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2.
RECIIS (Online) ; 13(4): 754-767, out.-dez. 2019. ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1047537

RESUMO

Este artigo objetiva analisar o fomento do debate público promovido pela cobertura jornalística on-line sobre a questão do suicídio de adolescentes e jovens negros no Brasil. Para isso, foram selecionadas três reportagens de três veículos de comunicação: G1 ­ Ciência e Saúde (ligado às Organizações Globo), Nexo (jornal digital independente) e o Alma Preta (agência de jornalismo especializada na temática étnica do Brasil). Com o uso de teorias sobre prática jornalística, opinião pública e silêncio, além do emprego da hermenêutica de profundidade, este estudo concluiu que a mídia não promove integralmente o debate público sobre a questão. O G1 ­ Ciência e Saúde reproduziu o discurso da mídia hegemônica, não dando voz para os negros; o Nexo foi o jornal que tratou o tema de forma mais completa, com uso de dados e fontes, sendo negra uma delas; e o Alma Preta foi o que menos abriu espaço para identificação do público negro, com a ausência de fontes e falta de representação.


This article aims to analyze the public debate at online journalistic coverage on the issue of suicide among black teenagers and young people in Brazil. For this, three news from three media were selected: G1 Ciência e Saúde (linked to Globo Organizations), Nexo (independent digital newspaper) and Alma Preta (journalism agency specializing in ethnic issues in Brazil). Using theories of journalistic practice, public opinion and silence, as well as the use of deep hermeneutics, this study concluded that the media does not fully promote public debate on the issue. G1 ­ Ciência e Saúde reproduced the hegemonic media discourse, giving no voice to blacks; Nexo was the newspaper that dealt with the theme most completely, using data and sources, one of them being black; and Alma Preta was the least open to the identification of the black public, with the absence of sources and lack of representation.


Este artículo tiene como objetivo analizar el debate público a través de la cobertura periodística online sobre el tema del suicidio entre adolescentes y jóvenes negros en Brasil. Para esto se seleccionaron tres medios: G1 ­ Ciência e Saúde (vinculado a Organizaciones Globo), Nexo (periódico digital independiente) y Alma Preta (agencia de periodismo especializada em temas étnicos en Brasil). Utilizando teorías de práctica periodística, opinión pública y silencio, así como el uso de una hermenéutica profunda, este estudio concluyó que los medios no promueven completamente el debate público sobre el tema. G1 ­ Ciência e Saúde reprodujo el discurso de los medios hegemónicos, sin dar voz a los negros; Nexo fue el periódico que trató el tema más completamente, utilizando datos y fuentes; y Alma Preta fue la menos abierta a la identificación del público negro, con la ausencia de fuentes y la falta de representación.


Assuntos
Humanos , Suicídio/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Jornalismo , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano , Saúde das Minorias Étnicas , Política de Saúde , Opinião Pública , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Brasil , Meios de Comunicação , Morte , Populações Vulneráveis , Prevenção de Doenças , Mídias Sociais , Racismo , Hermenêutica
3.
RECIIS (Online) ; 13(4): 817-830, out.-dez. 2019. ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1047572

RESUMO

Este artigo mapeia as estratégias de atuação do Ministério da Saúde na rede social Instagram. Realizou-se um estudo de caso no período de agosto de 2017 a agosto de 2018 para verificar como o tema da amamentação foi abordado na rede oficial do governo brasileiro para saúde. O corpus tem 65 posts sobre a questão, que foram analisados considerando as métricas de monitoramento das redes sociais: alcance; volume; atividade; engajamento dos usuários e influência do conteúdo junto aos seguidores. Analisando as estratégias de atuação do marketing social e digital identificou-se a falta de interação e resposta aos usuários e a baixa diversidade de representação das mulheres. O levantamento aponta a necessidade de problematizar as práticas do Ministério nesta rede e propor melhorias para ampliar o diálogo com a sociedade.


