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3.
Khirurgiia (Mosk) ; (5): 120-127, 2019.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31169829

RESUMO

During 2012-2018 in the Russian Federation, pursuant to Presidential Decree No. 599 of 05.07.2012, a set of state support measures was implemented aimed at increasing the specific gravity of Russian publications indexed in international databases. The national project 'Science' (NPS) designed to realize the goals set by Presidential Decree No.204 of 05.07.2018 'On the National Goals and Strategic Tasks for Development of the Russian Federation until 2024' continues and develops the theme of increasing the publication activity of the Russian Federation in the internationalized space. One of the six NPS targets is 'The place of the Russian Federation in terms of specific gravity in the total number of articles in areas defined by the priorities of scientific and technological development in publications indexed in international databases'. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the basic value of this indicator for biomedical disciplines related to the priority direction (paragraph 20c) of the Strategy for Scientific and Technological Development of the Russian Federation. We compared volumes of publication flows of the Russian Federation in 20 biomedical disciplines with a similar indicator of countries ranked fifth in the number of publications on the subject area under consideration, indexed in the Web of Science Core Collection (WoS CC). A 5-10 fold lag of the Russian Federation was recorded for the most part of the priority areas in the field of biomedicine identified by the NTS passport. The impact of public policy measures aimed at increasing the national biomedical publication stream for the period of 2012-2018 was estimated as insufficient to meet the considered NTS target.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/estatística & dados numéricos , Tecnologia Biomédica/estatística & dados numéricos , Bases de Dados Factuais/estatística & dados numéricos , Política Pública , Editoração/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisa Biomédica/normas , Tecnologia Biomédica/normas , Internacionalidade , Política Pública/legislação & jurisprudência , Política Pública/tendências , Editoração/normas , Federação Russa
4.
Am J Public Health ; 109(8): 1107-1110, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31219716

RESUMO

Objectives. To learn about local health policymakers' experiences and responses to preemption-the ability of a higher level of government to limit policy activity at a lower level. Methods. Between March and June 2018, we conducted an anonymous Web-based survey of mayors and health officials in US cities with populations of 150 000 or more. We used descriptive statistics to analyze multiple-choice responses. We analyzed open text responses qualitatively. Results. Survey response rates were 28% (mayors) and 32% (health officials). Nearly all respondents found preemption to be an obstacle to local policymaking. When faced with preemption, 72% of health officials and 60% of mayors abandoned or delayed local policymaking efforts. Conclusions. Preemption is viewed as an impediment across a range of public health issues and may stifle local policy activity (i.e., have a chilling effect). Those working at the local level should consider the potential for preemption whenever seeking to address public health concerns in their communities. Public Health Implications. Local governments should engage with advocates, practitioners, and public health lawyers to learn about successful and failed efforts to meet public health objectives when faced with preemption.


Assuntos
Política de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Formulação de Políticas , Saúde Pública/legislação & jurisprudência , Política Pública/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Governo Local , Política , Governo Estadual , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
5.
Pediatr Clin North Am ; 66(3): 525-536, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31036232

RESUMO

This article briefly covers the history of immigration from the US perspective, including the demographic variation over time and the ever-changing policies. Displaced children and their families are facing increasing challenges to their health and overall wellbeing. Since enactment of the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965, the needs of minors have been caught up in complex immigration policy. Recognition of the unique needs of minors and the Dreamers must be addressed as part of comprehensive immigration reform or in more targeted legislative proposals. The challenges posed by the magnitude and scope of the immigration problem are discussed.


Assuntos
Emigração e Imigração/história , Emigração e Imigração/legislação & jurisprudência , Grupos Étnicos/história , Grupos Étnicos/legislação & jurisprudência , Política Pública/história , Política Pública/legislação & jurisprudência , Demografia , Escravização/história , História do Século XVII , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Dinâmica Populacional/história , Crescimento Demográfico , Estados Unidos
6.
Pediatr Clin North Am ; 66(3): 537-547, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31036233

RESUMO

This article briefly examines the scope of international migration-related issues and issues related to the migration of individuals and families across the southern border of the United States. Immigration issues include designing oversight policies consistent with international treaties yet tailored to suit the unique circumstances of recipient countries; integrating refugees and asylum seekers; and dealing with undocumented foreigners who have gained entry across a border. Most importantly, ways must be found that allow accompanied and unaccompanied minors to live a full and healthy existence as they wend their way through a most difficult time in their lives.


