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5.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4337, 2019 09 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31554811

RESUMO

Substantial quantities of air pollution and related health impacts are ultimately attributable to household consumption. However, how consumption pattern affects air pollution impacts remains unclear. Here we show, of the 1.08 (0.74-1.42) million premature deaths due to anthropogenic PM2.5 exposure in China in 2012, 20% are related to household direct emissions through fuel use and 24% are related to household indirect emissions embodied in consumption of goods and services. Income is strongly associated with air pollution-related deaths for urban residents in which health impacts are dominated by indirect emissions. Despite a larger and wealthier urban population, the number of deaths related to rural consumption is higher than that related to urban consumption, largely due to direct emissions from solid fuel combustion in rural China. Our results provide quantitative insight to consumption-based accounting of air pollution and related deaths and may inform more effective and equitable clean air policies in China.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/análise , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Mortalidade Prematura/tendências , Saúde da População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Saúde da População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/estatística & dados numéricos , China , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Política Ambiental/legislação & jurisprudência , Política Ambiental/tendências , Características da Família , Humanos , Mortalidade Prematura/etnologia , Material Particulado/análise
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31480345

RESUMO

By defining the connotation of land use eco-efficiency, land use eco-efficiency from 2003 to 2015 was calculated on the basis of the mixed directional distance function, and its spatial convergence analyzed using a spatial econometric model. Results showed that (1) the land use eco-efficiency in most regions of China was relatively ineffective-only Guangdong and Guangxi were relatively effective-and the spatial distribution of efficiency levels in each region was polarized. (2) Sigma and beta convergences were observed in land use eco-efficiency in China, and land use eco-efficiency in each province had an influence on the other. (3) The convergence rate of the eastern region was the same as that of the national region (0.164). The convergence rates of the central, western, and northeast regions were 0.181, 0.183, and 0.189, respectively, which were all higher than the national convergence rate. (4) Scientific and technological strength and industrial structure significantly promoted the improvement of land use eco-efficiency and steady development of land use in China.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , Carbono/análise , Política Ambiental/legislação & jurisprudência , China , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/legislação & jurisprudência , Eficiência
13.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(29): 30252-30267, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31428964

RESUMO

To investigate the effects of government environmental regulation and industrial structure changes on carbon dioxide emissions, this research analyzes annual data over the period 2003-2015 covering 30 provinces in China (except for Tibet) with the panel smooth transition regression (PSTR) model. The empirical results show obvious non-linear effects of environmental regulation and industrial structure on carbon dioxide emission. Taking the effects of both linearity and non-linearity into consideration, environmental regulation will reduce carbon emissions with the change of industrial structure rationalization (SR). When the level of industrial structure optimization (SH) is low, environmental regulation promotes carbon dioxide emissions. When the level of industrial structure optimization (SH) is high, environmental regulation plays a significant inhibitive role on carbon dioxide emissions. The Kuznets relationship between GDP per capita (PGDP) and carbon dioxide emissions is influenced by local industrial structure rationalization and industrial structure optimization. Therefore, environmental regulation policies suitable for local conditions should be made based on the transition of the local industrial structure.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Desenvolvimento Econômico/legislação & jurisprudência , Política Ambiental/legislação & jurisprudência , Regulamentação Governamental , Indústrias/organização & administração , China , Tibet
14.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 148: 3-4, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422300

RESUMO

The strategic location of Malaysia along the world's busiest trade waterways underscores the need to cope ballast water issues for both domestic and international shipping. The adoption of Ballast Water Management Convention 2004 (BWMC) by the International Maritime Organization is suitable for management plans intended to prevent the introduction of invasive species through ballast water discharge. Malaysia has ratified the BWMC in September 2010 and the Convention has come into force in September 2017. However up to now, the BWMC has not been fully implemented by Malaysia for ships operating in its waters. This paper analyse the headway in implementing the provisions of the BWMC in Malaysia as well as the issues and challenges encountered for the implementation. The paper concludes that Malaysian government should promulgate laws and policies to clearly communicate on ballast water issues to the shipping industry communities.


Assuntos
Espécies Introduzidas , Navios , Poluição da Água/prevenção & controle , Purificação da Água/legislação & jurisprudência , Política Ambiental/legislação & jurisprudência , Malásia , Navios/legislação & jurisprudência , Poluição da Água/legislação & jurisprudência , Purificação da Água/normas
15.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(9): 574, 2019 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422465

RESUMO

Historic management actions authorized or allowed by federal land management agencies have had a profound negative effect on salmon, trout, and char populations and their habitats. To rectify past failings, in the 1990s, federal agencies in the Interior Columbia River Basin modified how they conducted land management activities to foster the conservation of aquatic species. The primary policy changes were to provide additional protection and restoration of lands near streams, lakes, and wetlands. What remains uncertain was whether these changes have altered the trajectory of stream habitat conditions. To address this question, we evaluate the status and trends of ten stream habitat attributes; wood frequency, wood volume, residual pool depth, percent pool, pool frequency, pool tail fines (< 6 mm), median particle size, percent undercut banks, bank angle, and streambank stability in managed and reference catchments following changes in management policies. Our review of these data support the hypothesis that changes made in management standards and guidelines in the 1990s are related to improved stream conditions. Determining the precise magnitude of changes in stream conditions that resulted from the modification of land management policies is difficult due to the shifting environmental baseline. By understanding and accounting for how changes in stream conditions reflect improved land management policies and broader environmental trends, federal agencies will be better situated to make project level decisions that benefit aquatic resources.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/legislação & jurisprudência , Ecossistema , Política Ambiental/legislação & jurisprudência , Salmonidae , Animais , Noroeste dos Estados Unidos , Parques Recreativos , Rios
16.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(28): 29191-29211, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31392618

