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1.
Eur. j. psychol. appl. legal context (Internet) ; 13(1): 37-46, ene.-jun. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-201547

RESUMO

Politically, religiously, and otherwise motivated radicalization and violent extremism is a topic of high priority in many countries. Therefore, beyond intelligence and police measures, there is a strong increase of psychosocial prevention programs in this field. However, little is known about their effectiveness. We aimed to fill this research gap by conducting a systematic international review and meta-analysis of outcome evaluations. We screened about 14,000 reports on the topic of extremism prevention, but in spite of broad criteria of eligibility, we only found nine more or less well-controlled outcome evaluations from seven countries. Six programs addressed religious/ethnic extremism, one targeted nationalist/separatist extremism, and one different types of extremism. Most evaluations had a quasi-experimental pre-post design, only one contained a randomized controlled trial (RCT). Overall, programs had a significant mean positive effect on behavioral and psychosocial outcomes related to extremism (d = 0.50, SE = 0.12). Regarding the specific effects of the programs on psychosocial aspects such as for example extremist attitudes alone, we found similar results (d = 0.56, SE = 0.11). We found stronger effects for programs with target groups from mixed ethnic backgrounds and approaches addressing both at-risk individuals and participants from the general population. Despite these promising results, the low internal validity of most evaluations and small number of eligible studies limit generalization. More high-quality evaluations are clearly needed. These would help to allocate resources in an evidence-oriented manner and provide a better understanding of the mechanisms of successfully preventing radicalization and violent extremism


La radicalización y el extremismo violento por causas políticas, religiosas o de otro tipo es un tema prioritario en muchos países. Además, más allá de las medidas de servicios de inteligencia y policiales, hay un aumento de los programas de prevención psicosocial en este campo. Sin embargo, no se sabe mucho de su eficacia. Para llenar este vacío en la investigación llevamos a cabo una revisión sistemática internacional y un meta-análisis de la evaluación de los resultados. Revisamos alrededor de 14,000 informes sobre prevención del extremismo, pero a pesar de que utilizamos un criterio de selección de artículos amplio solo encontramos nueve evaluaciones de resultados más o menos bien controladas de siete países. Seis programas abordaban el extremismo religioso/étnico, uno el nacionalista/separatista y uno consistía en un ensayo controlado aleatorizado (ECA). En general, los programas mostraron un efecto promedio positivo y significativo en los resultados comportamentales y psicosociales relacionados con el extremismo (d = 0.50, SE = 0.12). En cuanto a los efectos específicos de los programas en las dimensiones psicosociales, tal como las actitudes extremistas, encontramos unos efectos similares (d = 0.56, SE = 0.11). Hallamos efectos mayores en los programas con grupos diana de antecedentes étnicos mixtos y enfoques que se dirigían tanto a sujetos en riesgo como a participantes de la población general. A pesar de unos resultados prometedores, la escasa validez interna de la mayoría de las evaluaciones y el bajo número estudios que cumplían los criterios de selección limitan la generalización. En consecuencia, se necesitan más estudios con diseños de buena calidad. Estos ayudarían a asignar los recursos sobre la base de evidencia científica y proporcionarían una mejor comprensión de los mecanismos de prevención con éxito del extremismo violento y la radicalización


Assuntos
Humanos , Extremismo , Religião e Psicologia , Política , Violência/psicologia , Manobras Políticas , Exposição à Violência/prevenção & controle
2.
Hist Philos Life Sci ; 43(2): 79, 2021 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34085127

RESUMO

This short paper aims to present some philosophical considerations about the relationship between credibility and the uses of evidence. The point of view regarding evidence and scientific and political decisions in this paper focuses on the current world situation of the COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Política , Saúde Pública , Política Pública , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Confiabilidade dos Dados , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 19: eAO5708, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34133642

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the population assisted in a genetics outpatient clinic, in a medium-sized town, with respect to diagnosis, type of inheritance, and local impact of genetic care. METHODS: Medical records and genetic consultation forms from 2006 to 2018 were reviewed. The variables analyzed were age, sex, origin, current residence, reason for consultation, professional who requested evaluation, final diagnosis, additional exams and their results. RESULTS: A total of 609 patients were seen, 65.9% aged 0 to 12 years. Genetic syndromes were suspected in 15.1%, and 11% presented developmental delay. Neurogenetic disorders stood out among adults. Mendelian inheritance was more prevalent (17.8%). Requests for genetic consultation have doubled in the last 5 years, with 44.4% due to suspected genetic syndrome. CONCLUSION: Genetic consultations have shown to be an important tool for inpatient care, reducing the waiting time to initiate treatment, attenuating potential associated costs, and guiding the families of patients. Outpatient care provided diagnosis and genetic counseling for users from the city and surrounding region, decreased costs and offered a training environment in medical genetics.


Assuntos
Aconselhamento Genético , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Adulto , Brasil , Humanos , Assistência ao Paciente , Política
4.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0252034, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34015013

RESUMO

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has emerged as one of the most dramatic health crises of recent decades. This paper treats mainstream news about the current pandemic as a valuable entry point for analyzing the relationship between science and politics in the public sphere, where the outbreak must be both understood and confronted through appropriate public-health policy decisions. In doing so, the paper aims to examine which actors, institutions, and experts dominate the SARS-CoV-2 media narratives, with particular attention to the roles of political, medical, and scientific actors and institutions within the pandemic crisis. The study relies on a large dataset consisting of all SARS-CoV-2 articles published by eight major Italian national newspapers between January 1, 2020 and June 15, 2020. These articles underwent a quantitative analysis based on a topic modeling technique. The topic modeling outputs were further analyzed by innovatively combining ad-hoc metrics and a classifier based on the stacking ensemble method (combining regularized logistic regression and linear stochastic gradient descent) for quantifying scientific salience. This enabled the identification of relevant topics and the analysis of the roles that different actors and institutions engaged in making sense of the pandemic. The results show how the health emergency has been addressed primarily in terms of political regulation and concerns and only marginally as a scientific matter. Hence, science has been overwhelmed by politics, which, in media narratives, exerts a moral as well as regulatory authority. Media narratives exclude neither scientific issues nor scientific experts; rather, they configure them as a subsidiary body of knowledge and expertise to be mobilized as an ancillary, impersonal institution useful for legitimizing the expansion of political jurisdiction over the governance of the emergency.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Meios de Comunicação de Massa , Pandemias , Política , Saúde Pública , Humanos , Itália , Conhecimento , Mídias Sociais
5.
J Hazard Mater ; 414: 125451, 2021 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34030399

RESUMO

The current paper evaluates the phytoremediation ability and physiological responses of selected resistant plant species to the hazardous levels of elements in the marble waste polluted ecosystem. Preliminary results demonstrate that all the indicator/resistant plant species i.e., Ailanthus altissima, Arundo donax, Cynodon dactylon, Erigeron canadensis, Cannabis sativa, Ficus carica, Lathyrus aphaca, Morus alba, Populus alba, Robinia pseudoacacia and Vitex negundo were the best Phyto-extractors and Phyto-stabilizers for most of the heavy metals in general and Mg, Ca, Fe, Cu and Na in particular (at p < 0.05). Structural Equation Modeling confirmed that marble waste pollution has a direct and significant (R2 =0.80) impact on proline synthesis and hence a role in combating the pollution. Chlorophyll content decreased by 4% in studied plant species when the concentration of pollutants increased. It is concluded that the studied bio-indicators - the abundant plant species of the Marble Waste Polluted Systems (MWPS) have a significant role in its remediation. Increasing proline accumulation and decreasing chlorophyll contents with an increase in pollution in the studied plants show resilience of the ecosystem in response to the external lithospheric toxicities. It is recommended that the recognized plant species could be planted abundantly to remediate the MWPS around the marble processing and other such industries and their catchments.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Carbonato de Cálcio , Ecossistema , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Política , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade
6.
Nature ; 593(7857): 7-8, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33947994
9.
mSphere ; 6(3)2021 05 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33980676

