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3.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(29): 30145-30153, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31418148

RESUMO

This study empirically investigates the role of eco-innovation on the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions (CO2) in an extended version of the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC). Under dynamic framework, second-generation panel econometric techniques such as the CADF and the CIPS unit root tests, DSUR cointegrating test, and DH panel causality test are employed over the period 2007-2016 for the case of top 20 refined oil exporting countries. Results reveal that eco-innovation (i.e. research and development) exerts a negative and significant long-term effect on carbon emissions (CO2). This result indicates that the extended version of EKC and the Porter hypotheses are validated for the selected countries. The findings, which show heterogeneity and cross-sectionally dependence in the panel time-series framework, suggest that rising levels of carbon emissions and real income may encourage more research and development (i.e. eco innovation) and lower energy consumption.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Desenvolvimento Econômico/tendências , Política Ambiental/economia , Modelos Econométricos , Indústria de Petróleo e Gás/economia , Desenvolvimento Econômico/estatística & dados numéricos , Renda , Indústria de Petróleo e Gás/estatística & dados numéricos
4.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 148: 107-115, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422295

RESUMO

Increased visitation rates are expected to further impact ecosystems and local communities depending on them to generate income from tourism. We measure how different sustainable tourism management options of such areas in ways that respect the concept of vanua, the Fijian understanding of the connectiveness of the natural environment, humans and traditions, are perceived by a representative sample of potential visitors of the UK population. We then consider some plausible management options and how these may impact welfare. Results show that prospective UK respondents are willing to donate approximately £73 for a management option that enforces medium restrictions by local communities to enter coastal and marine areas in Fiji, so that vanua is respected. A management option that instead denies access to local communities is not seen favourably by prospective UK visitors to Fiji. In terms of time preference, UK respondents, in particular those with previous experiences of tropical areas, prefer environmental projects that restore and protect coastal and marine ecosystems to be completed as soon as possible. Our findings seem to support the introduction of more sustainable and community-based management practices in Fiji as they appear to increase welfare of visitors respecting local traditions and customs, as long as some access is provided to tourists. Donations from tourists or a change in tourism management from a traditional to a more sustainable practice may support the sustainable development of the local coastal communities in Fiji.


Assuntos
Política Ambiental , Viagem/psicologia , Conscientização , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/economia , Cultura , Ecossistema , Política Ambiental/economia , Fiji , Humanos , Viagem/economia , Reino Unido
5.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(29): 30229-30241, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422533

RESUMO

This paper investigates the CO2 emissions-economic growth relationship in Kazakhstan for the period 1992-2013. Johansen, ARDLBT, DOLS, FMOLS, and CCR cointegration methods are used for robustness purpose. We start with the cubic functional form to rule out any misleading results that can be caused by misspecification. Although the estimation results suggest "U"-shaped relationship, the turning point of income is out of the period. It means that the impact of economic growth on CO2 is monotonically increasing in the long run indicating the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis does not hold for Kazakhstan. Moreover, we calculate that the income elasticity of CO2 is about unity. The paper concludes that the Kazakhstani policymakers should focus on less energy-intensive sectors as well as using more renewable energy in order to avoid higher pollution effects of economic growth. They may also set new policy regulations for CO2 reduction.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Desenvolvimento Econômico/estatística & dados numéricos , Política Ambiental/economia , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Energia Renovável/economia , Países em Desenvolvimento , Desenvolvimento Econômico/tendências , Poluição Ambiental/economia , Renda , Cazaquistão , Energia Renovável/estatística & dados numéricos
6.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(29): 30313-30323, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31432372

RESUMO

The Paris agreement (2015) seems a significant achievement towards a global mitigation policy to climate change. However, implementing the promised Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC) targets by the participating countries has become a real challenge. In this aspect, the input-output life cycle assessment (IO-LCA) model provides an important assessment mechanism to design suitable abatement policies limiting the rising greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The present paper develops an IO-LCA model for Pakistan and estimates all the direct and indirect GHG emissions caused by all the production activities during all the stages of production. This task is achieved in three phases. In phase 1, the Pakistan input-output table (IOT) is constructed. In phase 2, the GHG environmental satellite accounts are created for each sector in the economy. In phase 3, the GHG emissions are linked to different categories of final demand.


