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2.
Rev Prat ; 69(6): 653-657, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31626428

RESUMO

French governments only very recently introduced comprehensive tobacco control policies including several measures recommended by WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, leading to a speeding-up of tobacco smoking decrease, but still with a high current level of use. In the meantime, research confirms that nicotine is highly addictive, that smoking just a cigarette a day is highly detrimental for health, and that health professionals are efficient in helping smokers to give up. These measures are such diverse as tobacco taxes increases, introducing plain packs, promoting November as month without tobacco, getting tobacco cessation medications paid for by health insurances, implementing a comprehensive advertising ban of tobacco products in retailor shops, and increasing protection of public health policies from tobacco industry intrusion. This industry via frenzied marketing reacts by promoting "heat not burn tobacco" as a harm reduction mean, which it is not, and invests in e-cigarettes, whose most recent ones are as addictive as classic tobacco cigarettes.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Indústria do Tabaco , Produtos do Tabaco , Tabaco/efeitos adversos , França , Humanos , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar , Políticas de Controle Social , Indústria do Tabaco/legislação & jurisprudência , Produtos do Tabaco/efeitos adversos
3.
Recurso na Internet em Inglês | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-LISBR1.1-46661

RESUMO

PLOS One updated, summarized, and appraised the methodological rigor of systematic reviews of selected alcohol control interventions in the Strategy. The authors identified 42 systematic reviews. Most reviews identified only observational studies with no studies from low or lower-middle income (LMIC) countries. Ten reviews were rated as low risk of bias. Methodological deficiencies included publication and language limits, no duplicate assessment, no assessment of study quality, and no integration of quality into result interpretation. We evaluated the following control measures as possibly beneficial: 1) community mobilization; 2) multi-component interventions in the drinking environment; 3) restricting alcohol advertising; 4) restricting on- and off-premise outlet density; 5) police patrols and ignition locks to reduce drink driving; and 6) increased price and taxation including minimum unit pricing. The authors concluded that robust and well-reported research synthesis is deficient in the alcohol control field despite the availability of clear methodological guidance. The lack of primary and synthesis research arising from LMIC should be prioritized globally.


Assuntos
Etanol , Políticas de Controle Social , Revisão Sistemática
4.
Rev. argent. salud publica ; 39(9): 42-47, Julio 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, BINACIS, ARGMSAL | ID: biblio-1007595

RESUMO

El presente trabajo aborda el nacimiento de las políticas sociales en Argentina, en un período histórico que abarca aproximadamente desde 1880 hasta el advenimiento del primer gobierno radical de Hipólito Yrigoyen. Para ello, describe el modelo de Estado instituido en Argentina por esos años, las políticas concebidas en ese modelo de un universo de asistencia y las instituciones de la época que llevaron adelante intervenciones concretas respecto del universo social. Dentro del conjunto de instituciones forjadas en las últimas décadas del siglo XIX, como forma de respuesta a las tensiones sociales crecientes y como producto de variados factores políticos, sociales, económicos y culturales, interesa abordar el papel de la Sociedad de Beneficencia de Buenos Aires: la labor realizada por este grupo de mujeres de los sectores dominantes y sus campos de intervención, que incluyeron la creación y el gerenciamiento de establecimientos de salud y salud mental (lo que constituye un antecedente en la gestión de lo público, ámbito que por aquellos años estaba reservado a la participación de los hombres de las clases dirigentes). El accionar inédito de estas mujeres irrumpió en la escena de lo público y retrospectivamente puede habilitar a una mirada con perspectiva de género.


Assuntos
Humanos , Política Pública , Políticas de Controle Social , Identidade de Gênero , Argentina , Fatores Socioeconômicos
5.
Law Hum Behav ; 43(3): 290-305, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31120277

RESUMO

In modern societies, citizens cede the legitimate use of violence to law enforcement agents who act on their behalf. However, little is known about the extent to which lay evaluations of forceful actions align with or diverge from official use-of-force policies and heuristics that officers use to choose appropriate levels of responsive force. Moreover, it is impossible to accurately compare official policies and lay intuitions without first measuring the perceived severity of a set of representative actions. To map these psychometric scale values precisely, we presented participants (N = 411 Amazon Mechanical Turk workers, N = 395 undergraduates) with minimal vignettes describing officer and civilian actions that span the entire range of force options (from polite dialogue to lethal force), and asked them to rate physical magnitude and moral appropriateness. We used Bayesian methods to model the ratings as functions of simultaneously estimated scale values of the actions. Results indicated that the perceived severity of actions across all physical but nonlethal categories clustered tightly together, while actions at the extreme levels were relatively spread out. Moreover, less normative officer actions were perceived as especially morally severe. Broadly, our findings reveal divergence between lay perceptions of force severity and official law enforcement policies, and they imply that the groundwork for disagreement about the legitimacy of police and civilian actions may be partially rooted in the differential way that action severity is perceived by law enforcement relative to civilian observers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Coerção , Aplicação da Lei/métodos , Polícia/ética , Políticas de Controle Social/ética , Adulto , Atitude , Crime/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Princípios Morais , Psicometria , Opinião Pública , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
6.
Rev Bras Enferm ; 72(1): 134-139, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30916278

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Understand the time of awakening to social control and its contributions from the perspective of health counselor nurses. METHOD: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight nurses who work/worked as health counselors. The information was analyzed using the thematic analysis of Minayo. RESULTS: The interest in participating in the council emerged from the professionalization in the Family Health Strategy, whether in the continuation of the Municipal Council of Health, in the training, or in the participation in the student movement. The contributions included the development of a critical and reflective spirit, better understanding of health system management, increased sensitivity to the needs of the user, and close relationship with the community. FINAL CONSIDERATIONS: Despite some deficiencies and misconceptions of nurses, it is believed that nursing is on the right track in the defense and construction of a societarian project.


Assuntos
Aconselhamento/métodos , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/psicologia , Políticas de Controle Social/normas , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Brasil , Aconselhamento/normas , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto/métodos , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/normas , Saúde Pública/métodos
8.
Int J Offender Ther Comp Criminol ; 63(7): 1100-1123, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30449215

RESUMO

While there are different approaches to dealing with offenders sentenced to community corrections, the three major ones are law enforcement (surveillance), therapeutic (rehabilitation), and crime opportunity prevention. Using the study of U.S. community corrections staff by Miller as a guide, the current study examined the supervision strategy used by Chinese community corrections staff in the Hubei province of China. Chinese community corrections staff were more likely to use the therapeutic and crime opportunity prevention approaches than the law enforcement model. Predictors of each of the three offender supervision approaches differed. The results from Chinese staff were similar in many ways to that found among U.S. staff reported by Miller but differed in some areas.


Assuntos
Crime/prevenção & controle , Aplicação da Lei/métodos , Programas Obrigatórios/organização & administração , Políticas de Controle Social/tendências , Assistentes Sociais/psicologia , Adulto , Atitude , China , Pesquisa Empírica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Papel Profissional , Punição , Reabilitação , Características de Residência , Adulto Jovem
9.
Porto Alegre; s.n; 2019. 17 p p.
Tese em Português | Coleciona SUS | ID: biblio-1022612

RESUMO

O presente artigo surge a partir da experiência no campo de atuação do Programa Saúde de Família e Comunidade da Residência Multiprofissional em Saúde do Grupo Hospitalar Conceição, vivenciada pela assistente social residente, a partir de março de 2017 na Unidade de Saúde Santíssima Trindade. Trata-se de um estudo qualitativo que teve como principal objetivo identificar a compreensão de possíveis lideranças comunitárias quanto ao significado de Participação e Controle Social. Este trabalho justifica- se pela identificação da pouca participação e representação da comunidade no Conselho Local de Saúde, quando este existia, o que não a caracteriza, pois a comunidade, hoje reassentada em novo território, obteve várias conquistas históricas alicerçadas pela participação popular e em alguns momentos a partir de espaços de (no) Controle Social. O art.198º da Constituição Federal de 1988, ao enfatizar a participação da comunidade- que passa a ser garantida mediante a Lei 8.142/90 que dispõe sobre a participação da comunidade na gestão do Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS) e sobre as transferências intergovernamentais de recursos financeiros na área da saúde- destaca que a institucionalização da participação da comunidade na gestão do SUS ocorre por meio das Conferências de Saúde e dos Conselhos de Saúde, nos níveis Federal, Estadual e Municipal. E a equipe de saúde da família tem como atribuição promover a mobilização e a participação da comunidade, buscando efetivar o Controle Social. Esta também é uma atribuição do assistente social. Portanto, o Conselho Local de Saúde deve ser um espaço construído pela comunidade por meio da Participação e Controle Social. Para tal estudo, a abordagem metodológica utilizada foi uma investigação de natureza qualitativa e caráter exploratório abrangendo o método materialista dialético e histórico,...(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Sistema Único de Saúde , Políticas de Controle Social , Brasil , Saúde Pública
10.
Porto Alegre; s.n; 2019. 17 p p.
Tese em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1047666

RESUMO

O presente artigo surge a partir da experiência no campo de atuação do Programa Saúde de Família e Comunidade da Residência Multiprofissional em Saúde do Grupo Hospitalar Conceição, vivenciada pela assistente social residente, a partir de março de 2017 na Unidade de Saúde Santíssima Trindade. Trata-se de um estudo qualitativo que teve como principal objetivo identificar a compreensão de possíveis lideranças comunitárias quanto ao significado de Participação e Controle Social. Este trabalho justifica- se pela identificação da pouca participação e representação da comunidade no Conselho Local de Saúde, quando este existia, o que não a caracteriza, pois a comunidade, hoje reassentada em novo território, obteve várias conquistas históricas alicerçadas pela participação popular e em alguns momentos a partir de espaços de (no) Controle Social. O art.198º da Constituição Federal de 1988, ao enfatizar a participação da comunidade- que passa a ser garantida mediante a Lei 8.142/90 que dispõe sobre a participação da comunidade na gestão do Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS) e sobre as transferências intergovernamentais de recursos financeiros na área da saúde- destaca que a institucionalização da participação da comunidade na gestão do SUS ocorre por meio das Conferências de Saúde e dos Conselhos de Saúde, nos níveis Federal, Estadual e Municipal. E a equipe de saúde da família tem como atribuição promover a mobilização e a participação da comunidade, buscando efetivar o Controle Social. Esta também é uma atribuição do assistente social. Portanto, o Conselho Local de Saúde deve ser um espaço construído pela comunidade por meio da Participação e Controle Social. Para tal estudo, a abordagem metodológica utilizada foi uma investigação de natureza qualitativa e caráter exploratório abrangendo o método materialista dialético e histórico,...(AU)


Assuntos
Sistema Único de Saúde , Políticas de Controle Social , Brasil , Saúde Pública
11.
12.
East Asian Arch Psychiatry ; 28(4): 150-158, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30563953

RESUMO

This review aims to describe the way in which people with intellectual and/or developmental disabilities (IDD) are treated within the criminal justice system (CJS) in the United Kingdom (UK). The relevant empirical literature and national reports are reviewed, and the current care model for offenders with IDD described. The care of people with IDD within the CJS is relatively advanced in UK; however, offenders with IDD experience difficulties at all stages. This includes engagement with police and the courts, accessing adapted therapies, and after discharge from inpatient care or release from custody. This review highlights a number of strengths of the existing model of care, as well as ongoing challenges. Care of people with IDD within the CJS is highly political, and many aspects of the current model operate according to government policy, based upon charitable or independent review evidence, rather than empirical research. Further research on people with IDD in the CJS is urgently needed, to fully understand the factors related to treatment outcomes.


Assuntos
Direito Penal/métodos , Criminosos , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/psicologia , Psiquiatria Legal , Deficiência Intelectual/psicologia , Criminosos/legislação & jurisprudência , Criminosos/psicologia , Psiquiatria Legal/legislação & jurisprudência , Psiquiatria Legal/métodos , Humanos , Políticas de Controle Social , Reino Unido
13.
Swiss Med Wkly ; 148: w14646, 2018 09 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30378640

RESUMO

AIMS: In comparison with other central European countries, Switzerland has a high prevalence of gun ownership and a high rate of suicide by shooting. After the Army XXI reform in 2003, which reduced personnel from about 400,000 to approximately 200,000, a decline in suicides by firearms and a decline in the total number of suicides was observed in national data spanning the period from 2000 to 2010. It is, however, unclear whether this decline can be linked to the reduced availability of military guns. This study explored whether the decline in suicide by firearms is related to the decline of suicides by army weapons. METHODS: In 83.1% (n = 1112) of the 1338 suicides by firearm between 2000 and 2010 in Switzerland, the firearm could be categorised as an army weapon or a non-army weapon. The army weapon was used in 39.1% of these suicides. In comparison with other firearms, those who used army weapons tended to be younger and more likely to have a university degree. A prior suicide attempt was found less often in cases using a military weapon than other firearms. After the Army XXI reform, there was a significant drop in suicides by males aged 18 to 43 years using an army weapon, but no change in male suicide rates in the same age group who used a non-army weapon. The drop was statistically linked to a reduction of suicide by the army gun. RESULTS: The army weapon was used in 39.1% of suicides by firearm between 2000 and 2010 in Switzerland. In comparison with other methods, those who used army weapons tended to be younger and more likely to have a university degree. A prior suicide attempt was found less often in cases using a military weapon than other methods. After the Army XXI reform, there was a significant drop in suicides by males aged 18 to 43 years using an army weapon, but no change in males' suicide rates in the same age group who used a non-army weapon. The drop was statistically linked to a reduction of suicide by the army gun. CONCLUSIONS: Males who use army weapons differ from those who use other types of weapons. The significant drop in suicides was found in males aged 18 to 43 but there was no change in males of the same age group who used a non-army weapon. These results support the hypotheses that the observed drop in suicides is linked to the Army XXI reform and that restriction of access to guns is essential for reducing suicides by firearm.


Assuntos
Armas de Fogo/legislação & jurisprudência , Militares/estatística & dados numéricos , Políticas de Controle Social/estatística & dados numéricos , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Suicídio/tendências , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Militares/psicologia , Políticas de Controle Social/tendências , Suicídio/prevenção & controle , Suicídio/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Suíça/epidemiologia
15.
Vaccine ; 36(25): 3606-3612, 2018 06 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29773322

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vaccine hesitancy has been recognized as a major global health threat. Having access to any type of information in social media has been suggested as a potential influence on the growth of anti-vaccination groups. Recent studies w.r.t. other topics than vaccination show that access to a wide amount of content through the Internet without intermediaries resolved into major segregation of the users in polarized groups. Users select information adhering to theirs system of beliefs and tend to ignore dissenting information. OBJECTIVES: The goal was to assess whether users' attitudes are polarized on the topic of vaccination on Facebook and how this polarization develops over time. METHODS: We perform a thorough quantitative analysis by studying the interaction of 2.6 M users with 298,018 Facebook posts over a time span of seven years and 5 months. We applied community detection algorithms to automatically detect the emergence of communities accounting for the users' activity on the pages. Also, we quantified the cohesiveness of these communities over time. RESULTS: Our findings show that the consumption of content about vaccines is dominated by the echo chamber effect and that polarization increased over the years. Well-segregated communities emerge from the users' consumption habits i.e., the majority of users consume information in favor or against vaccines, not both. CONCLUSION: The existence of echo chambers may explain why social-media campaigns that provide accurate information have limited reach and be effective only in sub-groups, even fomenting further opinion polarization. The introduction of dissenting information into a sub-group is disregarded and can produce a backfire effect, thus reinforcing the pre-existing opinions within the sub-group. Public health professionals should try to understand the contents of these echo chambers, for example by getting passively involved in such groups. Only then it will be possible to find effective ways of countering anti-vaccination thinking.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Mídias Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos , Recusa de Vacinação/psicologia , Vacinação/psicologia , Comunicação , Humanos , Preconceito/psicologia , Políticas de Controle Social/organização & administração , Rede Social , Recusa de Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29543711

RESUMO

This paper selectively reviews the economic research on individual (i.e., diabetes prevention programs and financial rewards for weight loss) and population-wide based diabetes prevention interventions (such as food taxes, nutritional labeling, and worksite wellness programs) that demonstrate a direct reduction in diabetes incidence or improvements in diabetes risk factors such as weight, glucose or glycated hemoglobin. The paper suggests a framework to guide decision makers on how to use the available evidence to determine the optimal allocation of resources across population-wide and individual-based interventions. This framework should also assist in the discussion of what parameters are needed from research to inform decision-making on what might be the optimal mix of strategies to reduce diabetes prevalence.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Peso Corporal , Tomada de Decisões , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/economia , Hemoglobina A Glicada , Recursos em Saúde , Humanos , Investimentos em Saúde , Modelos Econômicos , Fatores de Risco , Políticas de Controle Social , Perda de Peso , Programas de Redução de Peso
18.
Addict Behav ; 84: 7-12, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29587173

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Women have lower rates of drunken driving than men, but their share of arrests has been climbing since 1985. These trends may stem from changes in women's lives that lead to more drinking and driving, or to greater reductions in male drinking and driving. Alternatively, changes in policy and enforcement that focus on less intoxicated offenders may inadvertently target female-typical offending patterns. This paper tracked male and female drunken driving rates and the DUI sex ratio in the United States from 1985 to 2015 across three data sources. METHODS: The sex ratio and prevalence estimates were derived from official arrest statistics from Uniform Crime Reports, self-reports from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and traffic fatality data from the National Highway and Transportation Safety Administration. Rates were assessed for four age groups (18-20, 21-34, 35-49, and 50-64), and drunken driving trends tested using Augmented Dickey-Fuller time-series methods. RESULTS: Decreases in DUI rates stagnated over the first decade of 2000, but have again begun to decline, according to self-reports and traffic fatality data, for all sex-by-age groups. Still, the gender gap in DUI arrests continues to narrow. From 1990 to the early 2000s, changes in social control that made female DUI more visible narrowed the gender gap in arrests. In more recent years, narrowing of the gap is due primarily to male rates declining more steeply than female rates. CONCLUSION: Results indicate that we need more research to understand why female declines have not kept pace with male declines and perhaps more targeted prevention efforts aimed at women.


Assuntos
Crime/tendências , Dirigir sob a Influência/tendências , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Autorrelato , Distribuição por Sexo , Políticas de Controle Social/tendências , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
19.
Acad Med ; 93(1): 82-89, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28930761

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Given projected U.S. physician shortages across all specialties that will likely impact underserved areas disproportionately, the authors sought to explore factors most correlated with medical school graduates' intention to work with underserved populations (IWUP). METHOD: Data from the 2010-2012 Association of American Medical Colleges Medical School Graduation Questionnaire (n = 40,846) were analyzed. Variables (demographics, career preference, debt burden, intention to enter loan forgiveness programs) were examined using chi-square tests and logistic regression models. RESULTS: Respondents included 49.5% (20,228/40,846) women, 16.6% (6,771/40,837) underrepresented minorities (URMs), and 32.4% (13,034/37,342) with primary care intent. The median educational debt was $160,000. Respondents who were women (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.59, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.49, 1.70), URMs (aOR 2.50, 95% CI 2.30, 2.72), intended to enter loan forgiveness programs (aOR 2.44, 95% CI 2.26, 2.63), intended to practice primary care (aOR 1.65, 95% CI 1.54, 1.76), and intended to emphasize nonclinical careers (aOR 1.23, 95% CI 1.11, 1.37) had greater odds of reporting IWUP. Among those who chose specialties and careers with a nonclinical emphasis, and among those with greater burdens of educational and consumer debt, URMs were nearly twice as likely as other minorities and whites to report IWUP. CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest physician characteristics that may be associated with filling workforce gaps in underserved areas. Restructuring financial incentive programs to support physician leaders and specialists with characteristics associated with IWUP may complement similar policies in primary care and could have key impacts on health equity in underserved areas.


Assuntos
Escolha da Profissão , Diversidade Cultural , Mão de Obra em Saúde/organização & administração , Intenção , Área Carente de Assistência Médica , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Políticas de Controle Social , Estados Unidos
20.
Cult Med Psychiatry ; 42(1): 92-111, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28685366

RESUMO

This article investigates how the political culture of Guan (care/control) in China is played out across the platforms of the state, the community and the family through the lens of caring for people with severe mental illness in urban Shanghai. Based on ethnographic data collected from six communities in a district of Shanghai, we provide a nuanced understanding of the roles of family members, street committees and other governmental organizations in their daily practices of caring for people with severe mental illness. We show the complicated and intertwined relationships between local governmental agents and the family. We argue that the political culture of Guan, which permeates the everyday life of Chinese people, tends to objectify its subjects and reflects a long history of patriarchy in Chinese society. Without further changing such political cultural arrangements, respect for the agency of mentally ill patients, the effort of bringing humanistic psychiatric reforms to China, will be in vain.


Assuntos
Antropologia Cultural/métodos , Cultura , Família/etnologia , Órgãos Governamentais , Transtornos Mentais/etnologia , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Política , Políticas de Controle Social , China/etnologia , Humanos
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