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1.
Nutrients ; 12(11)2020 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33105731

RESUMO

COVID-19 negatively impacts nutritional status and as such identification of nutritional risk and consideration of the need for nutrition support should be fundamental in this patient group. In recent months, clinical nutrition professional organisations across the world have published nutrition support recommendations for health care professionals. This review summarises key themes of those publications linked to nutrition support of adults with or recovering from COVID-19 outside of hospital. Using our search criteria, 15 publications were identified from electronic databases and websites of clinical nutrition professional organisations, worldwide up to 19th June 2020. The key themes across these publications included the importance in the community setting of: (i) screening for malnutrition, which can be achieved by remote consultation; (ii) care plans with appropriate nutrition support, which may include food based strategies, oral nutritional supplements and referral to a dietitian; (iii) continuity of nutritional care between settings including rapid communication at discharge of malnutrition risk and requirements for ongoing nutrition support. These themes, and indeed the importance of nutritional care, are fundamental and should be integrated into pathways for the rehabilitation of patients recovering from COVID-19.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/reabilitação , Desnutrição/terapia , Política Nutricional , Terapia Nutricional/normas , Pneumonia Viral/reabilitação , Adulto , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Desnutrição/virologia , Pandemias , Alta do Paciente , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Medição de Risco
2.
Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 55(10): 704-709, 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33045779

RESUMO

The achievements and breakthroughs in scientific field have provided scientific evidence for the relationship amongst diet, nutrition and chronic diseases, including oral diseases. Thus many international organizations and the governments of most countries were pushed to pay their attention to the prevention of chronic diseases by dietary patterns. From 1989 to 2018, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and World Health Organization organized expert consultations for many times to issue a series of global strategies and action plans on diet and health. The governments of China, Japan and US had produced the Dietary Guidelines for Residents. The results showed that the morbidity and mortality of many chronic diseases had been decreased by following the dietary guidance. However, the scientific achievements did not seem to produce tremendous enhancement in public health for various reasons. In the present article, the authors analyses the relationship between contemporary dietary patterns and oral health, and make suggestions on preventing and controlling oral diseases via dietary patterns for policy makers and dental professionals.


Assuntos
Dieta , Política Nutricional , China , Japão , Saúde Pública
3.
Artigo em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52937

RESUMO

[ABSTRACT]. Objective. To identify how countries have positioned themselves to fight against all forms of malnutrition. Methods. Qualitative, exploratory, and descriptive study of the statements of 91 out of the 127 (71.7%) countries that issued declarations in the Second International Conference on Nutrition. Results. According to the analysis of the official statements from the Conference, countries still responded to nutrition issues in a traditional way. Food systems were part of the narrative and mentioned as part of the problem and solution, but little thought was given to their determinants. Conclusions. The Decade of Action on Nutrition is spurred on by the urgent need to coordinate global endeavors in the fight against malnutrition and could aggregate efforts in prioritizing actions to address the determinants rather than the biological outcomes of malnutrition–which requires commitments–; and strengthening the countries’ ability to implement robust regulatory measures. These measures could be empowered through efforts across different levels, making use of multilateral spaces, and through strengthening civil society participation, including developing better mechanisms for the recognition and control of conflicts of interest across different political spaces.


[RESUMEN]. Objetivo. Identificar la posición de los países para luchar contra todas las formas de malnutrición. Métodos. Estudio cualitativo, exploratorio y descriptivo de las declaraciones de 91 de los 127 (71,7%) países que emitieron declaraciones en la Segunda Conferencia Internacional sobre Nutrición. Resultados. Según el análisis de las declaraciones oficiales en la Conferencia, los países siguieron respondiendo a problemas relacionados con la nutrición de manera tradicional. Se mencionaron los sistemas alimentarios como parte del problema y la solución, pero se prestaba poca atención a sus determinantes. Conclusiones. El Decenio de Acción sobre la Nutrición se ve impulsado por la urgente necesidad de coordinar los esfuerzos mundiales en la lucha contra la malnutrición y podría aunar los esfuerzos dirigidos a priorizar las acciones para abordar los determinantes de la malnutrición en lugar de sus resultados biológicos –lo que requiere compromisos–; y a fortalecer la capacidad de los países para aplicar medidas regulatorias sólidas. Esas medidas podrían potenciarse mediante esfuerzos a distintos niveles, aprovechando los entornos multilaterales, y mediante el fortalecimiento de la participación de la sociedad civil, incluida la elaboración de mejores mecanismos para el reconocimiento y el control de los conflictos de intereses en distintos espacios políticos.