Assuntos
Pegada de Carbono/economia , Desenvolvimento Econômico/tendências , Política Ambiental/economia , Efeito Estufa , Modelos Teóricos , Mudança Climática , Congressos como Assunto , Efeito Estufa/economia , Efeito Estufa/prevenção & controle , Paquistão , Formulação de Políticas
7.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(26): 26500-26516, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31292875

RESUMO

In this study, we analyze the time-varying causality linkages between energy consumption, economic growth, and environmental degradation in 33 Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development countries, spanning the period 2000 to 2013. The curve causality approach provides evidence of a significant environmental Kuznets curve in 25 countries in the case of the ecological footprint and in 23 countries in the case of the Environmental Performance Index. However, out of them, only Italy, Slovakia, and South Korea have traditional environmental Kuznets curve, in the form of an inverted U-shaped curve. For the remaining countries, different forms of curves are valid. In particular, an N-shaped curve appears to be valid between income and environmental degradation for nearly half of the sample, i.e., for Austria, Belgium, Chile, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland, New Zealand, Turkey, and the USA. Additionally, bidirectional causality relationships are confirmed among all covariates in most countries. In view of the results, some crucial policy implications would be suggested, such as sustainable development that aims to make a balance between economic growth and environmental protection.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Econômico/tendências , Fontes Geradoras de Energia/estatística & dados numéricos , Política Ambiental/economia , Renda , Modelos Econômicos , Desenvolvimento Sustentável/economia , Desenvolvimento Econômico/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Organização para a Cooperação e Desenvolvimento Econômico
8.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(25): 25775-25788, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31267389

RESUMO

In recent years, as environmental degradation has become more and more serious, the Chinese government has formulated a series of environmental policies and regulations aimed at improving environmental quality. Does environmental regulation significantly inhibit environmental pollution? Environmental regulation will not only directly affect environmental pollution but also have an indirect impact on environmental pollution. This paper uses Bayesian posterior probability, the optimal model structure selection method, based on join 112 kinds of spatial econometric model structure, and the panel data of 30 provinces in China from 2003 to 2016 to study the effects of environmental regulation on environmental pollution base on the industrial agglomeration mechanism of synergy effect. The research covers the national level and four regions, including the eastern, central, western, and northeastern regions of China. The research shows that: (1) environmental regulation at the national level and in the eastern, central and northeastern regions can significantly curb environmental pollution, but the environmental pollution in the western region shows a significant trend of enhancement. (2) Increased industrial agglomeration across China has significantly worsened environmental pollution. (3) Environmental regulation and industrial agglomeration form a significant synergy effect, which has a significant positive impact on environmental pollution in regions other than northeast China, and a significant negative impact on environmental pollution intensity in northeast China.


Assuntos
Política Ambiental/economia , Poluição Ambiental/legislação & jurisprudência , Teorema de Bayes , China , Indústrias , Modelos Econométricos
9.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(26): 26472-26487, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31290043

RESUMO

Environmental regulations affect employment through productivity output and factor substitution. This paper employs a difference-in-differences (DID) method to investigate the effect of China's Two Control Zones (TCZ) policy on the urban employment in 287 cities from 1994 to 2009. We apply the DID method to two time points: 1998 for policy issuance and 2000 for the policy implementation. From the results of analyses on full-sample cities, the TCZ policy did not contribute to increasing total urban employment. Moreover, a negative impact on employment resulted from sulfur dioxide and acid rain controls in secondary and tertiary industries, respectively. In the acid rain control zone, the TCZ policy increased the average wage of urban workers. Negative effects on employment were observed in larger cities. The policy triggered labor migration from larger to smaller cities, resulting in significant increases in primary and tertiary industry employment in smaller cities, although the effects on mid-size cities were insignificant. This study provides important empirical evidence and insight into the impact of the TCZ policy on urban employment.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Econômico , Emigração e Imigração/tendências , Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Política Ambiental/legislação & jurisprudência , Regulamentação Governamental , China , Cidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Política Ambiental/economia , Humanos
10.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(19): 19389-19402, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31073834