This article maps out the strategies of performance of the Brazilian Ministry of Health in Instagram's social network. A case study was carried out in the period from August 2017 to August 2018 to verify how the topic of breast-feeding was approached in the official network of the Brazilian government for health. The corpus has 65 posts about that issue which were analised considering the measures to monitor social networks: scope, volume, activity, user engagement and influence of the content on the followers. Analyzing the strategies of social and digital marketing used by the Brazilian government for health, it was identified the lack of interaction with users and of response to them and the low diversity of women represented on its Instagram profile. The research points out that we need to problematize Ministry practices in this network and to propose improvements to broaden the dialogue with the society.


El artículo mapea las estrategias de actuación del Ministerio de Salud de Brasil en la red social Instagram. Se realizó un estudio de caso en el período de agosto de 2017 hasta agosto de 2018 para escudriñar como se abordó el tema de la lactancia en la red oficial del gobierno brasileño para salud. El corpus tiene 65 posts a respecto del asunto y fueron estudiados considerando las medidas para monitorizar redes sociales: alcance; volumen; actividad; interacción de los usuarios e la influencia del contenido en los seguidores. Analizando las estrategias de actuación del marketing social y digital se identificó falta de interactividad, usuarios sin respuesta y la baja diversidad de representación de las mujeres en lo perfil del gobierno brasileño en Instagram. La investigación apunta la necesidad de problematizar las prácticas del Ministerio en esta red y de proponer mejorías para ampliar el diálogo con la sociedad.


Assuntos
Humanos , Aleitamento Materno , Relatos de Casos , Marketing Social , Rede Social , Promoção da Saúde , Sistema Único de Saúde , Comunicação , Redes Comunitárias , Internet , Nutrição do Lactente , Política de Saúde , Relações Interpessoais
4.
RECIIS (Online) ; 13(4): 923-934, out.-dez. 2019. ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1047679

RESUMO

Este artigo apresenta um trabalho que consistiu no levantamento quantitativo das publicações sobre a Agenda 2030 de Desenvolvimento Sustentável na América Latina, ou que foram escritas por autores afiliados às instituições da região, focando no tema saúde. Foram realizadas buscas em bancos de dados, para o período entre janeiro de 2009 e maio de 2017, e encontradas 127 publicações voltadas para o Objetivo de Desenvolvimento Sustentável 3 ­ Boa Saúde e Bem-Estar. A maior parcela dos resultados (92%) é constituída de artigos científicos que foram descritos segundo o ano e veículo de publicação, instituições de filiação dos autores e sua localização. Quase a metade das publicações (47%) foi feita sem a participação de organizações latino-americanas e em apenas 30% dos casos o primeiro autor pertence a uma organização latino-americana. Esse quadro se torna mais nítido quando se observa a concentração da produção latinoamericana em torno de organizações brasileiras: a produção científica sobre as resoluções da Agenda 2030 em relação à saúde ainda está ausente em grande parte do território latino-americano.


This article presents a work that consisted of a quantitative research about publications on Agenda 2030 on Sustainable Development in Latin America, or written by authors affiliated with institutions in the region, focusing on health. A search using databases on the subject for the period between January 2009 and May 2017 was made, and 127 publications focusing on Sustainable Development Goal 3 ­ Good Health and Well-Being. The majority (92%) of the publications were scientific articles and were described in relation to the year and vehicle of publication, authors' affiliation institutions and their location. Almost half of the publications (47%) were made without the participation of Latin American organizations and only 30% of cases have the first author who belongs to a Latin American organization. This picture becomes clearer when we see the concentration of Latin American production at Brazilian organizations: scientific production onAgenda 2030 regarding health is still absent in much of the Latin American territory.


Este artículo presenta un trabajo que ha consistido en el levantamiento cuantitativo de las publicaciones sobre la Agenda 2030 en América Latina o que fueron escritas por autores afiliados a instituciones de la región con el foco en salud. Se realizaron búsquedas en bancos de datos para el período entre 2009 y mayo de 2017. Se encontraron 127 publicaciones sobre el Objetivos de desarrollo sostenible 3 ­ Salud y Bienestar. Constituyen la mayoría (92%) artículos científicos que fueron descritos según el año y el vehículo de publicación, las instituciones de filiación de los autores y su ubicación. En casi la mitad de las publicaciones (47%) no hubo participación de organizaciones latinoamericanas y solamente en 30% de los casos el primer autor pertenece a una organización latinoamericana. Este cuadro es más nítido cuando observada la concentración de la producción latinoamericana en organizaciones brasileñas: La producción científica sobrela Agenda 2030 en el área de la salud todavía está ausente en gran parte de la América Latina.


Assuntos
Humanos , Saúde Ambiental , Base de Dados , Governança , América Latina , Nações Unidas , Revisão , Artigo de Revista , Academias e Institutos , Atividades Científicas e Tecnológicas , Comunicação Acadêmica , Política de Saúde
5.
Br Dent J ; 227(11): 941, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31844196
6.
J Law Med ; 27(1): 94-107, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31682344

RESUMO

This article focuses on the complexities of regulating Australians' access to commercial surrogacy overseas. Altruistic surrogacy is allowed in Australia but access to women willing to act as surrogates is limited and many Australians now seek surrogacy arrangements via commercial agencies overseas. This qualitative study interviewed key stakeholders in Australia, including clinicians providing reproductive medicine, lawyers providing legal services, consumer advocates, counsellors and health policy regulators. The aim of the study was to explore perceptions of various experts concerning commercial surrogacy overseas so as to identify issues for the establishment of ethical guidelines and surrogacy policies in Australia. A number of issues relevant to Australians seeking commercial surrogacy overseas were identified and in particular, relating to the level of informed decision-making required by intending parents as well as concerns for the welfare of children born. Amendments to current ethical guidelines and protections for children born and entering Australia are recommended.


Assuntos
Princípios Morais , Mães Substitutas , Altruísmo , Austrália , Criança , Feminino , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Gravidez
7.
J Law Med ; 26(4): 764-785, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31682356

RESUMO

Contemporary public health literature contains an increasing emphasis on the commercial determinants of health including the influence of unhealthy food, beverage and tobacco industries on government harm prevention policy agendas and global sustainable development goals. Effective capture by the industries of the crucial legislative process associated with the harm prevention initiatives would have a detrimental impact on public health. This article proposes a qualitative multi-spectrum prototype legislative capture test with broad application to a range of industries and jurisdictions at all levels of government where legislative capture may be suspected. It is predicated on a finding of significant encroachment of the public interest (PI) by special interest groups and reciprocating beneficial conduct between the lawmakers and the group. The test is populated from a critical case study of key New South Wales (NSW) alcohol industry statutory amendments within a doctrinal and social inquiry/power framework. It relies upon parliamentary records and secondary data to analyse critically the 2015 "fit for purpose" (FFP) reforms to NSW alcohol supply laws and their consistency with the PI and other constitutional safeguards. It aligns the reforms with other research relating to the magnitude of alcohol and gambling industry political donations and the operation of the alcohol outlet post reform approval process. The application of the test to the case study finds that the 2015 FFP amendments are indicative of legislative capture and associated clientele corruption - critical new considerations in the commercial determination of health. It also identifies the commodification of the PI.