Assuntos
Segurança Alimentar e Nutricional , Política Nutricional , Desnutrição , Participação dos Interessados , Segurança Alimentar e Nutricional , Política Nutricional , Desnutrição , Participação dos Interessados
5.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239778, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33085685

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Heightened obesity risk among food-insecure food pantry clients is a health equity issue because the co-occurrence of obesity and hunger is deeply-rooted in systematic social disadvantage and historical oppression. This qualitative study examined key stakeholders' perspectives of the relationship between the U.S. food banking system and obesity disparities among food insecure clients. METHODS: We conducted in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 10 key stakeholders (e.g., food bank director, food bank board member, advocate) who are familiar with food bank operations. Data were transcribed verbatim, coded in NVivo [v11], and analyzed using thematic analysis. RESULTS: Multiple themes emerged drawing linkages between structural characteristics of the food banking system and disparities in the dual burden of food insecurity and obesity: [a] access to unhealthy food from donors; [b] federal emergency food policy and programming; [c] state-level emergency food policy and programming; [d] geography-based risk profiles; and [e] inadequate food supply versus client need. Interviewees also identified social challenges between system leaders and clients that maintain disparities in obesity risk among individuals with very low food security including: [a] media representation and stereotypes about food pantry clients; [b] mistrust in communities of color; [c] lack of inclusion/representation among food bank system leaders; and [d] access to information. CONCLUSION: Future efforts to alleviate obesity inequities among clients chronically burdened by food insecurity, especially among certain subpopulations of clients, should prioritize policy, systems, and environmental strategies to overcome these structural and social challenges within the food banking system.


Assuntos
Assistência Alimentar/normas , Abastecimento de Alimentos/normas , Fome , Obesidade , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Política Nutricional , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos
6.
Cad Saude Publica ; 36(8): e00161320, 2020 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32901703

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic poses one of this century's greatest public health challenges, with impacts on the health and living conditions of populations worldwide. The literature has reported that the pandemic affects the hegemonic food system in various ways. In Brazil, the pandemic amplifies existing social, racial, and gender inequalities, further jeopardizing the Human Right to Adequate Food (HRAF) and the attainment of food and nutritional security, especially among more vulnerable groups. In this context, the article aims to analyze the first measures by the Brazilian Federal Government to mitigate the pandemic's effects and that may have repercussions on food and nutritional security, considering the recent institutional changes in policies and programs. A narrative literature review was performed, and the information sources were the bulletins of the Center for Coordination of Operations by the Crisis Committee for Supervising and Monitoring the Impacts of COVID-19 and homepages of various government ministries, from March to May 2020. The actions were systematized according to the guidelines of the National Policy for Food and Nutritional Security. The analysis identified the creation of institutional crisis management arrangements. The proposed actions feature those involving access to income, emergency aid, and food, such as authorization for food distribution outside schools with federal funds from the National School Feeding Program. However, the setbacks and dismantlement in food and nutritional security may undermine the Federal Government's capacity to respond to COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Abastecimento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Política Nutricional , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Alocação de Recursos/estatística & dados numéricos , Betacoronavirus , Brasil , Governo Federal , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Estado Nutricional , Saúde Pública , Política Pública , Populações Vulneráveis
7.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1268: 409-419, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32918231

RESUMO

The biology of every species has been optimized for life in the environment in which that species evolved. Humans originated in the tropics, and while some natural selection took place in response to behaviors and environments that decreased exposure to ultraviolet light, there has never been a species-wide biological accommodation. Paleolithic nutrition advocates argue that risk of disease is higher because modern diets differ from what was consumed by early humans. Early humans were the naked ape living in the tropics, exposed to high levels of ultraviolet light and vitamin D nutrition (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D; 25(OH)D) averaging 115 nmol/L, as compared to today's population averages that are well below 70 nmol/L. Natural selection from an available gene pool cannot compensate fully to an environmental change away from the one within which the species originally evolved. Vitamin D nutrition remains a contentious area. The epidemiological evidence consistently relates lower 25(OH)D to higher disease risk. However, evidence from double-blind clinical trials looking at preventing new disease in healthy volunteers has been disappointing. But such negative trials have been the case for all nutrients except for folic acid which lowers risk of spina bifida. The Paleolithic nutrition model is based on fundamental biological concepts, but it has overlooked the environmental effects of ultraviolet light and vitamin D nutrition. This paper presents evolutionary and Paleolithic aspects of ultraviolet light and vitamin D with the aim to support pertinent research and, ultimately, public policy regarding nutrition and light exposure.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Modelos Biológicos , Política Nutricional , Raios Ultravioleta , Vitamina D/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais , Humanos , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos , Vitamina D/administração & dosagem , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem , Vitaminas/metabolismo
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32872501

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: National School Lunch Program (NSLP) standards have improved school lunch dietary quality (DQ), however, further improvements could be made. Acceptability and feasibility of higher DQ are potential barriers. Thus, the purpose is to compare acceptability and feasibility of best practice (BPSL, optimizing DQ) with typical school lunches (TSL, meeting minimum NSLP standards) served separately and concurrently. METHODS: Forty elementary school-aged participants were recruited for a randomized crossover trial. Participants attended three meal conditions (MC) choosing one of two meal types-MC1) BPSL1/BPSL2, MC2) TSL1/TSL2, MC3) BPSL/TSL. Acceptability included taste test surveys, weighted plate waste assessments, and hunger scales. Feasibility included meal cost, time, and skill and equipment requirements. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in total taste test score, average total plate waste, or change in hunger (ps > 0.017) before or after adjusting for covariates. TSL was selected significantly more often in MC3 (TSL = 83.3%, BPSL = 16.7%, p = 0.001). Meal cost (p = 0.783) and skill and equipment requirements were not significantly different between meal types. BPSL required significantly longer preparation time (TSL = 60 ± 25 min, BPSL = 267 ± 101 min, p = 0.026). CONCLUSIONS: Results indicate few differences in acceptability and feasibility between BPSL and TSL. This study could inform decision and policy-makers seeking to improve school lunch DQ and acceptance of higher DQ meals.


Assuntos
Serviços de Alimentação , Almoço , Criança , Estudos Cross-Over , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Política Nutricional , Instituições Acadêmicas
10.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236699, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32760079

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Unhealthy food environments drive the increase of diet-related non-communicable diseases (NCDs). OBJECTIVE: We aimed to examine healthy food environment policies in Kenya and identify priorities for future action. METHODS: Using the Healthy Food Environment Policy Index (Food-EPI) we collected evidence on the extent of government action to create healthy food environments across 13 policy and infrastructure support domains and 43 related good practice indicators between 2017 and 2018. A panel of 15 national experts rated the extent of government action on each indicator compared to the policy development cycle and international best practice respectively. Based on gaps found, actions to improve food environments in Kenya were identified and prioritized. RESULTS: In the policy development cycle, 16/43 (37%) of good practice policy indicators were judged to be in 'implementation' phase, including: food composition targets, packaged foods' ingredient lists/nutrient declarations; systems regulating health claims; restrictions on marketing breast milk substitutes; and school nutrition policies. Infrastructure support actions in 'implementation' phase included: food-based dietary guidelines; strong political support to reduce NCDs; comprehensive NCD action plan; transparency in developing food policies; and surveys monitoring nutritional status. Half (22/43) of the indicators were judged to be 'in development'. Compared to international best practice, the Kenyan Government was judged to be performing relatively well ('medium' implementation) in one policy (restrictions on marketing breast milk substitutes) and three infrastructure support areas (political leadership; comprehensive implementation plan; and ensuring all food policies are sensitive to nutrition). Implementation for 36 (83.7%) indicators were rated as 'low' or 'very little'. Taking into account importance and feasibility, seven actions within the areas of leadership, food composition, labelling, promotion, prices and health-in-all-policies were prioritized. CONCLUSION: This baseline assessment is important in creating awareness to address gaps in food environment policy. Regular monitoring using Food-EPI may contribute to addressing the burden of diet-related NCDs in Kenya.


Assuntos
Benchmarking , Promoção da Saúde , Doenças não Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Política Nutricional , Dieta Saudável , Governo , Humanos , Quênia , Formulação de Políticas , Saúde Pública
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32842662

RESUMO

The food industry has an important role to play in efforts to improve population diets. This study aimed to benchmark the comprehensiveness, specificity and transparency of nutrition-related policies and commitments of major food companies in Australia. In 2018, we applied the Business Impact Assessment on Obesity and Population Level Nutrition (BIA-Obesity) tool and process to quantitatively assess company policies across six domains. Thirty-four companies operating in Australia were assessed, including the largest packaged food and non-alcoholic beverage manufacturers (n = 19), supermarkets (n = 4) and quick-service restaurants (n = 11). Publicly available company information was collected, supplemented by information gathered through engagement with company representatives. Sixteen out of 34 companies (47%) engaged with data collection processes. Company scores ranged from 3/100 to 71/100 (median: 40.5/100), with substantial variation by sector, company and domain. This study demonstrated that, while some food companies had made commitments to address population nutrition and obesity-related issues, the overall response from the food industry fell short of global benchmarks of good practice. Future studies should assess both company policies and practices. In the absence of stronger industry action, government regulations, such as mandatory front-of-pack nutrition labelling and restrictions on unhealthy food marketing, are urgently needed.


Assuntos
Benchmarking , Indústria Alimentícia , Política Nutricional , Austrália , Alimentos , Humanos
12.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1038, 2020 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32605547

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Institutions are a recommended setting for dietary interventions and nutrition policies as these provide an opportunity to improve health by creating healthy food environments. In Australia, state and territory governments encourage or mandate institutions in their jurisdiction to adopt nutrition policies. However, no work has analysed the policy design across settings and jurisdictions. This study aimed to compare the design and components of government-led institutional nutrition policies between Australian states and territories, determine gaps in existing policies, and assess the potential for developing stronger, more comprehensive policies. METHODS: Government-led institutional nutrition policies, in schools, workplaces, health facilities and other public settings, were identified by searching health and education department websites for each Australian state and territory government. This was supplemented by data from other relevant stakeholder websites and from the Food Policy Index Australia website. A framework for monitoring and evaluating nutrition policies in publicly-funded institutions was used to extract data and a qualitative analysis of the design and content of institutional nutrition policies was performed. Comparative analyses between the jurisdictions and institution types were conducted, and policies were assessed for comprehensiveness. RESULTS: Twenty-seven institutional nutrition policies were identified across eight states and territories in Australia. Most policies in health facilities and public schools were mandatory, though most workplace policies were voluntary. Twenty-four included nutrient criteria, and 22 included guidelines for catering/fundraising/advertising. While most included implementation guides or tools and additional supporting resources, less than half included tools/timelines for monitoring and evaluation. The policy design, components and nutrient criteria varied between jurisdictions and institution types, though all were based on the Australian Dietary Guidelines. CONCLUSIONS: Nutrition policies in institutions present an opportunity to create healthy eating environments and improve population health in Australia. However, the design of these policies, including lack of key components such as accountability mechanisms, and jurisdictional differences, may be a barrier to implementation and prevent the policies having their intended impact.