RESUMO

The study investigates the long-run impact of tourism development on ecological footprint by employing the time-varying coefficient cointegration approach (TVC), in addition to the conventional cointegration techniques in the case of Azerbaijan for the period of 1996-2014. Based on the TVC estimation results, the coefficient of tourism development, which is the income elasticity of environmental degradation, was found to be time invariant. The paper uses energy consumption, trade, urbanization, and institutional quality indicators as control explanatory variables. The estimation results revealed that trade and energy consumption have statistically significant and positive impact on ecological footprint, while the coefficients of the other explanatory variables were found to be insignificant. Both the conventional estimation methods and the TVC concluded that, for the relationship between ecological footprint and tourism development, the EKC hypothesis is not present in Azerbaijan. Policy implications for the resource-rich economies have been discussed.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/economia , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/tendências , Política Ambiental/economia , Atividades de Lazer/economia , Azerbaijão , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Ecologia , Renda , Indústrias , Modelos Teóricos , Urbanização
11.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(19): 19305-19319, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31073837

RESUMO

The nexus among real income, energy consumption, financial development, and carbon emission has broadly conferred area in energy and environmental literature. However, there is no study in the literature which investigates the moderating role of financial development between real income, energy consumption, and CO2 emission in Pakistan. This study reveals the role of financial development as a moderator in the conventional environmental Kuznets curve (EKC). To achieve the objectives of this study, two approaches are employed, (i) with main effects and (ii) with interaction variables, using autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) bounds testing approach in the case of Pakistan covering the period 1970 to 2016. Findings of the empirical analysis confirm the EKC hypothesis in the first case (without interaction effect) and our second estimations (with interaction effect) show that financial development significantly moderates the association of real output with CO2 emission (both for the long run and short run). The negative effect of financial development on carbon emission reveals to efficacious energy management with effective environmental performance. More precisely, the results of second estimations reveal that all three interaction variables are statistically significant but the EKC curve is no more. Thus, the current study proposes that the moderating effect of the financial sectors may be the possible reason which has been ignored by prior researchers and they found mix results regarding the existence of EKC in Pakistan. In addition, the Granger causality test confirms the feedback effect between real income and carbon emission and one-way causality from all the three interaction variables and financial development to CO2 emission. Lastly, this study posits some important policy inferences in the perspective of new economic policy formation in Pakistan.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/economia , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Conservação de Recursos Energéticos/economia , Desenvolvimento Econômico/tendências , Política Ambiental/economia , Renda , Paquistão
12.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2095, 2019 05 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31064982

RESUMO

The health co-benefits of CO2 mitigation can provide a strong incentive for climate policy through reductions in air pollutant emissions that occur when targeting shared sources. However, reducing air pollutant emissions may also have an important co-harm, as the aerosols they form produce net cooling overall. Nevertheless, aerosol impacts have not been fully incorporated into cost-benefit modeling that estimates how much the world should optimally mitigate. Here we find that when both co-benefits and co-harms are taken fully into account, optimal climate policy results in immediate net benefits globally, overturning previous findings from cost-benefit models that omit these effects. The global health benefits from climate policy could reach trillions of dollars annually, but will importantly depend on the air quality policies that nations adopt independently of climate change. Depending on how society values better health, economically optimal levels of mitigation may be consistent with a target of 2 °C or lower.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , Análise Custo-Benefício , Política Ambiental/economia , Saúde Global/economia , Efeito Estufa/economia , Aerossóis , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/economia , Mudança Climática , Política Ambiental/tendências , Saúde Global/tendências , Humanos
14.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(16): 16682-16694, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30989611

RESUMO

Much of the existing research analyses on emissions and climate policy are dominantly based on emissions data provided by production-based accounting (PBA) system. However, PBA provides an incomplete picture of driving forces behind these emission changes and impact of global trade on emissions, simply by neglecting the environmental impacts of consumption. To remedy this problem, several studies propose to consider national emissions calculated by consumption-based accounting (CBA) systems in greenhouse gas (GHG) assessments for progress and comparisons among the countries. In this article, we question the relevance of PBA's dominance. To this end, we, firstly, try to assess and compare PBA with CBA adopted in greenhouse gas emissions accounting systems in climate change debates on several issues and to discuss the policy implications of the choice of approach. Secondly, we investigate the convergence patterns in production-based and consumption-based emissions in 35 Annex B countries for the period between 1990 and 2015. This study, for the first time, puts all these arguments together and discusses possible outcomes of convergence analysis by employing both the production- and consumption-based CO2 per capita emissions data. The empirical results found some important conclusions which challenge most of the existing CO2 convergence studies.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Mudança Climática , Desenvolvimento Econômico/tendências , Política Ambiental , Efeito Estufa , Gases de Efeito Estufa/análise , Mudança Climática/economia , Política Ambiental/economia , Efeito Estufa/economia
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30764542