RESUMO

China is a vast country with a wide range of difference in local customs and practices, whose governments at all levels have certain flexibility in policy formulation and implementation accordingly. Therefore, it is necessary to compare the impacts of environmental regulations (ERs) on subjective well-being (SWB) in different areas, which was totally overlooked by many scholars. Combining environmental regulations data with subjective well-being data from CGSS (2015), we conduct an empirical study on the linear and non-linear relationships between three different types of ERs and SWB in this study, then, we further verify the lag effects because of the time lag-related policies. Research results provide support that (1) in the eastern region, when command-and-control regulations(CMCER) and market-based regulations (MBER) have a reversed "U"-shaped curve connection with SWB, informal regulations (INFER) would reduce subjective well-being, and (2) for the central region, a "U"-shaped curve relationship exists between CMCER with SWB, while MBER and INFER have no significant impact, and (3) in the western region, MBER can promote SWB more sharply, and CMCER and INFER play negative roles in SWB improvement. Finally, by comparing the hysteresis results of different regions, we find that INFER and MBER are required to be strengthened for all above regions. In addition, implementation of CMCER is the highlight point for western region. Our findings have meaningful policy implications and the government should develop appropriate environmental regulations based on local conditions.


Assuntos
Política Ambiental/legislação & jurisprudência , Qualidade de Vida , China , Pesquisa Empírica , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Opinião Pública , Análise de Regressão , Fatores de Tempo
18.
Nature ; 571(7765): 335-342, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31316194

RESUMO

Research reported during the past decade has shown that global warming is roughly proportional to the total amount of carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere. This makes it possible to estimate the remaining carbon budget: the total amount of anthropogenic carbon dioxide that can still be emitted into the atmosphere while holding the global average temperature increase to the limit set by the Paris Agreement. However, a wide range of estimates for the remaining carbon budget has been reported, reducing the effectiveness of the remaining carbon budget as a means of setting emission reduction targets that are consistent with the Paris Agreement. Here we present a framework that enables us to track estimates of the remaining carbon budget and to understand how these estimates can improve over time as scientific knowledge advances. We propose that application of this framework may help to reconcile differences between estimates of the remaining carbon budget and may provide a basis for reducing uncertainty in the range of future estimates.


Assuntos
Atmosfera/química , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Aquecimento Global/prevenção & controle , Aquecimento Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Metas , Modelos Teóricos , Temperatura Ambiente , Política Ambiental/legislação & jurisprudência , Retroalimentação , Aquecimento Global/legislação & jurisprudência , Atividades Humanas/legislação & jurisprudência , Cooperação Internacional/legislação & jurisprudência , Paris , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Tempo , Incerteza
19.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(25): 25789-25801, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31270767

RESUMO

The significance of the natural geographical characteristics and ecological formation of the Coastline Mediterranean Countries (CMC) suggests a further examination of the dynamics of the renewable energy consumption (renewables) within the aforesaid region. As such, the dynamic impact of carbon emissions and the housing construction policy vis-à-vis dwellings, building and residential developments on the renewable energy consumption is investigated among Spain, France, Slovenia, Greece, Turkey, Lebanon and Israel. The dynamic autoregressive distributed lag methods of the pooled mean group, mean group and dynamic fixed-effect estimators are adopted for the empirical investigation over the periods 1999-2014 with real income and tourism employed as an additional variable. Using the PMG estimators, empirical results show that positive and statistically significant relationship exists among the variables in the long run. A 1% increase in housing construction policy, real income tourism and carbon emissions leads to (0.955), (8.622), (0.007) and (6.805) increase in renewable energy growth, while deviations in the short run significantly adjust to long-run equilibrium under an unforeseen disturbance at a moderate annual speed of about 73% annually. The inference from the short-run estimated coefficients indicates that housing construction policy is not a driver of renewables in Israel. From a policy standpoint, proposed strategic housing development policy and environmental pollution mitigation policy by policymakers should be void of causing a disservice toward the enrichment of renewable energy generation domestically in the panel countries.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Política Ambiental/legislação & jurisprudência , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Carbono , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Poluição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , França , Grécia , Habitação , Renda , Líbano , Energia Renovável , Eslovênia , Espanha , Turquia
20.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(26): 26472-26487, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31290043

RESUMO

Environmental regulations affect employment through productivity output and factor substitution. This paper employs a difference-in-differences (DID) method to investigate the effect of China's Two Control Zones (TCZ) policy on the urban employment in 287 cities from 1994 to 2009. We apply the DID method to two time points: 1998 for policy issuance and 2000 for the policy implementation. From the results of analyses on full-sample cities, the TCZ policy did not contribute to increasing total urban employment. Moreover, a negative impact on employment resulted from sulfur dioxide and acid rain controls in secondary and tertiary industries, respectively. In the acid rain control zone, the TCZ policy increased the average wage of urban workers. Negative effects on employment were observed in larger cities. The policy triggered labor migration from larger to smaller cities, resulting in significant increases in primary and tertiary industry employment in smaller cities, although the effects on mid-size cities were insignificant. This study provides important empirical evidence and insight into the impact of the TCZ policy on urban employment.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Econômico , Emigração e Imigração/tendências , Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Política Ambiental/legislação & jurisprudência , Regulamentação Governamental , China , Cidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Política Ambiental/economia , Humanos
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