Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 2.346
Filtrar
1.
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen ; 139(15)2019 10 22.
Artigo em Norueguês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31642627

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The policy on drug use is currently undergoing significant change. This article examines how the view of addiction to illegal drugs changed in the first 30 years after the advent of 'the drug problem' in Norway. MATERIAL AND METHOD: We performed a search in Oria, bokhylla.no and various databases on the history of illegal drugs in Norway, with an emphasis on the period from 1960-90, with white papers from 1976 and 1986. RESULTS: Until the mid-1960s, Norway had very few opiate abusers. This generally concerned abuse of medically prescribed drugs, and was perceived as an internal problem for the health services. The youth counterculture in the late 1960s brought the recreational use of illegal substances to Norway, leading to major concern on the part of the public authorities. 'The drug problem' was now perceived as a significant societal problem, with social and societal causal explanations, and was therefore the subject of a white paper (1976). The next white paper (1986) put forward the ideal of a 'drug-free society' for the first time, with the purpose of general deterrence and strict sentencing as important instruments. INTERPRETATION: From the early 1960s until the late 1980s, the 'drug problem' was perceived in different ways. At the start of the period, it was formulated primarily as a medical problem. From the late 1960s, it was seen first and foremost as a social problem caused by changes in society, whereas from the late 1970s until the late 1980s, control measures constituted the most important instrument to address the problem.


Assuntos
Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/história , Direito Penal/história , Usuários de Drogas/história , Política de Saúde/história , História do Século XX , Humanos , Noruega , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/história , Medicina Social/história
2.
Bull Hist Med ; 93(3): 365-400, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31631071

RESUMO

An influential policy network emerged from two overlapping developments of the 1970s and 1980s: new research programs focusing on tropical diseases and debates about how to implement the concept of primary health care at the World Health Organization. Participating actors came together in an informal network that, by the late 1980s, expanded advocacy to include the promotion and reorganization of all forms of research that might improve health in the Global South. This goal became associated with a search for new research methods for determining priorities, a quest that reached a peak in the early 1990s when the World Bank entered the picture. The bank brought money, economic analyses, and neoliberal ideology to the research advocacy movement and helped stimulate an upsurge of cost-effective forms of economic thinking in global health (GH) circles. This expanded research network provided some of the conceptual foundations and leadership for several of the most emblematic institutions of the new GH. These included new organizations to bring together and coordinate public and private actors in pursuit of common aims and new forms of economic rationality. The network's advocacy work contributed as well to a massive expansion of GH research at the turn of the century.


Assuntos
Saúde Global/história , Política de Saúde/história , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde/história , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde/economia , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , História do Século XX , Humanos , Internacionalidade
3.
Rev Chil Pediatr ; 90(3): 351-355, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31344197

RESUMO

Although public health and social medicine have a long history in Latin America going back to Co lonial times, their relevance has ebbed and flowed as a result of the development of a variety of social and political movements. The Mexican Revolution accelerated implementation of public health po licies in Mexico and resulted in the creation of the Mexican Institute of Social Security to serve the health and social security needs of the country's population. Construction of the Hospital La Raza and its embellishment by the mural paintings of Diego Rivera and David Alfaro Siqueiros correspon ded to the heyday of public health ideas in Mexico. This is clearly reflected in Rivera's mural painting from 1953, The History of Medicine in Mexico: People's Demand for Better Health. The left side of the painting, representing the history of modern medicine in Mexico, exemplifies the tensions between individuals and social groups demanding the fruits of modern medicine and public health, and en trenched bureaucracy and private interests resisting their demands. Rivera's artistry illustrates this tension by depicting urban social groups and a family with a pregnant mother and children reques ting medical attention on one side of the main panel, facing condescending physicians, bureaucrats and upper society gentlemen and ladies on the other side. The importance of social movements to the development of public health policies illustrated by Rivera in 1953 continues to be relevant in Latin America today where increasing millions still lack the benefits of health care and social security.