RESUMO

Considering the preference of green consumers for remanufactured products, a dual-sale-channel supply chain model with government non-intervention, government remanufacturing subsidy policy, and carbon tax policy is constructed, respectively. The difference of the optimal decision between the firm and the government under the two policies is discussed in this paper. Meanwhile, we analyze the influence of green consumers on the government's optimal decision, based on social welfare maximization. It is found that without government intervention, social welfare is the lowest. The carbon tax policy is better when the proportion of green consumers and the environmental coefficient are extreme or moderate at the same time. Otherwise, the subsidy policy is better. The carbon tax policy is more effective than the subsidy policy in controlling carbon emissions. Profit-sharing contracts should be established by enterprises and governments to achieve win⁻win results.


Assuntos
Pegada de Carbono/economia , Carbono/economia , Política Ambiental/economia , Financiamento Governamental , Indústria Manufatureira/economia , Reciclagem/economia , Impostos , China , Tomada de Decisões , Governo Federal , Humanos , Modelos Econômicos , Seguridade Social/economia
18.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 140: 146-156, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30803628

RESUMO

We estimate economic benefits for seaside recreation and waterfront property when reducing nitrogen leaching to coastal water bodies. We apply impact pathway and benefit transfer methodology, linking total nitrogen concentration to water clarity (Secchi-depth). Ten catchments are analyzed comparing results for 2010 to a policy scenario that complies with the EU Water Framework Directive. The scenario reduces leaching with 5200 ton N, downstream discharges to estuaries by 35% and provide significant Secchi-depth improvements. Our integrated assessment predicts an annual economic benefit for local residents of €35 million, and co-benefits of up to €57 million. Benefits are catchment-specific and differ for downstream discharges from €1 to €32 per kg N, while for upstream discharge losses they range up to €10 per kg N. When expressed per unit of farmland the policy scenario displays economic benefits spanning €8-176/ha. The span reflects the different physical, biological and human circumstances of each catchment.


Assuntos
Agricultura/tendências , Indústria da Construção/economia , Nitrogênio/economia , Recreação/economia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/economia , Qualidade da Água/normas , Análise Custo-Benefício , Dinamarca , Política Ambiental/economia , Política Ambiental/tendências , Estuários , Humanos , Nitrogênio/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
19.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(7): 7243-7255, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30656585

RESUMO

Noise is the most frequently encountered type of environmental pollution in everyday life and has a direct negative effect on humans. Individuals who are constantly exposed to noise tend to have a high incidence of cardiovascular disease and hypertension. Noise sources range from construction sites to political rallies and assemblies, but traffic is one of the most long-lasting and chronic sources of noise. Previously, researchers have conducted valuations of road traffic noise reduction, but they did not consider residents' annoyance levels in response to traffic noise. However, individuals' annoyance levels affect the economic value of noise reduction policies and thus must be considered to obtain an accurate estimate. Therefore, this study investigated residents' willingness to pay for traffic noise reduction depending on their annoyance level. We used the contingent valuation method and a survey to analyze how much 1022 respondents in Korea were willing to pay for noise reduction. We found that people who were annoyed and extremely annoyed by noise had a willingness to pay KRW 8422 (US $7.55) and KRW 9848 (US $8.83) annually per household, respectively, to reduce their annoyance level to zero. In addition, we determined the economic benefits of noise reduction policies using the respondents' willingness to pay to reduce noise by 1 dB(A), which totaled KRW 3.28 billion (US $2.91 million) per year. The results of this study provide estimates of the annual benefits of traffic noise reduction considering residents' annoyance level.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Política Ambiental/economia , Ruído dos Transportes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Poluição Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Ruído dos Transportes/prevenção & controle , República da Coreia , Inquéritos e Questionários
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