Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 229
Filtrar
2.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4337, 2019 09 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31554811

RESUMO

Substantial quantities of air pollution and related health impacts are ultimately attributable to household consumption. However, how consumption pattern affects air pollution impacts remains unclear. Here we show, of the 1.08 (0.74-1.42) million premature deaths due to anthropogenic PM2.5 exposure in China in 2012, 20% are related to household direct emissions through fuel use and 24% are related to household indirect emissions embodied in consumption of goods and services. Income is strongly associated with air pollution-related deaths for urban residents in which health impacts are dominated by indirect emissions. Despite a larger and wealthier urban population, the number of deaths related to rural consumption is higher than that related to urban consumption, largely due to direct emissions from solid fuel combustion in rural China. Our results provide quantitative insight to consumption-based accounting of air pollution and related deaths and may inform more effective and equitable clean air policies in China.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/análise , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Mortalidade Prematura/tendências , Saúde da População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Saúde da População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/estatística & dados numéricos , China , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Política Ambiental/legislação & jurisprudência , Política Ambiental/tendências , Características da Família , Humanos , Mortalidade Prematura/etnologia , Material Particulado/análise
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 683: 729-736, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31150893

RESUMO

Individual low-carbon behavior plays an important role in reducing carbon emissions and improving the ecological health of the environment. This study explored the factors that influence individuals' low-carbon behavior and the variations between different groups. A questionnaire measuring seven dimensions (including low-carbon awareness, low-carbon knowledge, personal norms, social norms, situational factors, private low-carbon behavior, and public low-carbon behavior) was distributed to the residents of Tianjin, yielding 418 valid responses. The results indicated that low-carbon awareness, low-carbon knowledge, personal norms, social norms, and situational factors had an impact on residents' low-carbon behavior. In particular, the level of public low-carbon behavior was higher than private low-carbon behavior. Second, by exploring the effects of situational factors on residents' low-carbon behaviors, we found that situational factors inhibited both private and public low-carbon behaviors. Third, in different groups based on age, gender, income, education, and other variables there were differences in impact effects. This research has significant potential for guiding residents' low-carbon behavior and improving low-carbon management.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Carbono/análise , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Ecologia , Política Ambiental/tendências , China , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/tendências , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(7): 422, 2019 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31177407

RESUMO

Modeling spatial-temporal dynamic of land use change is of great necessity for understanding the status of the past, causes of the change, and prediction of the future. This study aims to objectify three topics which include identifying the past land use changes, modeling the future changes, and subsequently considering their driving forces. The change detection analysis has shown that about 12,081.8 ha of the study area has changed since 1984 to 2014. Moreover, the models of cellular automata (CA) and Markov chain were applied in order to predict the land use changes of 2024 and 2034. The simulated transition matrix showed that about 6780 ha and 10,835 ha would change during the periods of 2014-2024 and 2014-2034, respectively. Furthermore, the results of the logistic regression model showed that the human driving forces of distance to roads, distance to wells, distance to streams, and distance to residential areas have had a negative effect on the process land use changes. Additionally, a questionnaire was used to obtain information considering the management factors of preventing land use changes, the perception of the natural resources' experts and in turn finding some socioeconomic and policy forces on land use changes. The Friedman's test analysis indicates that the factors of the official rules of government, economy, weakness of regulatory systems, and development activities, e.g., infrastructure and industrial projects, were identified as the leading causes of converting natural ecosystems to other land uses, particularly to cropland. Therefore, the decision-makers and managers should be assigned comprehensive planning for the protection, restoration, and development of natural resources, especially in this region.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/tendências , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Política Ambiental/tendências , Modelos Teóricos , Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Cadeias de Markov , Fatores Socioeconômicos
10.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2095, 2019 05 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31064982

RESUMO

The health co-benefits of CO2 mitigation can provide a strong incentive for climate policy through reductions in air pollutant emissions that occur when targeting shared sources. However, reducing air pollutant emissions may also have an important co-harm, as the aerosols they form produce net cooling overall. Nevertheless, aerosol impacts have not been fully incorporated into cost-benefit modeling that estimates how much the world should optimally mitigate. Here we find that when both co-benefits and co-harms are taken fully into account, optimal climate policy results in immediate net benefits globally, overturning previous findings from cost-benefit models that omit these effects. The global health benefits from climate policy could reach trillions of dollars annually, but will importantly depend on the air quality policies that nations adopt independently of climate change. Depending on how society values better health, economically optimal levels of mitigation may be consistent with a target of 2 °C or lower.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , Análise Custo-Benefício , Política Ambiental/economia , Saúde Global/economia , Efeito Estufa/economia , Aerossóis , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/economia , Mudança Climática , Política Ambiental/tendências , Saúde Global/tendências , Humanos
12.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(20): 20264-20276, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31098905