Assuntos
Saúde Pública/legislação & jurisprudência , Jogo de Azar , Política de Saúde , Humanos , New South Wales , Saúde Pública/economia , Indústria do Tabaco
8.
Epidemiol Health ; 41: e2019038, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715685

RESUMO

The 2019 hepatitis A outbreak has become increasingly prevalent among adults in Korea and is the largest outbreak since that in 2009-2010. The incidence in the current outbreak is highest among adults aged 35-44 years, corresponding to the peak incidence among those aged 25-34 years 10 years ago. This may indicate a cohort effect in the corresponding age group. Causes of these repeated outbreaks of hepatitis A in Korea are low level of immunity among adults, Korean food culture that consumes raw seafood such as salted clam and inadequate public health system. Among countermeasures, along with general infectious disease control measures including control of the infectious agent, infection spread, and host, urgent actions are needed to review the vaccination policy and establish an adequate public health system.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Hepatite A/epidemiologia , Hepatite A/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Política de Saúde , Vacinas contra Hepatite A/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Saúde Pública , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
10.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 318, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31692720

RESUMO

Reliable data on the cause of child death is the cornerstone for evidence-informed health policy making towards improving child health outcomes. Unfortunately, accurate data on cause of death is essentially lacking in most countries of sub-Saharan Africa due to the widespread absence of functional Civil Registration and Vital Statistics (CRVS) systems. To address this problem, verbal autopsy (VA) has gained prominence as a strategy for obtaining Cause of Death (COD) information in populations where CRVS are absent. This study reviewed publications that investigated the validation of VA methods for assessment of COD. A MEDLINE PubMed search was undertaken in June 2018 for studies published in English that investigated the validation of VA methods in sub-Saharan Africa from 1990-2018. Of the 17 studies identified, 9 fulfilled the study inclusion criteria from which additional five relevant studies were found by reviewing their references. The result showed that Physician-Certified Verbal Autopsy (PCVA) was the most widely used VA method. Validation studies comparing PCVA to hospital records, expert algorithm and InterVA demonstrated mixed and highly varied outcomes. The accuracy and reliability of the VA methods depended on level of healthcare the respondents have access to and the knowledge of the physicians on the local disease aetiology and epidemiology. As the countries in sub-Saharan Africa continue to battle with dysfunctional CRVS system, VA will remain the only viable option for the supply of child mortality data necessary for policy making.


Assuntos
Autopsia/métodos , Mortalidade da Criança , Política de Saúde , África ao Sul do Saara , Causas de Morte , Criança , Humanos , Formulação de Políticas , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
11.
N C Med J ; 80(6): 352-355, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31685570

RESUMO

Prisoners in the United States are disproportionately affected by hepatitis C. Addressing the disease behind bars is crucial for curtailing the epidemic in the greater population. Effective strategies for testing and treatment are elucidated here. Recommendations for changes in hepatitis C health care policy in North Carolina prisons are also described.


Assuntos
Política de Saúde , Hepatite C/terapia , Prisioneiros , Humanos , North Carolina , Estados Unidos
13.
J Nurs Adm ; 49(12): 628-630, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31725522

RESUMO

Despite the availability of the political process, it has not been used optimally by nurses to improve negative issues facing the profession. This study indicates that nurses are generally not astute regarding the political process and are not significantly involved. Nurse leaders have an opportunity to educate and motivate nurses to be formidable participants in the political process, champion the healthcare agenda, and propound policy efforts to improve patient care and the nursing profession.


Assuntos
Política de Saúde , Liderança , Papel do Profissional de Enfermagem , Política , Engajamento no Trabalho , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
16.
Rev Sci Tech ; 38(1): 173-184, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564732

RESUMO

Antimicrobial drugs are a precious resource, responsible for saving millions of lives since their discovery. Unfortunately, some antimicrobials are rapidly losing their effectiveness due to the development and spread of antimicrobial resistance (AMR), a multi-faceted and complex problem affecting humans, animals, plants and the environment. While AMR is a global problem, in this paper, the authors briefly highlight some ongoing efforts in the United States of America aimed at integrating a One Health approach into policies and programmes that address this important health threat.


Assuntos
Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Política de Saúde , Saúde Única , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos , Política de Saúde/tendências , Humanos , Estados Unidos
17.
Rev Sci Tech ; 38(1): 155-171, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564733

RESUMO

In order to manage global and transnational health threats at the human- animal-environment interface, a multisectoral One Health approach is required. Threats of this nature that require a One Health approach include, but are not limited to, emerging, endemic and re-emerging zoonotic diseases, food safety, antimicrobial resistance (AMR), vector-borne and neglected infectious diseases, toxicosis and pesticides. Relevant Kenyan authorities formally institutionalised One Health in 2011 through the establishment of the Zoonotic Disease Unit (ZDU) and its advisory group, the Zoonoses Technical Group. At that time, the One Health agenda focused on zoonotic diseases. As the issue of AMR began to gain traction globally, a One Health approach to its management was advocated in Kenya in 2015. This paper summarises a series of interviews (with respondents and key informants) that describe how AMR institutionalisation evolved in Kenya. It also examines how responses to other health threats at the human-animal- environment interface were coordinated and used to identify gaps and make recommendations to improve One Health coordination at the national level in Kenya. Results showed that the road to the institutionalisation of AMR through the National Action Plan on Prevention and Containment of Antimicrobial Resistance, 2017-2022 and a formally launched One Health coordination mechanism, the National Antimicrobial Stewardship Interagency Committee (NASIC), took ten years. Moreover, supplementary actions are still needed to further strengthen AMR coordination. In addition to the ZDU and NASIC, Kenya has established two other formal multisectoral and multidisciplinary coordination structures, one for aflatoxicosis and the other for health threats associated with pesticide use. The country has four distinct and separate One Health coordination mechanisms: for zoonoses, for AMR, for aflatoxicosis and for the health threats associated with pesticide use. The main gap lies in the lack of overall coordination between these topic-specific structures. An overall coordination mechanism for all One Health issues is therefore needed to improve synergy and complementarity. None of the topic-specific mechanisms plays a critical role in the policy development process, institutionalisation or implementation of activities related to the other topic areas. The authors recommend renaming the ZDU as the One Health Office, and expanding it to include AMR and food safety teams, and their associated technical working groups. Through this restructuring, the One Health Office would become an umbrella organisation dealing with all four issues mentioned above. Based on Kenya's experience, the authors recommend that other countries also consider expanding the scope of multisectoral One Health coordination mechanisms to include other shared health threats.


Assuntos
Saúde Global , Saúde Única , Animais , Antibacterianos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Saúde Global/normas , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Quênia , Zoonoses/microbiologia , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle
18.
Rev Sci Tech ; 38(1): 135-144, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564734

RESUMO

Infectious diseases are known to disproportionately affect the poorer sectors of society, particularly those living in low- and middle-income countries. These vulnerable populations battle disease, debt, loss of livelihood and reduced economic well-being with consequences that extend to their families, communities, livestock and the environment. A strong One Health approach is acknowledged as a successful way of enhancing current capacity for the prevention and control of emerging infectious diseases. Furthermore, it is also an effective way to address the multifaceted nuances of poverty. In recognising the interconnectedness of human and animal health with the health of our shared environment, One Health offers a valuable framework to prevent and control emerging infectious diseases through collaboration, coordination and communication across the various sectors involved. In recent years, as examples of One Health implementation have been documented and assessed, the linkages between One Health interventions and poverty alleviation have become more obvious. One Health interventions have the potential to reduce the economic burden of disease and create more efficient systems and approaches that generate higher savings, both direct and indirect, at the human-animal-environment interface. This paper describes aspects of this potential in detail. Although, at present, examples of the relationship between One Health and poverty alleviation are few, they are compelling. The authors believe that they provide persuasive evidence to encourage governments and policy-makers to employ the One Health approach in their efforts to alleviate poverty. Measuring the impact of this link between One Health and poverty alleviation has its constraints since appropriate metrics are still evolving. However, this paper hopes to establish the wisdom of recognising the role that One Health can play in reducing poverty, as well as its capacity to enhance existing policy frameworks.


Assuntos
Política de Saúde , Saúde Única , Pobreza , Animais , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Países em Desenvolvimento/economia , Política de Saúde/tendências , Humanos , Gado , Pobreza/prevenção & controle
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