Assuntos
Bem-Estar da Criança/legislação & jurisprudência , Emigração e Imigração/legislação & jurisprudência , Saúde da Família , Política Pública/legislação & jurisprudência , Criança , Demografia , Humanos , Refugiados/legislação & jurisprudência , Migrantes/legislação & jurisprudência , Estados Unidos , Populações Vulneráveis/legislação & jurisprudência
7.
Pediatr Clin North Am ; 66(3): 619-640, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31036239

RESUMO

Immigration laws and policies, as well as related media and public discourse, have a direct and significant effect on the health and well-being of children and families. The purpose of this article is to identify the impact of family immigration status and immigration laws on children's health, to understand the legal system that immigrant children face, and to describe opportunities for health care professionals to engage in advocacy at the systems level, from the local community to Capitol Hill.


Assuntos
Defesa da Criança e do Adolescente , Saúde da Criança/legislação & jurisprudência , Emigração e Imigração/legislação & jurisprudência , Pediatras , Papel do Médico , Política Pública/legislação & jurisprudência , Criança , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Estados Unidos
11.
Kennedy Inst Ethics J ; 29(1): 33-49, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31080176

RESUMO

This article describes oversight mechanisms for clinical research that have developed substantially over the last few decades, including institutional review boards and data safety and monitoring boards. LeRoy Walters and others in the 1970s in the US thoughtfully described the importance of fundamental ethical principles and the application of bioethics to clinical research. Dr. Walters's important essay and work with the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research helped identify and explain ethical principles that guide research. These principles, subsequently enunciated by the Commission in the Belmont Report, remain central to our understanding of the ethics of clinical research and are the foundation of our regulations. In this article, I review some history, successes, and challenges of IRBs and DSMBs to exemplify the significance of understanding and applying ethical principles to the design and conduct of clinical research, and to honor Dr. Walters's contributions.


Assuntos
Bioética , Pesquisa Biomédica/ética , Comitês de Monitoramento de Dados de Ensaios Clínicos/história , Comitês de Monitoramento de Dados de Ensaios Clínicos/normas , Comitês de Ética em Pesquisa/história , Comitês de Ética em Pesquisa/normas , Ética em Pesquisa , Pesquisa Biomédica/legislação & jurisprudência , Comitês de Monitoramento de Dados de Ensaios Clínicos/legislação & jurisprudência , Barreiras de Comunicação , Conflito de Interesses , Comitês de Ética em Pesquisa/legislação & jurisprudência , Regulamentação Governamental/história , Política de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , História do Século XX , Experimentação Humana/ética , Experimentação Humana/história , Experimentação Humana/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido/ética , Legislação como Assunto , Experimentação Humana não Terapêutica/ética , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Política Pública/legislação & jurisprudência , Medição de Risco , Estados Unidos
12.
Kennedy Inst Ethics J ; 29(1): 51-66, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31080177

RESUMO

LeRoy Walters was at the center of public debate about emerging biological technologies, even as "biotechnology" began to take root. He chaired advisory panels on human gene therapy, the human genome project, and patenting DNA for the congressional Office of Technology Assessment. He chaired the subcommittee on Human Gene Therapy for NIH's Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee. He was also a regular advisor to Congress, the executive branch, and academics concerned about policy governing emerging biotechnologies. In large part due to Prof. Walters, the Kennedy Institute of Ethics was one of the primary sources of talent in bioethics, including staff who populated policy and science agencies dealing with reproductive and genetic technologies, such as NIH and OTA. His legacy lies not only in his writings, but in those people, documents, and discussions that guided biotechnology policy in the United States for three decades.


Assuntos
Temas Bioéticos , Bioética , Biotecnologia/ética , Genética/ética , Academias e Institutos/ética , Comitês Consultivos/ética , Comitês Consultivos/história , Comitês Consultivos/legislação & jurisprudência , Biotecnologia/história , Biotecnologia/tendências , DNA Recombinante/história , Governo Federal , Terapia Genética/ética , Terapia Genética/história , Terapia Genética/legislação & jurisprudência , Genética/legislação & jurisprudência , Guias como Assunto , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Projeto Genoma Humano/ética , Projeto Genoma Humano/história , Projeto Genoma Humano/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Legislação como Assunto , Masculino , Política Pública/história , Política Pública/legislação & jurisprudência , Estados Unidos
13.
Salud Publica Mex ; 61(2): 202-211, 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30958963

RESUMO

This paper describes the creation of the legal framework and the origin, growth and consolidation of the institutions and interventions (initiatives, programs and policies) that nourished public health in Mexico in the past century. It also discusses the recent efforts to guarantee universal social protection in health. This quest, which lasted a century, developed through three generations of reform that gave birth to a health system that offers protection against sanitary risks, protection of health care quality and financial protection to all the population in the country.


Assuntos
Reforma dos Serviços de Saúde/história , Saúde Pública/história , Política Pública/história , Reforma dos Serviços de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/história , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , México , Assistência Individualizada de Saúde/história , Assistência Individualizada de Saúde/organização & administração , Saúde Pública/legislação & jurisprudência , Política Pública/legislação & jurisprudência , Direito à Saúde/história
14.
J Aging Soc Policy ; 31(3): 189-196, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30987537

RESUMO

Most older people experiencing chronic health problems, physical disabilities, and memory losses are still able to age in place in their own homes. However, they often need help from others to enjoy healthy, active, and independent lives. They turn mostly to family members, mainly women and usually their daughters, daughters-in-law or wives. But caring for frail elders has become more demanding and complex, and these family members often feel physically and emotionally overwhelmed and burnt out. They concede that they cannot do it alone. Others find it more difficult to hold full-or even part-time jobs. Hiring home (direct) care workers to assist their loved ones can be an effective solution to ease their caregiving responsibilities. However, these personal care aides, home health aides, and nursing assistants are already in short supply. Moreover, going forward the aging of the baby boomer population will result in an even greater demand for their services even as these jobs are often unattractive to American-born workers and turnover is high. This country's immigration policies will make it even more difficult for women caring for older persons to hire these workers. Over 25 percent of home care workers are low-skilled immigrants or foreign-born. However, the Trump administration's policies reduce the number of immigrants entering the U.S. and specifically choke off the various pathways that enable low-skilled persons to be hirable in the home care sector. Female caregivers seeking relief from their caregiving responsibilities will lose out unless we remove these immigration barriers.


Assuntos
Cuidadores/provisão & distribução , Emigração e Imigração/legislação & jurisprudência , Serviços de Assistência Domiciliar/provisão & distribução , Vida Independente , Assistentes de Enfermagem/provisão & distribução , Política Pública/legislação & jurisprudência , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Família , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Política , Estados Unidos
15.
Cien Saude Colet ; 24(3): 1065-1073, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30892526

RESUMO

This paper analyzes the decision-making process involving the formulation of Bill 3077/20081 by the Ministry of Social Development and Fight against Hunger, and its subsequent approval as Law 12.435/2011, which institutionalized the Unified Social Assistance System (SUAS). The methodology was based on bibliographic research, analysis of the minutes of the National Social Assistance Council from 2008 to 2011, and public documents from the Ministry and interviews with key stakeholders who worked at the Ministry between 2008 and 2011. The results showed that the Law aimed mainly to legitimize management practices already underway in Social Assistance and to establish legal certainty for federal managers. The decision to propose the Law highlights the relevance of "policymakers" in including issues on the public agenda.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões , Formulação de Políticas , Política Pública/legislação & jurisprudência , Seguridade Social/legislação & jurisprudência , Brasil , Humanos , Fome , Mudança Social
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