RESUMO

In this study, the validity of the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis is examined with the newly developed bootstrap autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) approach by incorporating the effects of trade openness for Turkey from 1969 to 2017. The bootstrap ARDL approach results show that there is a long-run relationship between per capita carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, per capita real income, and trade openness in the presence of one structural break. The results of the long-run estimators indicate that the inverted U-shaped EKC hypothesis is valid, and trade openness has an increasing impact on CO2 emissions. However, Turkey has not yet reached the level of income necessary to reduce pollution. The results of the Fourier Toda-Yamamoto Granger causality test also show that unidirectional causality runs through per capita real income and trade openness to per capita CO2 emissions. In addition to these findings, it has been determined that the decrease in growth rate and production experienced during the 2001 financial crisis in Turkey reduced environmental pollution in both the short and long runs. Consequently, these results show that the scale and composition effects outweigh for economic growth and trade openness in Turkey.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Desenvolvimento Econômico/tendências , Política Ambiental/tendências , Poluição Ambiental/economia , Dióxido de Carbono/economia , Recessão Econômica/tendências , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Produto Interno Bruto/tendências , Humanos , Turquia
14.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1236, 2019 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30874557

RESUMO

Awareness of the human health impacts of exposure to air pollution is growing rapidly. For example, it has become evident that the adverse health effects of air pollution are more pronounced in disadvantaged populations. Policymakers in many jurisdictions have responded to this evidence by enacting initiatives that lead to lower concentrations of air pollutants, such as urban traffic restrictions. In this review, we focus on the interplay between advances in environmental exposure assessment and developments in policy. We highlight recent progress in the granular measurement of air pollutants and individual-level exposures, and how this has enabled focused local policy actions. Finally, we detail an illustrative study designed to link individual-level health-relevant exposures with economic, behavioral, biological, familial, and environmental variables.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , Exposição Ambiental/prevenção & controle , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Monitoramento Ambiental/legislação & jurisprudência , Política Ambiental/tendências , Saúde Global , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Fatores Socioeconômicos
16.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 140: 146-156, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30803628

RESUMO

We estimate economic benefits for seaside recreation and waterfront property when reducing nitrogen leaching to coastal water bodies. We apply impact pathway and benefit transfer methodology, linking total nitrogen concentration to water clarity (Secchi-depth). Ten catchments are analyzed comparing results for 2010 to a policy scenario that complies with the EU Water Framework Directive. The scenario reduces leaching with 5200 ton N, downstream discharges to estuaries by 35% and provide significant Secchi-depth improvements. Our integrated assessment predicts an annual economic benefit for local residents of €35 million, and co-benefits of up to €57 million. Benefits are catchment-specific and differ for downstream discharges from €1 to €32 per kg N, while for upstream discharge losses they range up to €10 per kg N. When expressed per unit of farmland the policy scenario displays economic benefits spanning €8-176/ha. The span reflects the different physical, biological and human circumstances of each catchment.


Assuntos
Agricultura/tendências , Indústria da Construção/economia , Nitrogênio/economia , Recreação/economia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/economia , Qualidade da Água/normas , Análise Custo-Benefício , Dinamarca , Política Ambiental/economia , Política Ambiental/tendências , Estuários , Humanos , Nitrogênio/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
18.
PLoS One ; 14(1): e0209557, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30650086

RESUMO

As the sport of outdoor rock climbing rapidly grows, there is increasing pressure to understand how it can affect communities of organisms in cliff habitats. To that end, we surveyed 32 cliff sites in Boulder, Colorado, USA, and assessed the relative roles of human recreation and natural habitat features as drivers of bird diversity and activity. We detected only native avian species during our observations. Whereas avian abundance was not affected by climbing, avian species diversity and community conservation value were higher at low-use climbing formations. Models indicated that climber presence and cliff aspect were important predictors of both avian diversity and avian cliff use within our study area, while long-term climbing use frequency has a smaller, but still negative association with conservation value and cliff use by birds in the area. In contrast, the diversity of species on the cliff itself was not affected by any of our measured factors. To assess additional community dynamics, we surveyed vegetation and arthropods at ten site pairs. Climbing negatively affected lichen communities, but did not significantly affect other vegetation metrics or arthropods. We found no correlations between avian diversity and diversity of either vegetation or arthropods. Avian cliff use rate was positively correlated with arthropod biomass. We conclude that while rock climbing is associated with lower community diversity at cliffs, some common cliff-dwelling birds, arthropods and plants appear to be tolerant of climbing activity. An abiotic factor, cliff aspect strongly affected patterns of both avian diversity and cliff use, suggesting that the negative effects of rock climbing may be mitigated by informed management of cliff habitat that considers multiple site features.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Montanhismo/ética , Animais , Artrópodes , Biodiversidade , Biomassa , Aves , Colorado , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Política Ambiental/tendências , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Montanhismo/tendências , Plantas
19.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(3): 2882-2897, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30499086

RESUMO

This study provides a comprehensive assessment of firms' operation and environmental protection polices in Nigeria and Ghana, where there has been a rising industrial growth amidst low regulatory and institutional frameworks. We analyze the extents to which firms' adoption of environmental protection policies affect their performances. We use firm-level data of 842 firms (447 for Nigeria and 395 for Ghana) distributed across different regions of both countries for our descriptive and econometric estimations. We find, among other things, that firms' adoption of internal policies on environmental protection is dismally low in both Nigeria (32%) and Ghana (17%), with policies focused on reducing solid (38%, Nigeria; and 35%, Ghana), gaseous (22%, Nigeria; and 44%, Ghana), and liquid (24%, Nigeria; and 14%, Ghana) pollution. Training appears to be an important intervention that can help improve firms' adoption of such policies. We also found that firms' adoption and implementation of environmental protection policies significantly improve their performance.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Política Ambiental/tendências , Poluição Ambiental/prevenção & controle , Empresa de Pequeno Porte , Gana , Humanos , Indústrias , Nigéria
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA