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1.
Can J Nurs Res ; 52(3): 176-184, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32893691

RESUMO

The Canadian Nurses Association has a long-standing history of strengthening the nursing profession and the health system, supporting professional practice, and advocating for healthy public policy at the local, national, and global level. Historical writings have typically focused on the significant milestones achieved throughout the past century, and the various social, political, and economic contexts that have shaped the evolution of the association. While historical sources illustrate an organization with a strong track record of policy advocacy leadership and presence, there is little literature that has examined how the association's policy advocacy agenda has evolved overtime. Using Shamian's emerging "Bubble" Theory and Spheres of Policy Influence Model as an analytical framework, the authors use historical archives and documents to examine the internal and external drivers that have shaped the association's policy advocacy agenda over the past century and conclude that the Canadian Nurses Association has established itself as a credible leader in shaping not only nursing but also health-care and public policy at the local, national, and global level.


Assuntos
Defesa do Consumidor , Política , Sociedades de Enfermagem , Canadá , Humanos
3.
S Afr Med J ; 110(6): 445-446, 2020 04 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880545

RESUMO

Less than 3 months after the World Health Organization (WHO) declared COVID-19 a Public Health Emergency of International Concern, and within a month of the WHO declaring COVID19 a global pandemic, COVID-19 infections and fatalities have grown exponentially, globally. Now, more than ever, the world needs responsible political leadership, evidence-based decision-making, and co-ordinated global health action.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Saúde Global , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Política , Saúde Pública , Humanos , Liderança , Pandemias , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Organização Mundial da Saúde/organização & administração
5.
J Law Med ; 27(4): 928-936, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880410

RESUMO

The abortion drug RU 486 is widely available across the developed world, and its benefits and efficacy for women have been well established over the 40 years since its development. However, access to RU 486 for women in Australia has been a vexed issue since the mid-1990s. Because of pro-life politics under the Howard Government, importation of the drug into Australia was severely hampered, resulting in Australia lagging behind the rest of the developed world in access to medical abortions. This article highlights the history of RU 486, the current state of abortion laws in Australia and the issues that the politics of the 1990s still cause for Australian women who seek a medical abortion (especially those living remotely). Finally, it proposes some options that could alleviate some of the difficulties faced by those who seek access to RU 486.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido , Mifepristona , Austrália , Feminino , Humanos , Princípios Morais , Política , Gravidez
6.
An. psicol ; 36(2): 370-377, mayo 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-192074

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Political Skills Inventory (PSI) is a measurement tool for assessing four dimensions associated with political skills: social astuteness, interpersonal influence, networking ability and apparent sincerity (Ferris, 2005). METHOD: In the present study, multi-sample and multi-method, we developed and analyzed the psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the (PSI), by performing both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. Additionally, a longitudinal reliability test and a sex factorial invariance test were performed. RESULTS: Cronbach's alpha and omega indices revealed satisfactory reliability and exploratory factor analyses extracted the four original factors as reported in other studies (N = 309). Confirmatory factorial analyses confirmed that the four-factor solution presented the best fit to our data (N = 248). CONCLUSIONS: We add new evidence for time and sex invariance of the measure, showing that the PSI can be considered a stable and valid measure over time and across sex


INTRODUCCIÓN: El inventario de habilidades políticas (PSI, siglas en inglés) es una medida para calibrar cuatro dimensiones relacionadas con es-te constructo: la astucia social, la capacidad de influencia interpersonal, la habilidad para establecer contactos y la sinceridad aparente (Ferris, David-son & Perrewé, 2005). MÉTODO: En el presente estudio, multi-muestra y multimétodo, sendos análisis factorial exploratorio y confirmatorio se han llevado a cabo sobre dos muestras, una primera compuesta por trabajadores de varios ramos (recogido en tres etapas, con una edad media comprendida entre 43.66 y 44.70 años, DT = 9.42 - 10.22, y un porcentaje de mujeres entre 57.3 - 58.4%) y una segunda por trabajadores del sector salud (Mage = 35.56, SD = 7.23; 80.6% women), para desarrollar y testar las propiedades psicométricas de la versión española del PSI. Adicionalmente, se llevó a cabo una prueba de fiabilidad longitudinal y un análisis de invarianza relativo al género. RESULTADOS: Los índices alpha de Cronbach (cuyos valores oscilaron entre 0.83-0.90 en nuestros datos, y entre 0.73-0.87 en la versión original) y omega (0.85 para el total de la escala) revelaron un grado de fiabilidad satisfactoria. El análisis factorial exploratorio extrajo los cuatro factores de la versión original, tal y como ya ha sido reportado en otros estudios (N = 309). El análisis factorial confirmatorio confirmó que el ajuste de dicha estructura fue el mejor frente a los datos (N = 248). CONCLUSIONES: Con este estudio se añade evidencia al estudio de la invarianza de género y la estabilidad temporal de esta medida, mostrando que la versión española del PSI puede ser considerada una medida estable y válida a través del tiempo y relativa al género


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Inventário de Personalidade/normas , Aptidão , Política , Psicometria/instrumentação , Psicometria/normas , Análise Fatorial , Inquéritos e Questionários , 16054/psicologia , Traduções , Avaliação de Desempenho Profissional/estatística & dados numéricos , Mobilidade Ocupacional , Poder Psicológico
7.
Lima; Perú. Ministerio de Salud; 20200800. 184 p. ilus, tab.
Monografia em Espanhol | LILACS, LIPECS | ID: biblio-1117777

RESUMO

El documento Política Nacional Multisectorial de Salud al 2030, contiene los antecedentes, la base legal en la cual se sustenta, la metodología seguida, diagnóstico, los objetivos, provisión de servicios y estándares, para culminar en el seguimiento y la evaluación.


Assuntos
Peru , Política , Padrões de Referência , Saúde , Diagnóstico , Metodologia
8.
Av. enferm ; 38(2): 226-233, May-Aug. 2020. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1114692

RESUMO

Resumo Introdução: trata-se de um estudo com base filosófica de Michel Foucault que buscou analisar a constituição do sujeito; no caso em questão, buscou-se compreender a enfermeira que milita pela profissão. Objetivo: analisar os aspectos constitutivos de militantes na Enfermagem. Métodos: pesquisa com método histórico, que usa o método de história oral, com uma abordagem qualitativa; foram entrevistadas 11 enfermeiras que militaram ou militam por situações profissionais. Após o uso da técnica de entrevista semiestruturada, os dados foram organizados no software n-vivo 10, e o método de análise foi a hermenêutica dialética. Resultados: as enfermeiras se constituíram militantes a partir de vivências comunitárias, familiares, nos movimentos sociais e na militância profissional, e de convívio com as diferenças éticas e sociais. Os discursos apontam para a constituição de sujeitos militantes fora dos espaços instituídos da sala de aula. Conclusões: ao olhar para a constituição de sujeitos militantes sob a ótica da hermenêutica dialética, encontramos a convergência interna entre as subcategorias apontadas, a produção de sujeitos militantes e as categorias analíticas deste estudo. Identificamos possibilidades formativas de sujeitos militantes e indicamos a necessidade de revisão dos processos formativos de enfermeiras.


Resumen Introducción: se trata de un estudio con base filosófica de Michel Foucault que buscó analizar la constitución del sujeto. En este caso, se intentó entender a la enfermera que milita por la profesión. Objetivo: analizar los aspectos constitutivos de militantes en Enfermería. Métodos: investigación histórica, basada en el método de historia oral con enfoque cualitativo, realizada con 11 enfermeras que militaron o militan por situaciones profesionales. Los datos recopilados de entrevistas semiestructuradas se organizaron en el software n-vivo 10, y se analizaron mediante la hermenéutica dialéctica. Resultados: las enfermeras se convirtieron en militantes basadas en experiencias comunitarias, familiares, en movimientos sociales y militancia profesional, y en la convivencia con las diferencias éticas y sociales. Los discursos apuntan a la constitución de sujetos militantes fuera de los espacios establecidos en el salón de clases. Conclusiones: al observar la constitución de los sujetos militantes desde la hermenéutica dialéctica, encontramos la convergencia interna entre las subcategorías mencionadas, la producción de sujetos militantes y las categorías analíticas de este estudio. Identificamos posibilidades de capacitación de sujetos militantes y señalamos la necesidad de revisar los procesos formativos de las enfermeras.


Abstract Introduction: this study is based on Michel Foucault's philosophical theories and sought to address the constitution of the subject. In this particular case, we sought to understand nurses who militate for their profession. Objective: to study the constitutive aspects of nursing activists. Methods: historical research, based on the oral history method with a qualitative approach, was carried out with 11 nurses who worked or currently work for professional-related situations. Data collected through semi-structured interviews was organized using N-vivo software 10 and then analyzed based on dialectical hermeneutics. Results: nurses became militants due to personal experiences, including: community, social movements, living with ethical and social differences, professional activism, and family life. The speech points to the constitution of militant subjects outside the established spaces of classrooms. Conclusions: by looking at the constitution of militant subjects from the point of view of dialectical hermeneutics, we find an internal convergence between the subcategories above, the production of militant subjects, and the analytical categories of this study. We identified training possibilities for militant subjects and highlight the need to review nursing education processes.