Assuntos
Governo , Política Nutricional , Austrália , Instalações de Saúde , Humanos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Instituições Acadêmicas , Local de Trabalho
14.
JAMA ; 324(4): 359-368, 2020 07 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32721008

RESUMO

Importance: The Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010, implemented nationwide in 2012, was intended to improve the nutritional quality of meals served in the National School Lunch Program (NSLP). Objective: To assess whether there was an association between the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 and dietary quality of lunch for students participating in the NSLP, stratified by income. Design, Setting, Participants: Serial cross-sectional study design, using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data from 2007-2008, 2009-2010, 2013-2014, and 2015-2016, of students who were surveyed in the NHANES and were attending schools participating in the NSLP. Individuals who were aged 5 to 18 years, in kindergarten through 12th grade, enrolled in a school that served school lunch, and had a reliable weekday dietary recall were included. Exposures: The Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 (prepolicy period: 2007-2010; postpolicy period: 2013-2016), with participation in the NSLP estimated based on an algorithm. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was dietary quality of intake for lunch, measured by the Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010) score (range, 0-100; 0 indicates a diet with no adherence to the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans and 100 indicates a diet with complete adherence to the guidelines). Results: Among 6389 students included in the surveys (mean age, 11.7 [95% CI, 11.6-11.9] years; 3145 [50%] female students; 1880 [56%] were non-Hispanic white), 32% were low-income, 12% were low-middle-income, and 56% were middle-high-income students. A total of 2472 (39%) were participants in the NSLP. Among low-income students, the adjusted mean prepolicy HEI-2010 score was 42.7 and the postpolicy score was 54.6 among NSLP participants and the adjusted mean prepolicy score was 34.8 and postpolicy score was 34.1 among NSLP nonparticipants (difference in differences, 12.6 [95% CI, 8.9-16.3]). Among low-middle-income students, the adjusted mean prepolicy HEI-2010 score was 40.4 and postpolicy score was 54.8 among NSLP participants and the adjusted mean prepolicy score was 34.2 and postpolicy score was 36.1 among NSLP nonparticipants (difference in differences, 12.4 [95% CI, 4.9-19.9]). Among middle-high-income students, the adjusted mean HEI-2010 prepolicy score was 42.7 and postpolicy score 55.5 for NSLP participants and the adjusted mean prepolicy score was 38.9 and prepolicy score was 43.6 for NSLP nonparticipants (difference in differences, 8.1 [95% CI, 4.2-12.0]). Conclusions and Relevance: In a serial cross-sectional study of students, the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 was associated with better changes in dietary quality for lunch among presumed low-income, low-middle-income, and middle-high-income participants in the NSLP compared with nonparticipants.


Assuntos
Dieta/normas , Assistência Alimentar/legislação & jurisprudência , Almoço , Valor Nutritivo , Instituições Acadêmicas , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Serviços de Alimentação/legislação & jurisprudência , Serviços de Alimentação/normas , Humanos , Renda , Masculino , Política Nutricional/legislação & jurisprudência , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Estados Unidos
16.
BMJ ; 370: m2322, 2020 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32669369