Assuntos
Política de Saúde/história , Pinturas/história , Saúde Pública/história , Pessoas Famosas , História do Século XX , Humanos , México , Medicina Social/história
4.
Technol Cult ; 60(2): 409-437, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31204337

RESUMO

During the Second Sino-Japanese War, the technological project of mass immunization united state health administrations and international aid organizations seeking to prevent epidemics in unoccupied China's wartime hinterland. This article examines a joint wartime effort between the Chinese government's National Epidemic Prevention Bureau and the League of Nations Health Organization to manufacture and distribute vaccines against smallpox, cholera, and other diseases in northwest China. The hardships of war presented challenges to the development of large-scale immunization, but also led to the establishment of international aid programs that helped Chinese microbiologists acquire standard cultures, animals, and equipment. Vaccination provided a means for the beleaguered Nationalist government to quell epidemics and resist the Japanese; subsequent state involvement in the process of managing transport of vaccines, organizing and training vaccinators, and mandating the shots suggests the significance of mass immunization, as well as its reliance on technological systems in which vaccines embodied emerging biomedical standards that the state sought to institutionalize.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde/história , Política de Saúde/história , Tecnologia/história , II Guerra Mundial , China , Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , História do Século XX , Microbiologia/história , Vacinação/história
9.
Cien Saude Colet ; 24(3): 1041-1050, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30892524

RESUMO

The scope of this article is to analyze the temporal evolution of the rules that comprise the legal framework of public policies on mental health and on alcohol and other drugs between the years 1900 to 2000. The study seeks to analyze the trajectory of the rules to make it possible to understand a little more about the context and the way in which the issues related to these two themes were addressed prior to the Psychiatric Reform in Brazil, in 2001. For this purpose, documentary and bibliographical research was conducted, with the intention of enhancing the understanding of these two policies from a more normative angle. In the skein of legislation, 33 norms were cataloged which, after analysis, reveal the process of construction of the public policies related to the use of alcohol and other drugs, changing the repressive logic of justice and the "pathologization" of drug use and enabling the transition of the discussion from the field of security to that of public health, more specifically of mental health.


Assuntos
Política de Saúde/história , Serviços de Saúde Mental/história , Saúde Mental/história , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/história , Alcoolismo/história , Alcoolismo/terapia , Brasil , Reforma dos Serviços de Saúde/história , História do Século XX , Humanos , Saúde Pública/história , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/terapia
10.
Rev. cuba. salud pública ; 45(1)ene.-mar. 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-991120

RESUMO

Cuando salga a la luz este número de la Revista Cubana de Salud Pública estaremos celebrando en todo el país, y en muchos lugares del mundo, el aniversario 60 del triunfo de la Revolución cubana el 1.º de enero de 1959. La victoria de las fuerzas revolucionarias no significó la sustitución de un gobierno por otro, sino que representó un cambio radical de la estructura económica, política y social de la nación. Esta transformación posibilitó la creación de una nueva conciencia en el pueblo y en las generaciones venideras, con un escalón superior de desarrollo y un enfoque distinto en la educación en general, y en la médica, en particular, lo que viabilizó crear un sistema de salud que respondiera a las necesidades de nuestro pueblo y de la cooperación internacional. Los autores de este editorial lo quieren es significar el hecho, por cuanto resume en sí mismo la expresión y comienzo de las transformaciones que en materia de salud pública se implementarían. Evidentemente, solo una Revolución como la cubana, auténtica hija de los valores humanistas de los hombres y las mujeres que la han hecho posible, podía llevar adelante los cambios que el país necesitaba. ¿Por qué una nación pequeña, de pocos recursos materiales, bloqueada por el imperio más poderoso y terrible de la historia, pudo proponérselo y logró convertirse en una potencia médica, que no solo garantizó la salud a su pueblo, sino que, empleando sus escasos recursos, formó miles de ...(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Socialismo/história , Saúde Pública/história , Política de Saúde/história , Política de Saúde/tendências , Cuba
11.
Rev. cuba. salud pública ; 45(1)ene.-mar. 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | CUMED | ID: cum-73455

