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J Homosex ; 67(1): 35-57, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30335587


The gay/lesbian social movement has primarily been understood as an identity movement. This article contributes to expanding understandings of the gay/lesbian movement by following the advocacy of the Dutch Association for the Integration of Homosexuality COC (COC) as a case of a gay/lesbian movement organization's expansion of its action repertoire to include public policy goals. On the basis of archival and interview data, this article identifies several factors that enabled the COC to see the Dutch government as a potential public policy partner. Previous legal successes and facilitation by the institutionalized wing of the women's movement, coupled with a constitutional change, resulted in the COC's development of a policy strategy. By tracing the history of the COC's strategic interactions, this article demonstrates that, while an identity strategy was constant throughout the COC's advocacy, the organization could combine an identity strategy with strategies of legal change, cultural change, and public policy.

Homossexualidade , Política Pública , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Feminino , História do Século XX , Homossexualidade/história , Direitos Humanos , Humanos , Masculino , Países Baixos , Organizações , Política Pública/história , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/história
Pediatr Clin North Am ; 66(3): 525-536, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31036232


This article briefly covers the history of immigration from the US perspective, including the demographic variation over time and the ever-changing policies. Displaced children and their families are facing increasing challenges to their health and overall wellbeing. Since enactment of the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965, the needs of minors have been caught up in complex immigration policy. Recognition of the unique needs of minors and the Dreamers must be addressed as part of comprehensive immigration reform or in more targeted legislative proposals. The challenges posed by the magnitude and scope of the immigration problem are discussed.

Emigração e Imigração/história , Emigração e Imigração/legislação & jurisprudência , Grupos Étnicos/história , Grupos Étnicos/legislação & jurisprudência , Política Pública/história , Política Pública/legislação & jurisprudência , Demografia , Escravização/história , História do Século XVII , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Dinâmica Populacional/história , Crescimento Demográfico , Estados Unidos
Kennedy Inst Ethics J ; 29(1): 51-66, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31080177


LeRoy Walters was at the center of public debate about emerging biological technologies, even as "biotechnology" began to take root. He chaired advisory panels on human gene therapy, the human genome project, and patenting DNA for the congressional Office of Technology Assessment. He chaired the subcommittee on Human Gene Therapy for NIH's Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee. He was also a regular advisor to Congress, the executive branch, and academics concerned about policy governing emerging biotechnologies. In large part due to Prof. Walters, the Kennedy Institute of Ethics was one of the primary sources of talent in bioethics, including staff who populated policy and science agencies dealing with reproductive and genetic technologies, such as NIH and OTA. His legacy lies not only in his writings, but in those people, documents, and discussions that guided biotechnology policy in the United States for three decades.

Temas Bioéticos , Bioética , Biotecnologia/ética , Genética/ética , Academias e Institutos/ética , Comitês Consultivos/ética , Comitês Consultivos/história , Comitês Consultivos/legislação & jurisprudência , Biotecnologia/história , Biotecnologia/tendências , DNA Recombinante/história , Governo Federal , Terapia Genética/ética , Terapia Genética/história , Terapia Genética/legislação & jurisprudência , Genética/legislação & jurisprudência , Guias como Assunto , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Projeto Genoma Humano/ética , Projeto Genoma Humano/história , Projeto Genoma Humano/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Legislação como Assunto , Masculino , Política Pública/história , Política Pública/legislação & jurisprudência , Estados Unidos
Salud Publica Mex ; 61(2): 202-211, 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30958963


This paper describes the creation of the legal framework and the origin, growth and consolidation of the institutions and interventions (initiatives, programs and policies) that nourished public health in Mexico in the past century. It also discusses the recent efforts to guarantee universal social protection in health. This quest, which lasted a century, developed through three generations of reform that gave birth to a health system that offers protection against sanitary risks, protection of health care quality and financial protection to all the population in the country.

Reforma dos Serviços de Saúde/história , Saúde Pública/história , Política Pública/história , Reforma dos Serviços de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/história , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , México , Assistência Individualizada de Saúde/história , Assistência Individualizada de Saúde/organização & administração , Saúde Pública/legislação & jurisprudência , Política Pública/legislação & jurisprudência , Direito à Saúde/história
Br J Hist Sci ; 52(1): 143-163, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30152303


The 'Rothschild reforms' of the early 1970s established a new framework for the management of government-funded science. The subsequent dismantling of the Rothschild system for biomedical research and the return of funds to the Medical Research Council (MRC) in 1981 were a notable departure from this framework and ran contrary to the direction of national science policy. The exceptionalism of these measures was justified at the time with reference to the 'particular circumstances' of biomedical research. Conventional explanations for the reversal in biomedical research include the alleged greater competence and higher authority of the MRC, together with its claimed practical difficulties. Although they contain some elements of truth, such explanations are not wholly convincing. Alternative explanations hinge on the behaviour of senior medical administrators, who closed ranks to ensure that de facto control was yielded to the MRC. This created an accountability deficit, which the two organizations jointly resolved by dismantling the system for commissioning biomedical research. The nature and working of medical elites were central to this outcome.

Pesquisa Biomédica/história , Órgãos Governamentais/história , Apoio à Pesquisa como Assunto/história , Pesquisa Biomédica/legislação & jurisprudência , Pesquisa Biomédica/organização & administração , Financiamento Governamental/história , Financiamento Governamental/legislação & jurisprudência , Regulamentação Governamental/história , História do Século XX , Humanos , Política Pública/história , Pesquisadores/história , Apoio à Pesquisa como Assunto/legislação & jurisprudência , Reino Unido
Am Psychol ; 73(9): 1221-1223, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30525807


APA's Award for Distinguished Contributions to Research in Public Policy is given to a psychologist who has made a distinguished empirical and/or theoretical contribution to research in public policy, either through a single extraordinary achievement or a lifetime of work. Nicholas Dickon Reppucci is the 2018 recipient of this award. For over forty years, Reppucci "has been deeply committed to the well-being of our communities through the formulation of public policy based on social science rather than intuition." (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

Distinções e Prêmios , Psicologia/história , Política Pública/história , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Psicologia Social/história , Sociedades Científicas , Estados Unidos
Am Psychol ; 73(9): 1224-1235, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30525808


This article provides an overview of my research on children, families, and the law over the past 50 years, while also providing the context for psychological research and action during this time period. The general framework requires using autobiographical information to understand my primary goal of contributing to a research base for intervention and policy change, especially within the juvenile justice system. Overall, my research and action endeavors have been related to prevention, children, and the legal system with changing foci over time: (a) changing juvenile correctional settings, (b) understanding and preventing child sexual abuse, (c) intervening with violent juveniles, (d) exploiting the myth of extreme recidivism rates among juvenile sex offenders, (e) understanding decision-making among youth in legal contexts, and (f) examining violence in teen dating relationships. The article concludes with a brief discussion of dissemination of research findings to policymakers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

Psicologia do Adolescente/história , Psicologia/história , Política Pública/história , Tomada de Decisões , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Delinquência Juvenil/legislação & jurisprudência , Delinquência Juvenil/psicologia , Psicologia Social/história
Cad Saude Publica ; 34(9): e00155117, 2018 09 06.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30208177


This study aimed to analyze the links between the production of biopolitics for breastfeeding and social development discourses after the post-war period, with a view towards problematizing the nature/culture dichotomy by which breastfeeding is often operationalized. The study adopts an anthropological perspective to compare biopolitics for breastfeeding with the changes in developmentalist discourses. The analysis of global movements by these biopolitics helped explain how a network of distinct entities (e.g., government agencies, multilateral bodies, international development agencies, and nongovernmental organizations) have shaped breastfeeding over time in keeping with the prevailing developmentalist discourses and practices. Initially, the developmentalist discourse focused on industrialization and modernization, and breastfeeding was not the focus of public policies. In the 1970s and 1980s, when the developmentalist discourse shifted the focus to child malnutrition and infant mortality, the first global biopolitics for breastfeeding were launched, and breastfeeding practice began to be operationalized as a means to fight these health problems. Meanwhile, the contemporary social development discourse also evokes a process of individual development. Simultaneously, biopolitics for breastfeeding rely on various technologies for this purpose. The conclusion is that developmentalist discourses act as a sociocultural reference by which breastfeeding is operationalized, and thus that breastfeeding is not only a natural process, but also a political, economic, and social one.