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyse the health and environmental implications of adopting national food based dietary guidelines (FBDGs) at a national level and compared with global health and environmental targets. DESIGN: Modelling study. SETTING: 85 countries. PARTICIPANTS: Population of 85 countries. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: A graded coding method was developed and used to extract quantitative recommendations from 85 FBDGs. The health and environmental impacts of these guidelines were assessed by using a comparative risk assessment of deaths from chronic diseases and a set of country specific environmental footprints for greenhouse gas emissions, freshwater use, cropland use, and fertiliser application. For comparison, the impacts of adopting the global dietary recommendations of the World Health Organization and the EAT-Lancet Commission on Healthy Diets from Sustainable Food Systems were also analysed. Each guideline's health and sustainability implications were assessed by modelling its adoption at both the national level and globally, and comparing the impacts to global health and environmental targets, including the Action Agenda on Non-Communicable Diseases, the Paris Climate Agreement, the Aichi biodiversity targets related to land use, and the sustainable development goals and planetary boundaries related to freshwater use and fertiliser application. RESULTS: Adoption of national FBDGs was associated with reductions in premature mortality of 15% on average (95% uncertainty interval 13% to 16%) and mixed changes in environmental resource demand, including a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions of 13% on average (regional range -34% to 35%). When universally adopted globally, most of the national guidelines (83, 98%) were not compatible with at least one of the global health and environmental targets. About a third of the FBDGs (29, 34%) were incompatible with the agenda on non-communicable diseases, and most (57 to 74, 67% to 87%) were incompatible with the Paris Climate Agreement and other environmental targets. In comparison, adoption of the WHO recommendations was associated with similar health and environmental changes, whereas adoption of the EAT-Lancet recommendations was associated with 34% greater reductions in premature mortality, more than three times greater reductions in greenhouse gas emissions, and general attainment of the global health and environmental targets. As an example, the FBDGs of the UK, US, and China were incompatible with the climate change, land use, freshwater, and nitrogen targets, and adopting guidelines in line with the EAT-Lancet recommendation could increase the number of avoided deaths from 78 000 (74 000 to 81 000) to 104 000 (96 000 to 112 000) in the UK, from 480 000 (445 000 to 516 000) to 585 000 (523 000 to 646 000) in the USA, and from 1 149 000 (1 095 000 to 1 204 000) to 1 802 000 (1 664 000 to 1 941 000) in China. CONCLUSIONS: This analysis suggests that national guidelines could be both healthier and more sustainable. Providing clearer advice on limiting in most contexts the consumption of animal source foods, in particular beef and dairy, was found to have the greatest potential for increasing the environmental sustainability of dietary guidelines, whereas increasing the intake of whole grains, fruits and vegetables, nuts and seeds, and legumes, reducing the intake of red and processed meat, and highlighting the importance of attaining balanced energy intake and weight levels were associated with most of the additional health benefits. The health results were based on observational data and assuming a causal relation between dietary risk factors and health outcomes. The certainty of evidence for these relations is mostly graded as moderate in existing meta-analyses.


Assuntos
Dieta/normas , Política Nutricional/legislação & jurisprudência , Desenvolvimento Sustentável/legislação & jurisprudência , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Doença Crônica/mortalidade , Dieta/tendências , Dieta Saudável/normas , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Saúde Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos de Avaliação como Assunto , Saúde Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Gases de Efeito Estufa/efeitos adversos , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Doenças não Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Doenças não Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Política Nutricional/tendências , Medição de Risco , Desenvolvimento Sustentável/tendências , Organização Mundial da Saúde/organização & administração
17.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 49(3): 345-356, 2020 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32693882

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the changes in the awareness of nutritional knowledge in Chinese adults during 2004-2015. METHODS: The present study used data from "China Health and Nutrition Health" and selected those participated in surveys conducted in 2004-2015, with completed data of demographic characteristics and nutritional knowledge measurement and aged 18 years and above as subjects. We analyzed the awareness rates of Chinese Dietary Guidelines and various nutritional knowledges in adults from different provinces and adults of 9 provinces by characteristics, and evaluated the changes during 2004-2015. RESULTS: There were 9615, 9702, 9999, 12 990 and 15 958 subjects in waves of 2004, 2006, 2009, 2011 and 2015, respectively. Awareness of dietary guidelines in adults from 9 provinces significantly increased during 2004-2015(P<0. 0001), and the rate was 21. 1% in 2015, 2. 9 times as high as that in 2004. The awareness rates of all seven correct nutritional knowledges also displayed an increased trend during survey periods(P<0. 0001), and there was a considerable rise in 2006. Awareness on staple foods was lower in each wave, especially in 2004(0. 9%). The changes in the awareness of all five wrong nutritional knowledges were inconsistent during 2004-2015, in which the awareness on sugar, high fat foods and physical activity showed a decreased trend(P<0. 0001), and the awareness rate of physical activity was lower. Overall awareness of nutritional knowledges in adults tended to increase during 2004-2015(P<0. 0001), however, that in each wave was very low, and just 4. 0% in 2015. Awareness of dietary guidelines in adults from 3 municipalities in 2015 was higher than that in 2011(P<0. 0001), but the differences were opposite for most of nutritional knowledges. Moreover, awareness of dietary guidelines of 3 municipalities(Beijing, Shanghai and Chongqing)in 2011 and 2015 was higher than corresponding rate in 9 provinces or newly recruited 3 provinces. There were similar changes in the awareness of dietary guidelines and nutritional knowledges in adults from 9 provinces by age, gender, education level, residence area and location during 2004-2015 to that in total population, and there were differences in the awareness of nutritional knowledge by demographic characteristics in some survey waves. CONCLUSION: The awareness of dietary guidelines and overall awareness of nutritional knowledges were lower in Chinese adults, especially for the items on staple foods, meat and physical activity.