RESUMO

Serology (antibody) tests to detect previous SARS-CoV-2 infection have been in high demand from the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic. The initial shortage of diagnostic tests coupled with asymptomatic infections led to a significant demand for serology tests to identify past infections. Despite serious limitations on the interpretation of a positive antibody test in terms of immunity to SARS-CoV-2, antibody testing was initially considered for release from social distancing, return to employment, and "immunity passports." The regulatory approach to antibody tests was limited; manufacturers were encouraged to develop and market antibody tests without submitting validation data to the FDA. FDA guidance grew more stringent, but many poor-quality tests were already on the market-potentially inappropriately used for individual decision-making. This is a case study describing COVID-19 serology tests and the U.S. market and describes lessons learned for a future health security crisis.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Teste Sorológico para COVID-19/métodos , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Infecções Assintomáticas , Teste Sorológico para COVID-19/história , Teste Sorológico para COVID-19/normas , Previsões , Política de Saúde , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Marketing de Serviços de Saúde , Política , Controle de Qualidade , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Estados Unidos , United States Food and Drug Administration , Estudos de Validação como Assunto
10.
Hist Philos Life Sci ; 43(2): 69, 2021 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33982137

RESUMO

Sitting on the fine line between pathogen 'transmissibility' and 'severity', the Behavioural Immune System (BIS) is responsible for activating behaviours that minimise infection risks and maximise fitness. To achieve self-preservation, the BIS also fuels social and political attitudes. We aim to explain societal changes that may be sparked by COVID-19 by highlighting links between human evolutionary history and our psychological faculties mediated by the BIS.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , COVID-19/psicologia , Política , SARS-CoV-2 , Comportamento Social , COVID-19/imunologia , Humanos , Xenofobia
11.
Pan Afr Med J ; 38: 153, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33995760

RESUMO

Introduction: the medical file is a key element of quality reflecting good hospital management. Many steps have been taken through its history leading up to computerization. This Process allows the sharing of files with both the health staff and patients, while respecting the professional confidentiality between parties. However, in Morocco, as is the case in other countries that are unable to computerize all their hospitals, it is necessary to study first the medical file in paper before proceeding with its computerization. The purpose of our study is to describe the state of the hard copy medical record in our Host University and international hospital, Cheikh Zaid in Morocco. Methods: that is a cross-sectional study that lasted for three months in Cheikh Zaid hospital. The collection of data from this institution was based on the evaluation of 100 medical records of inpatients, seeing as they respond to our study criteria and requirements better than outpatients. Said evaluation was inspired by a clinical audit grid recommended by the High Authority for Health (HAS). Extraction of the results is done using the SPSS 13.0, Microsoft Excel, and Microsoft Visio software. In addition, we used the observation method to correct the errors found. Results: the results showed that 75% of the files are in good condition and well organized. However, administrative documents were missing in 70% of the cases (national identity card, health insurance card and copy of the patient's consent form). Moreover, in 83% of cases, the identity of the person to be notified in case of complications and the consent form were missing. It is also the case for the discharge report. The latter is incomplete in 97% of the cases. Also, the file transfer data from one service to another were missing in 82% of the medical files. Conclusion: according to the results, improving the medical file is necessary both administratively and medically. Thus, all parties, including doctors and nurses must be aware of their tasks and roles in this process. Despite the advances in the computerization of the medical file in several hospitals in Morocco, the maintenance of the hard copy version remains unavoidable and still necessary, to protect the rights of both the patient and his medical staff.


Assuntos
Administração Hospitalar , Hospitais/normas , Registros Médicos/normas , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Sistemas Computadorizados de Registros Médicos , Marrocos , Política
14.
BMC Pediatr ; 21(1): 250, 2021 05 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34044800

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pediatric obesity is one of the most important health challenges of the twenty-first century. Primary prevention of childhood obesity, can lessen its consequences. This study aims to assess childhood obesity prevention policies in Iran through a policy analysis of agenda-setting using Kingdon's multiple streams. METHODS: A qualitative study was conducted using in-depth interviews with 39 key informants and document review from different stages of the policymaking process of childhood and adolescent obesity prevention programs in Iran. The analysis of documents and interviews were guided based on Kingdon's multiple streams (problem, policy and political streams). RESULTS: The important factors of the problem stream were the high prevalence of childhood and adolescent obesity and its risk factors in Iran. In the policy stream, a focus on preventing non-communicable diseases in the health system, increasing the workforce in health centers, promoting health school programs, and creating healthy eating buffets in schools was identified. Under the political stream, the impact of the WHO ECHO program in 2015 and the implementation of the health system transformation plan in Iran in the new government took place after 2013, caused the Iran ECHO program entered the agenda and implemented from 2016. CONCLUSIONS: Now that a window of opportunity for childhood and adolescent obesity prevention policymaking has been created, the problems such as the therapeutic approach in the health system, the existence of sanctions against Iran and outbreak of coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19), have hindered the successful implementation of this policy and the opportunity window has not been well used. However, actors need political support from the high levels of government to keep this policy on the agenda.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Obesidade Pediátrica , Adolescente , Criança , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle , Formulação de Políticas , Política , SARS-CoV-2
15.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(5): e2110918, 2021 05 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34009347

RESUMO

Importance: Curbing COVID-19 transmission is currently the greatest global public health challenge. Consumer digital tools used to collect data, such as the Apple-Google digital contact tracing program, offer opportunities to reduce COVID-19 transmission but introduce privacy concerns. Objective: To assess uses of consumer digital information for COVID-19 control that US adults find acceptable and the factors associated with higher or lower approval of use of this information. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional survey study obtained data from a nationally representative sample of 6284 US adults recruited by email from the web-based Ipsos KnowledgePanel in July 2020. Respondents evaluated scenarios reflecting uses of digital data for COVID-19 control (case identification, digital contact tracing, policy setting, and enforcement of quarantines). Main Outcomes and Measures: Levels of support for use of personal digital data in 9 scenarios to mitigate the spread of COVID-19 infection, rated on a Likert scale, ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree). Multivariable linear regression models were fitted for each scenario and included factors hypothesized to be associated with views about digital data use for COVID-19 mitigation measures. Black and Hispanic survey respondents were oversampled; thus, poststratification weights were used so that results are representative of the general US population. Results: Of 6284 individuals invited to participate in the study, 3547 responded, for a completion rate of 56%. A total of 1762 participants (52%) were female, 715 (21%) identified as Black, 790 (23%) identified as Hispanic, and 1224 (36%) were 60 years or older; mean (SD) age was 51.7 (16.6) years. Approval of scenarios was low, ranging from 28% to 43% (52%-67% when neutral responses were included). Differences were found based on digital data source (smartphone vs social media: coefficient, 0.29 [95% CI, 0.23-0.35]; P < .001; smart thermometer vs social media: coefficient, 0.09 [95% CI, 0.03-0.16]; P = .004). County COVID-19 rates (coefficient, -0.02; 95% CI, -0.16 to 0.13 for quartile 4 compared with quartile 1) and prior family diagnosis of COVID-19 (coefficient, 0.00; 95% CI, -0.25 to 0.25) were not associated with support. Compared with self-described liberal individuals, conservative (coefficient, -0.81; 95% CI, -0.96 to -0.66; P < .001) and moderate (coefficient, -0.52; 95% CI, -0.67 to -0.38; P < .001) individuals were less likely to support the scenarios. Similarly, large political differences were observed in support of the Apple-Google digital contact tracing program, with less support from conservative (coefficient, -0.99; 95% CI, -1.11 to -0.87; P < .001) and moderate (coefficient, -0.59; 95% CI, -0.69 to -0.48; P < .001) individuals compared with liberal individuals. Respondents from racial/ethnic minority groups were more supportive of the scenarios than were White, non-Hispanic respondents. For example, compared with White respondents, Black respondents were more supportive of the Apple-Google contact tracing program (coefficient, 0.20; 95% CI, 0.07-0.32; P = .002). Conclusions and Relevance: In this survey study of US adults, many were averse to their information being used on digital platforms to mitigate transmission of COVID-19. These findings suggest that in current and future pandemics, public health departments should use multiple strategies to gain public trust and accelerate adoption of tools such as digital contact tracing applications.


Assuntos
Atitude , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Busca de Comunicante , Tecnologia Digital , Pandemias , Privacidade , Opinião Pública , Adulto , Idoso , Atitude/etnologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Estudos Transversais , Coleta de Dados , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Grupos Minoritários , Política , SARS-CoV-2 , Smartphone , Mídias Sociais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Telemedicina , Estados Unidos
16.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2718, 2021 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33976160

RESUMO

A key function of morality is to regulate social behavior. Research suggests moral values may be divided into two types: binding values, which govern behavior in groups, and individualizing values, which promote personal rights and freedoms. Because people tend to mentally activate concepts in situations in which they may prove useful, the importance they afford moral values may vary according to whom they are with in the moment. In particular, because binding values help regulate communal behavior, people may afford these values more importance when in the presence of close (versus distant) others. Five studies test and support this hypothesis. First, we use a custom smartphone application to repeatedly record participants' (n = 1166) current social context and the importance they afforded moral values. Results show people rate moral values as more important when in the presence of close others, and this effect is stronger for binding than individualizing values-an effect that replicates in a large preregistered online sample (n = 2016). A lab study (n = 390) and two preregistered online experiments (n = 580 and n = 752) provide convergent evidence that people afford binding, but not individualizing, values more importance when in the real or imagined presence of close others. Our results suggest people selectively activate different moral values according to the demands of the situation, and show how the mere presence of others can affect moral thinking.


Assuntos
Princípios Morais , Infuência dos Pares , Ajustamento Social , Conformidade Social , Adulto , Cultura , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Grupo Associado , Política , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 413, 2021 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33941180

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adequate financing is a crucial function, securing that physical rehabilitation services (i.e., physiotherapy, occupational therapy, prosthetics and orthotics) are available with no financial hardship. Like many other countries, despite the adoption of various policies and strategies in recent decades, Iran enjoys no desirable physical rehabilitation financing (PRF). Accordingly, this qualitative study aimed to explore the PRF-related strategies and issues as well as their impacts on relevant policies in Iran. METHODS: An analysis of PRF-related policies was conducted in Iran using semi-structured interviews and policy documents review. Purposive and snowball sampling techniques were employed to select key informants, including health-policy makers, civil society, rehabilitation-policy makers, university professors, and practitioners. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the collected data. The analysis was framed within Kingdon's multiple streams. RESULTS: The hindering factors for desirable financing were weak insurance coverage, lack of sustainable financial resources, fragmented financing, lack of split between provider and financer, high-cost of physical rehabilitation services, low engagement of relevant experts in policy-making processes, and corrupt activities. In the policy stream, the following factors were highlighted: involvement of sustainable financial resources, the use of external revenue sources, allocated resources' earmarking, the integration of the current funds to have better pooling, the use of incentive and timely payment mechanisms, the implementation of strategic purchasing principals, and the employment of effective rationing strategies. Moreover, parliament support, changes in administrations, international effects, pressures from interest campaigns and NGOs, and international sanctions were found as factors affecting the politics stream. CONCLUSION: The study findings revealed that a variety of national and international factors affect PRF-related issues in Iran. The recently enacted laws indicate that the PRF policies have already been on the national health political agenda. The study reflected the multifaceted nature of barriers to optimal PRF in Iran.


Assuntos
Política de Saúde , Formulação de Políticas , Pessoal Administrativo , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Política
19.
Am J Health Syst Pharm ; 78(10): 879-889, 2021 05 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33954426

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To examine the vaccine-related beliefs and behaviors associated with likely hesitancy toward vaccination against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) among nonelderly adults. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in June 2020. Responses were sought from Tennessee adults 18 to 64 years of age who were not healthcare providers. The survey instrument focused on vaccine-related beliefs, prior and planned influenza and pneumococcal vaccine use, and attitudes toward receiving a COVID-19 vaccination. Inferential statistics assessed survey responses, and logistic regression determined predictors of the likelihood of COVID-19 vaccination. RESULTS: A total of 1,000 completed responses were analyzed (a 62.9% response rate), and respondents were mostly White (80.1%), insured (79.6%), and/or actively working (64.2%); the sample was well balanced by gender, age, income, and political leaning. Approximately one-third (34.4%) of respondents indicated some historical vaccine hesitancy, and only 21.4% indicated always getting a seasonal influenza vaccination. More than half (54.1%) indicated at least some hesitancy toward vaccination against COVID-19, with 32.1% citing lack of evidence of vaccine effectiveness as the leading reason. COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy was more likely among those with more moderate (odds ratio [OR], 2.51; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.749-3.607) or conservative (OR, 3.01; 95% CI, 2.048-4.421) political leanings, Black Americans (OR, 1.80; 95% CI, 1.182-2.742), and residents of nonmetropolitan areas (OR, 1.99; 95% CI, 1.386-2.865). CONCLUSION: Subgroups of the population may prove more challenging to vaccinate against COVID-19, requiring targeted approaches to addressing hesitancy to ensure more-vulnerable populations are adequately covered.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Vacinação/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Afro-Americanos , Fatores Etários , Atitude , Estudos Transversais , Cultura , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Vacinas contra Influenza , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vacinas Pneumocócicas , Política , População Rural , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tennessee , Adulto Jovem
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