Aleitamento Materno/tendências , Política , Política Pública/tendências , Mudança Social , Brasil , Aleitamento Materno/história , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Política Pública/história
Rev Neurol ; 67(4): 133-140, 2018 Aug 16.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30039841


Marijuana is a substance with a long and controversial history. At different times in its history, which goes back over 5,000 years, this plant has been used for different purposes, ranging from recreational and leisure to its use in the treatment of several diseases or to offer relief in processes that entail a certain type of malaise, and including its consideration as a means of relaxation and meditation. Although it was supposed that the roots of marijuana lay in Central America, it is now known that this is but an urban legend with little credibility and that its origins can be found recorded in Chinese medical references dating back to the year 2737 BC. Although this plant was not originally from Central America, it has aroused interest around the world, and above all in Mexico. It is in this country where the use of cannabis has gone from applications in textiles and medicine to its free sale, the bans on its use due to political and social pressures, its tolerance and, recently, its decriminalisation for recreational and medicinal use. Unfortunately there are few references on the history of this plant in Mexico, and thus we have considered it interesting to present some data about the generalities of marijuana, a brief history in the world, the development of decriminalisation in North America, its medicinal uses and its course through Mexico to the present day.

Canabinoides/história , Cannabis , Américas , Canabidiol/uso terapêutico , Canabinoides/efeitos adversos , Canabinoides/uso terapêutico , Cannabis/química , História do Século XVI , História do Século XVII , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , História Antiga , Humanos , Espécies Introduzidas , Legislação de Medicamentos/história , Abuso de Maconha/história , Maconha Medicinal/história , Maconha Medicinal/uso terapêutico , Medicina Tradicional/história , Política Pública/história
Asclepio ; 70(1): 0-0, ene.-jun. 2018.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-173502


Este artículo aporta nuevos datos sobre la médica argentina Telma Reca (1904-1979), particularmente en relación con su inserción en ámbitos académicos y en la gestión estatal a partir de los años treinta del siglo XX. Nos focalizaremos en su trayectoria profesional desde que obtuvo su doctorado en la Universidad de Buenos Aires (1932) hasta que se retiró de la División de Maternidad e Infancia del Departamento Nacional de Higiene en 1948. Durante ese período aplicó en la gestión estatal sus investigaciones sobre el estudio de las condiciones sociales de la delincuencia juvenil y de la educación. Su perspectiva crítica, lejos de implementar medidas punitivas generadoras de una mayor exclusión social, buscó la integración de los menores en la comunidad por medio de políticas educativas y sanitarias

This article will reconstruct the biography of the Argentine physician Telma Reca (1904-1979) who managed to get involved in academic fields and the state administration in the 30´s. We will address ourselves to tracking her professional career from her PhD degree in Medicine (1932) until her withdrawal from the División de Maternidad e Infancia del Departamento Nacional de Higiene (Maternity and Childhood Division of the National Hygiene Department) in 1948. During this period, she focused her research on the study of the social conditions of juvenile delinquency on the public administration. With a critical eye, far from social exclusion and punitive measures, she managed to promote social integration through health and education policies

Humanos , Médicas/história , Política Pública/história , Políticas Públicas de Saúde , Planos Governamentais de Saúde/história , Medicina Estatal/história , Argentina , Administração de Serviços de Saúde/história , Educação Médica/história , História da Medicina
Rev. int. med. cienc. act. fis. deporte ; 18(70): 303-329, jun. 2018.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-180076