Assuntos
Dieta , Política Nutricional , Adolescente , Adulto , Pequim , China , Cidades , Humanos , Inquéritos Nutricionais
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32610487

RESUMO

The study aimed to compare the effectiveness of a suite of implementation strategies of varying intensities on centre-based childcare service implementation of nutrition guideline recommendations at 12-month follow-up. A six-month three-arm parallel group randomised controlled trial was undertaken with 69 services, randomised to one of three arms: high-intensity strategies (executive support; group face-to-face training; provision of resources; multiple rounds of audit and feedback; ongoing face-to-face and phone support); low-intensity strategies (group face-to-face training; provision of resources; single round of audit and feedback); or usual care control. Across all study arms, only three high-intensity services were compliant with overall nutrition guidelines. A significant group interaction was found between the three arms for compliance with individual food groups. Relative to control, a significantly greater proportion of low-intensity services were compliant with dairy, and a significantly greater proportion of high-intensity services were compliant with fruit, vegetables, dairy, breads and cereals, and discretionary foods. No significant differences between the high- and low-intensity for individual food group compliance were found. High-intensity implementation strategies may be effective in supporting childcare service implementation of individual food group recommendations. Further research is warranted to identify strategies effective in increasing overall nutrition compliance.


Assuntos
Serviços de Alimentação , Política Nutricional , Adulto , Criança , Creches , Dieta , Seguimentos , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos
19.
Ann Epidemiol ; 47: 30-36, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32713505

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purposes of the study were to estimate the effect of Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 (HHFKA) implementation on dietary quality of all U.S. school-aged children and adolescents and examine whether those effects differed by the demographic group. METHODS: We used survey regression on 2007-2016 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data to estimate the proportion of energy intake from school foods and the association between school food intake and dietary quality, before and after HHFKA passage/implementation. To account for demographic changes in the U.S. population over time, inverse probability weighting was used. The product of the proportion of energy from school foods and the association between school food intake and dietary quality estimated the effect of HHFKA implementation on dietary quality. RESULTS: School food intake quantity remained stable during the study period. HHFKA implementation improved students' dietary quality by 4.3 Healthy Eating Index-2010 points (95% confidence interval: 2.5, 6.1) on days when school foods were eaten and by 1.3 Healthy Eating Index-2010 points (95% confidence interval: 0.73, 1.8) averaged over all days annually. CONCLUSIONS: HHFKA implementation improved the total dietary quality of U.S. school students. U.S. students would benefit from eating school meals in the post-HHFKA era, and HHFKA regulations should not be relaxed.


Assuntos
Serviços de Alimentação/legislação & jurisprudência , Alimentos/normas , Programas Governamentais/normas , Política Nutricional/legislação & jurisprudência , Instituições Acadêmicas/legislação & jurisprudência , Adolescente , Criança , Dieta , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Política Pública , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos
20.
J Infect Public Health ; 13(11): 1619-1629, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32718895

RESUMO

The immune system protects against viruses and diseases and produces antibodies to kill pathogens. This review presents a brief overview of the immune system regarding its protection of the human body from COVID-19; illustrates the process of the immune system, how it works, and its mechanism to fight virus; and presents information on the most recent COVID-19 treatments and experimental data. Various types of potential challenges for the immunes system are also discussed. At the end of the article, foods to consume and avoid are suggested, and physical exercise is encouraged. This article can be used worldwide as a state of the art in this critical moment for promising alternative solutions related to surviving the coronavirus.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Imunização Passiva , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Imunidade Adaptativa , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Política Nutricional , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Virais/imunologia
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