferences from the youth. Furthermore, the assessment of the sustainable development goals itself presents a challenge for the noisy data and nonlinear relationships in data. Popular approach is fuzzy set models where expert knowledge is presented with comprehensible rules; however expert knowledge elicitation takes a long time too. Several studies proposed an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system approach that combines the fuzzy set theory to model expert knowledge with neural networks for inferring rules and membership functions from data to assess the sustainable development performance. We base our assumptions that ANFIS can be used to predict the importance of sustainable development pillars from the demographic data of young people. For this purpose, we have conducted an online survey on sustainable development goals opinions and importance of young people in Serbia. The sample of 386 respondents has been split into a training sample of 300 instances (to generate membership functions and fuzzy rules) and a testing sample of 86 instances to predict the importance of the three pillars. We have conducted a trace-driven simulation test to validate the results of the proposed ANFIS model. Results of the study provided insights into how the young people in Serbia assess the importance of sustainable development goals. Secondly, the results suggest that ANFIS can be applied to predict values of importance of the three sustainable development pillars with the relative error of Rel Err < 5%. It must be noted that the considered model could be further improved by using training samples with more data.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Sustentável/tendências , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Simulação por Computador , Tomada de Decisões , Política Ambiental/economia , Política Ambiental/tendências , Feminino , Previsões , Lógica Fuzzy , Humanos , Masculino , Redes Neurais de Computação , Sérvia , Responsabilidade Social , Inquéritos e Questionários , Desenvolvimento Sustentável/economia , Análise de Sistemas , Adulto Jovem
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