En este trabajo se analiza si los diferentes gobiernos que se fueron sucediendo durante las dos primeras décadas del franquismo (1939-1959) utilizaron la actividad físico-deportiva, especialmente entre la juventud y la mujer, para transmitir mejor los mensajes del modelo de sociedad que proponían y conseguir así un mayor número de afines al nacionalsindicalismo. Mediante la revisión documental de fuentes primarias y secundarias se puede concluir que la actividad físico-deportiva no influyó mayoritariamente en las actitudes de sus practicantes, aunque sí que condicionó las posibilidades de practicarlo. El adoctrinamiento y el encuadramiento a través de esta actividad tuvo un escaso éxito, fueron pocos los que acogieron la ideología nacionalsindicalista por practicar actividad física

This paper studies how successive Governments over the first two decades of Francoism (1939-1959) made use of sport and physical activity, especially among youth and women, to best convey the messages of the model of society they sought to achieve and so to increase the number of adherents to the National-Syndicalist system. After detailed analysis of primary and secondary sources, it can be concluded that sport and physical activity did not influence attitudes in most sports people, instead it limited the chances of practising sport. Indoctrination and recruiting through physical activity had a slim success: few were those who embraced the National-Syndicalist ideology by engaging in physical activity

Criança , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , História do Século XX , Exercício/fisiologia , Socialização , Esportes/história , Política Pública/história , Gênero e Saúde , Educação Física e Treinamento/normas , Educação Física e Treinamento/história , Educação Física e Treinamento/organização & administração
Am J Public Health ; 108(S2): S95-S103, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29698097


The Trump administration has undertaken an assault on the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), an agency critical to environmental health. This assault has precedents in the administrations of Ronald Reagan and George W. Bush. The early Reagan administration (1981-1983) launched an overt attack on the EPA, combining deregulation with budget and staff cuts, whereas the George W. Bush administration (2001-2008) adopted a subtler approach, undermining science-based policy. The current administration combines both these strategies and operates in a political context more favorable to its designs on the EPA. The Republican Party has shifted right and now controls the executive branch and both chambers of Congress. Wealthy donors, think tanks, and fossil fuel and chemical industries have become more influential in pushing deregulation. Among the public, political polarization has increased, the environment has become a partisan issue, and science and the mainstream media are distrusted. For these reasons, the effects of today's ongoing regulatory delays, rollbacks, and staff cuts may well surpass those of the administrations of Reagan and Bush, whose impacts on environmental health were considerable.

Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/legislação & jurisprudência , Saúde Ambiental/história , Política , Política Pública/história , Saúde Ambiental/legislação & jurisprudência , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Estados Unidos , United States Environmental Protection Agency/economia , United States Environmental Protection Agency/legislação & jurisprudência
Int J Drug Policy ; 60: 107-114, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28129946


BACKGROUND: Much international drug policy debate centres on, what policies are permissible under the international drug treaties, whether member states are openly 'breaching' these treaties by changing national regulatory frameworks and shifting priorities away from a 'war on drugs' approach, and what 'flexibility' exists for policy reform and experimentation at national and local levels. Orthodox interpretations hold that the current system is a US-led 'prohibition regime' that was constructed in an extremely repressive and restrictive manner with almost no flexibility for significant national deviations. This paper challenges these orthodox interpretive frameworks and suggests no absolute and clear dichotomy between strict adherence and 'breaches' of the international treaties. METHODS: This paper uses historical analysis to highlight the flaws in orthodox policy analyses, which assume a uniform interpretation, implementation and set of policy trajectories towards a 'prohibition regime' in the 20th century. It challenges some existing legal interpretations of the treaties through recourse to historical precedents of flexible interpretation and policy prioritisation. It then examines the legal justifications currently being formulated by member states to explain a shift towards policies which, until recently, have been viewed as outside the permissible scope of the conventions. It then examines a functionalist framework for understanding the likely contours of drug diplomacy in the post-UN General Assembly Special Session (UNGASS) 2016 era. RESULTS: The paper highlights that, contrary to current policy discourses, the international control system has always been implemented in a 'flexible' manner. It demonstrates that drug control goals were repeatedly subsumed to security, development, political stability and population welfare imperatives, or what we might now refer to under the umbrella of 'development issues.' The paper further demonstrates that policy prioritisation, inherent treaty ambiguities and complexities as well as the recognition of broader issues of security and development were just some of the ways in which member states have flexibly implemented the treaties over the last century. This has frequently occurred in spite of apparent contradictions between national policies and reigning interpretations of international drug control obligations. CONCLUSION: UNGASS 2016 inaugurated a new era based on an evolving understanding of the UN drug control system. In this 'post-'war on drugs' era', national and local policy choices will increasingly hold greater relevance than international ones. Further, based on numerous historical precedents, international legal interpretations will likely continue to evolve and serve a reactive functional role in providing the formal scope to justify national and local deviations from past global norms. These shifting interpretations are, and will continue to be, reflected in an interim reliance on treaty 'flexibilities' to explain sustained international cooperation, even as that cooperation shifts to an entirely new implementation framework.

Controle de Medicamentos e Entorpecentes/história , Controle de Medicamentos e Entorpecentes/legislação & jurisprudência , Cooperação Internacional/história , Cooperação Internacional/legislação & jurisprudência , Saúde Global , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Formulação de Políticas , Política Pública/história , Nações Unidas
Cult. cuid ; 22(52): 68-76, 2018. ilus
Artigo em Português | IBECS | ID: ibc-178801


Objetivo: Analisar os elementos simbólicos na capa da Revista da Semana de 1904 sobre a Revolta da Vacina como meio de leitura imagética de um movimento social e sanitário. Método: Trata-se de uma pesquisa documental que utilizou como abordagem as primeiras fases de análise das noções de Erwin Panofsky, pré-iconográfica e iconográfica. Resultados: A Revolta da Vacina retratada na capa da Revista da Semana de outubro de 1904 mostra a imposição do governo de medidas sanitárias e da participação popular na luta contra essas propostas abusivas e verticais com o discurso de prevenção de risco. Conclusão: Com esse estudo, foi possível fazer um aprofundamento acerca de dois personagens que são representantes opostos dentro de uma sociedade marcada por determinantes, disparidades sociais e com políticas que não favoreciam a realidade econômica e sanitária vivenciada; e também retratava a relação de poder vigente na época em que foram implementadas medidas que culminaram no movimento da Revolta da Vacina

Objetivo: Analizar los elementos simbólicos en la portada de la Revista da Semana 1904 en la Revuelta de la Vacuna como medio de lectura de imágenes de un movimiento social y de la salud. Método: Se trata de una investigación documental que utiliza para acercarse a las primeras etapas del análisis de los conceptos de Erwin Panofsky, pre-iconográfico e iconográfico. Resultados: La Revuelta de la Vacuna representada en la portada de la revista Semana de Octubre 1904 muestra la imposición por parte del gobierno de las medidas sanitarias y la participación popular en la lucha contra estas propuestas abusivas y verticales con la imposición de la prevención de riesgos. Conclusión: En este estudio, se realizó un análisis en profundidad alrededor de dos personajes que son representantes opuestos dentro de una sociedad marcada por las desigualdades, y las políticas sociales decisivas que no contemplan la realidad económica y la de la salud como experiencia; y también estableciendo la relación de las tendencias del momento se llevaron a cabo las medidas que dieron como resultado el denominado: "movimiento de la Revuelta de la Vacuna o Rebelión de la Vacuna"

Objective: Analyze the symbolic elements on the cover of the 1904 of Revista da Semana on Vaccine Revolt as a means of imaging a social and sanitary movement. Method: This is a documental research that has utilized as a subject the preliminary phases of Erwin Panofsky's notions, pre iconographic and iconographic. Results: The vaccine's uprising portrayed on the cover of the magazine of the week of 1904 shows the imposition of sanitary measures by the government and the popular participation in the struggle against these abusive and vertical proposals with the risk prevention's speech. Conclusion: With this study it was possible to do a deepening about two characters who are opposite representatives in a society marked by determinants, social disparateness and politics that didn't assist the health and economical reality. And it also portrayed the power relationship in force at the time steps that culminated in the movement of Vaccine Revolt were implemented

Humanos , História do Século XX , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto/história , Vacinas , Política Pública/legislação & jurisprudência , Política Pública/história , Saúde Pública/história