Assuntos
Política , Trabalho , Educação em Enfermagem , História da Enfermagem , Enfermagem , Constituição e Estatutos , Hermenêutica
9.
Public Health Rep ; 135(1_suppl): 65S-74S, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32735198

RESUMO

In 2014, New York State became the first jurisdiction to launch a statewide initiative to end AIDS by reducing the number of persons living with HIV for the first time since effective HIV treatment became available. The Ending the Epidemic (ETE) initiative encompasses (1) identifying and linking undiagnosed persons with HIV to care, (2) retaining persons with HIV in care, and (3) facilitating access to preexposure prophylaxis for persons at risk for acquiring HIV. We used a framework for public health program implementation to describe key characteristics of the ETE initiative, present progress toward 13 ETE target metrics, and identify areas in need of increased programming. We provide evidence suggesting that New York State is on track to end AIDS as an epidemic by the end of 2020. As of 2017, 76% of progress toward our primary ETE target had been achieved. Substantial progress on several additional metrics critical to decreasing HIV prevalence and to improving the health of persons living with HIV had also been achieved. Lessons learned included the following: (1) ETE-based programming should be tailored to each jurisdiction's unique political and social climate, HIV epidemiology, fiscal resources, and network of HIV service providers; (2) key stakeholders should be involved in developing ETE metrics and setting targets; (3) performance-based measurement and timely communication to key stakeholders in real time are essential; and (4) examining trends in HIV prevention and care metrics is important for developing realistic ETE timelines.


Assuntos
Epidemias/prevenção & controle , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/prevenção & controle , Comunicação , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/terapia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos , Relações Interinstitucionais , New York , Cooperação do Paciente , Política , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição , Prevalência , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Características de Residência , Fatores Socioeconômicos
16.
S D Med ; 73(8): 372-374, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32809297

RESUMO

Within an unrelenting COVID-19 pandemic, the burden of helping without harming has grown under the weight of destructive political bias which is harming without helping. This pandemic has created three flashpoints surrounding patient, population and policy. As science is further politicized, the coronafication of medicine is now a subset of the politicization of everything and is challenging these obligations. It is not the presence of personal political bias which degrades science, it is the absence of institutional acknowledgment as conflict of interest. Physicians must interrogate in Socratic fashion, seven deadly sins of destructive bias - character assassination, raw animus, cynical omniscience, historical amnesia, false choice, divisive labelling and selective truthing, which undermine our coming together. At a time when public trust is at risk, we must defend the best interest of the patient against politicized science - for this bias has reached the bedside.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Política , Betacoronavirus , Viés , Humanos , Pandemias
17.
Bull World Health Organ ; 98(8): 516-517, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32773896

RESUMO

Why governments need to test their messages on novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) before disseminating them. Baruch Fischhoff talks to Fiona Fleck.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Comunicação em Saúde/métodos , Comunicação em Saúde/normas , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Comportamento , Betacoronavirus , Tomada de Decisões , Humanos , Pandemias , Política , Medição de Risco , Organização Mundial da Saúde
19.
Med Arch ; 74(3): 164-167, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32801428

RESUMO

Probably in the history of medicine, doctors were not as united as they are today, in that fight against COVID-19, when the pandemic spread incredibly fast - from East to West, from North to South. The COVID-19 pandemic is likely to have unprecedented and unforeseeable consequences, from those on a worldwide/global level to those at the local level - at the level of local communities and families, and individuals (and not just humans, but all other living beings), of which the future will testify in various ways. The consequences will be political, economic, social, but probably to the greatest degree, the consequences of a health nature - systemic and individual. The death toll is high, despite the therapy being applied. We do not currently have a specific and effective therapy against COVID-19. In addition, we do not have a single clinical study that would support prophylactic therapy that could affect COVID-19. All of the therapeutic options now available to us are based on the experience we have gained in treating SARS and MERS. When the vaccine is discovered, at that moment we will be able to say that we have an appropriate and effective method in fighting against COVID-19. Some historians of medicine believe that voluntary vaccination against COVID-19 would be, not only less politically risky but also more effective in protecting the population from coronavirus. It remains to be seen what the new wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, announced by WHO experts these days, and which is expected in the fall of 2020, will bring us.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Saúde Global/tendências , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Vacinação em Massa/organização & administração , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Saúde Pública/tendências , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/economia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Previsões , Humanos , Pandemias/economia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/economia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Política , Fatores Socioeconômicos
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