RESUMO

Cuando salga a la luz este número de la Revista Cubana de Salud Pública estaremos celebrando en todo el país, y en muchos lugares del mundo, el aniversario 60 del triunfo de la Revolución cubana el 1.º de enero de 1959. La victoria de las fuerzas revolucionarias no significó la sustitución de un gobierno por otro, sino que representó un cambio radical de la estructura económica, política y social de la nación. Esta transformación posibilitó la creación de una nueva conciencia en el pueblo y en las generaciones venideras, con un escalón superior de desarrollo y un enfoque distinto en la educación en general, y en la médica, en particular, lo que viabilizó crear un sistema de salud que respondiera a las necesidades de nuestro pueblo y de la cooperación internacional. Los autores de este editorial lo quieren es significar el hecho, por cuanto resume en sí mismo la expresión y comienzo de las transformaciones que en materia de salud pública se implementarían. Evidentemente, solo una Revolución como la cubana, auténtica hija de los valores humanistas de los hombres y las mujeres que la han hecho posible, podía llevar adelante los cambios que el país necesitaba. ¿Por qué una nación pequeña, de pocos recursos materiales, bloqueada por el imperio más poderoso y terrible de la historia, pudo proponérselo y logró convertirse en una potencia médica, que no solo garantizó la salud a su pueblo, sino que, empleando sus escasos recursos, formó miles de ...(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Saúde Pública/história , Publicação Periódica , Política de Saúde/história , Política de Saúde/tendências , Socialismo/história , Cuba
12.
Policy Polit Nurs Pract ; 20(1): 41-49, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30774026

RESUMO

There has been a 72% increase in the Asian American population from approximately 12 million in 2000 to 21 million in 2015. By 2050, there will be 33.4 million Asian Americans living in the United States, making this population the most rapidly growing ethnic group in the country. There is a myth that Asian Americans are a model conservative minority group in terms of sexual behavior and safe sexual practices and are not at risk of sexually transmitted infections including HIV. However, they are the only ethnic group in the United States that had a continuous increase in HIV infection rates from 4.9 per 100,000 in 2011 to 5.5 per 100,000 in 2016. Due to state and national methods of data collection for race and ethnicity with regard to sexually transmitted infection and HIV, the Asian American population's data are often limited. The purpose of this article is to identify the potential historical and political reasons why the Asian American population's HIV or sexual risk has not been fully documented and to propose potential health policy solutions.


Assuntos
Americanos Asiáticos/história , Americanos Asiáticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Coleta de Dados/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Política de Saúde/história , Grupos Minoritários/estatística & dados numéricos , Política , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos
13.
J Hist Med Allied Sci ; 74(1): 57-84, 2019 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30576559

RESUMO

The community mental health movement has been generally regarded as a benevolent movement that replaced old notions of psychiatric racism with new ideas about the normality of race. Few studies, however, have explored the movement for its active support for new surveillance and policing strategies, particularly broken windows theory, a policing approach partly responsible for the expansion of prisons in the United States after the 1970s. Looking to racially liberal approaches to psychiatry in the 1960s and 1970s crafted by integrationist psychiatrist Louis Jolyon West and black nationalist psychiatrist J. Alfred Cannon at the University of California, Los Angeles, this essay demonstrates that cultural and biological explanations for racial violence in civil rights and black nationalist discourses renewed surveillance on poor people of color that resulted in increased forms of incarceration, segregation, and discrimination for them by the 1980s. Rather than forward racial justice, I argue that psychiatric discourses arguing for the racial sameness of white and black minds in the 1960s and 1970s relied on scientific and cultural narratives centered on child development, gender, and sexuality that obscured the processes of racial capitalism that continued to produce poverty and sickness in black communities.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/história , Direitos Civis/história , Política de Saúde/história , Serviços de Saúde Mental/história , Psiquiatria/história , Racismo/história , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Política , Estados Unidos
14.
J Hist Med Allied Sci ; 74(1): 15-33, 2019 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30551135

RESUMO

Gerald Grob's work in the history of psychiatry over the course of almost fifty years created a model for how historians might successfully situate mental health in its social and political context, and how inseparable it was from this context. Over the last twenty years, the field has grown tremendously. Historians have incorporated categories of analysis like gender and race, methodologies like cultural history and intellectual history, and sought to continue Grob's quest to understand American mental health history as a critical component of American history writ large. In this piece, we suggest several potential areas for future study. Building on Grob's work on the asylum, we focus on the continued need to explore the texture of lived experience for both practitioners and those experiencing mental illness, both within and beyond the institution. In an era when the politics of deinstitutionalization continue to shape the modern mental health enterprise, we suggest that further examination of the consequences of deinstitutionalization is both inherently rich and relevant to contemporary mental health practice. Finally, we discuss opportunities for historians to engage with policymaking and social justice, pointing to incarceration and juvenile justice as two especially relevant areas for further study.


Assuntos
Política de Saúde/história , Hospitais Psiquiátricos/história , Serviços de Saúde Mental/história , Psiquiatria/história , Justiça Social/história , Adulto , Historiografia , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos
15.
Int Nurs Rev ; 66(1): 17-29, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29571220

RESUMO

AIM: The aim of this systematic review was to provide a critical synthesis of the factors that historically shaped the advancements of nursing regulators worldwide. BACKGROUND: An in-depth examination of the different factors that moulded regulatory changes over time is pivotal to comprehend current issues in nursing. INTRODUCTION: In the light of global health scenarios, the researchers explored the factors that historically influenced the socio-contextual circumstances upon which governments made regulatory changes. METHODS: A systematic search was performed on the following databases: PubMed, CINAHL, Scopus, OpenGrey and ScienceDirect. The review included papers from January 2000 to October 2016 published in English. The authors used the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) and an inductive thematic approach for synthesis. RESULTS: Two main themes were identified: factors underpinning current challenges and historical and contextual triggers of regulation. The first theme was composed of three aspects: education, migration and internationalization, and policy and regulation; the second theme consisted of four attributes: demographics, economics, history of registration and wars, and historical changes in nursing practice. DISCUSSION: Factors that shaped nursing regulation were linked to changing demographics and economics, education, history of nursing registration, shifting patterns of migration and internationalization, nursing practice, policy and regulation and significant societal turns often prompted by wars. CONCLUSION: A deeper understanding of the developments of the nursing regulatory institutions provides the foundation for portable standards that can be applied across an array of jurisdictions to guarantee a better public safety. IMPLICATION FOR NURSING AND HEALTH POLICY: Understanding factors that socially, legislatively and politically have influenced the development of regulatory bodies over time helps to mould local, national and international policies that have a stronger impact on health worldwide. To achieve this, there must be effective cooperation among systems of nursing regulations globally.


Assuntos
Credenciamento/história , Credenciamento/normas , Política de Saúde/história , História da Enfermagem , Legislação de Enfermagem , Papel do Profissional de Enfermagem/história , Cuidados de Enfermagem/normas , Adulto , Feminino , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
16.
Health Econ Policy Law ; 14(3): 355-373, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29277162

RESUMO

The Irish health care system is unusual within Europe in not providing universal, equitable access to either primary or acute hospital care. The majority of the population pays out-of-pocket fees to access primary health care. Due to long waits for public hospital care, many purchase private health insurance, which facilitates faster access to public and private hospital services. The system has been the subject of much criticism and repeated reform attempts. Proposals in 2011 to develop a universal health care system, funded by Universal Health Insurance, were abandoned in 2015 largely due to cost concerns. Despite this experience, there remains strong political support for developing a universal health care system. By applying an historical institutionalist approach, the paper develops an understanding of why Ireland has been a European outlier. The aim of the paper is to identify and discuss issues that may arise in introducing a universal healthcare system to Ireland informed by an understanding of previous unsuccessful reform proposals. Challenges in system design faced by a late-starter country like Ireland, including overcoming stakeholder resistance, achieving clarity in the definition of universality and avoiding barriers to access, may be shared by countries whose universal systems have been compromised in the period of austerity.


Assuntos
Financiamento Pessoal , Reforma dos Serviços de Saúde/história , Europa (Continente) , Política de Saúde/história , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Irlanda , Cobertura Universal do Seguro de Saúde
17.
São Paulo; s.n; 2019. 128 p.
Tese em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-981770

RESUMO

A presente tese se propõe a traçar uma genealogia da Vigilância Ambiental no Brasil. Partindo de um conjunto de chaves interpretativas da obra do filósofo Michel Foucault, congregamos um amplo leque de fontes documentais para compreender os primeiros sinais de uma incipiente medicina preventiva e sua agenda eminentemente ambiental, ainda em um Brasil pré-imperial, e observamos suas transformações em paridade com o desenvolvimento de nossa sociedade - buscando aí encontrar o mote biopolítico, dado que a construção da nação exigia medidas sanitárias que garantissem a saúde da população, ainda que não necessariamente por questões humanitárias. Acompanhamos a transição da agenda ambiental na saúde pública, que leva em conta os impactos do meio ambiente na existência humana para o movimento reverso, quando nos damos conta de que a humanidade está provocando danos possivelmente irreversíveis ao planeta - e como essa nova fase tem afetado nossa saúde. De maneira crítica e reflexiva, discutimos a formação e a dimensão biopolítica da Vigilância Ambiental na atualidade, dispondo de maiores e melhores recursos tecnológicos, mas atuando em uma governamentalidade neoliberal de redução de direitos - que afetam, inclusive, o direito à saúde


This thesis aims to trace the genealogy of Enviromental Surveillance in Brazil. From the standpoint a set of interpretative concepts of the philosopher Michel Foucault, we convey a vast array of documental sources to comprehend the first signs of an incipient preventive care and its respectable environmental agenda, still in a pre-imperial Brazil, and we observe its transformations parallel to the development of our society - aiming to find the biopolitical mote, given that the creation of the nation required sanitation methods that could guarantee the health of the population, even though not by strictly humanitarian reasons. We follow the transtition of the environmental agenda in our public health, which takes into consideration the impact of the environment in the human existence to the reverse movement, when we come to the realization that humanity has been causing possibly irreversible damage to the environment - and due to this also affecting our health. In a critic and self-reflecting way, we discuss the formation and the dimension of biopolitics of the Enviromental Surveillance in current day society, having access to a vast array of newer and better technological resources, but acting in a neoliberal governmentality of deprivation of rights, that also affect the right to health


Assuntos
Filosofia , Gestão Ambiental , Meio Ambiente , Política Ambiental/história , Genealogia e Heráldica , Política de Saúde/história , Brasil , Saúde Ambiental , Saúde Pública , Vigilância Sanitária Ambiental
18.
Salud Colect ; 14(3): 425-432, 2018.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30517555

RESUMO

The huge mobilization seen in 2018 around the right to legal abortion in Argentina is the crowning point of a struggle that has been going on for many years, and that like any emancipatory movement has had different milestones as well as victories and setbacks, but that has never been abandoned. This article considers some of the actions that have marked that history, beginning with the pioneering women of the seventies, and continuing with the Commission for the Right to Abortion [Comisión por el Derecho al Aborto] after the restoration of democracy in the 1980s, followed by the experiences of Women Coming Together for the Right to Choose [Mujeres Autoconvocacadas por el Derecho a Decidir], the Assembly for the Right to Abortion [Asamblea por el Derecho al Aborto], and the present Campaign for the Right to Legal, Safe and Free Abortion [Campaña por el Derecho al Aborto Legal, Seguro y Gratuito], which succeeded in getting the bill that decriminalizes and legalizes abortion treated in the National Congress.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido/história , Feminismo/história , Ativismo Político , Direitos da Mulher/história , Aborto Induzido/legislação & jurisprudência , Argentina , Feminino , Política de Saúde/história , Política de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Gravidez , Direitos da Mulher/legislação & jurisprudência
20.
Asclepio ; 70(2): 0-0, jul.-dic. 2018.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-179146

RESUMO

En este artículo pretendemos mostrar la conformación de un dispositivo de la discapacidad en la España del tardofranquismo. Para ello, y tras unos breves apartados de introducción metodológica y conceptual, analizaremos los discursos y mecanismos destinados al gobierno de la discapacidad en tres ámbitos de análisis: el económico, el médico-social y el pedagógico. El análisis de estos discursos y mecanismos, entendidos en su conexión tanto con elementos previos como con dinámicas internacionales contemporáneas al momento estudiado, nos permitirá examinar y exponer las particularidades de este dispositivo en el periodo propuesto. El artículo concluirá con una serie de consideraciones finales que han de servir de marco interpretativo para ulteriores aproximaciones a escenarios de estudio más concretos


The aim of this article is to show the conformation of a dispositive of disability during the Late-Francoist Spain. In order to do so, we will first introduce the theoretical and methodological framework of the proposal. Secondly, we will analyse both the discourses and the dynamics of the disability dispositive by studying three main areas: the economic field, the social and medical area and the pedagogical practices. The main objective of this particular analysis is to become a tool that will allow us to expose the specificities of the dispositive of disability during the proposed time frame, always in connection with the Spanish previous scenario and with contemporary international dynamics. The article will conclude with a series of final considerations that will serve as an interpretative framework for further approaches to more specific case studies


Assuntos
Humanos , História do Século XX , Defesa das Pessoas com Deficiência/história , Pessoas com Deficiência/história , Política de Saúde/história , Medicina Física e Reabilitação/história , Medicina Física e Reabilitação/organização & administração , Organização Mundial da Saúde/história , Organização Mundial da Saúde/organização & administração
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA