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1.
J Subst Abuse Treat ; 119: 108147, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33138930

RESUMO

Many states have responded to the spread of COVID-19 by implementing policies which have led to a dramatic reduction in jail populations. We consider the benefits associated with providing the population of individuals who would, but for these policies, be incarcerated with substance use disorder (SUD) treatment. We discuss problems that may prevent this population from receiving SUD treatment as well as policies which may mitigate these problems.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Prisões/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/reabilitação , Humanos , Políticas , Prisioneiros , Governo Estadual
2.
Lima; Perú. Ministerio de Salud; 20201100. 59 p. ilus, graf.
Monografia em Espanhol | LILACS, MINSAPERÚ | ID: biblio-1122243

RESUMO

El documento técnico aborda los principales temas de: visión de la agenda digital del Sector Salud 2025-2030; visión de la salud digital al 2030; objetivos específicos y estrategias: fortalecer el ecosistema de salud digital y su gobernanza, desplegar a nivel nacional la historia clínica electrónica y la telesalud, mejorar a confiabilidad y disponibilidad de la información para su uso en el análisis y la toma de decisiones.


Assuntos
Saúde , Telemedicina , Acesso à Informação , Política de Inovação e Desenvolvimento , Tecnologia da Informação , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Políticas , Exclusão Digital , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Estratégias de eSaúde , Governo Eletrônico , Objetivos
3.
J Glob Health ; 10(2): 020507, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33110590

RESUMO

Background: In a surgical setting, COVID-19 patients may trigger in-hospital outbreaks and have worse postoperative outcomes. Despite these risks, there have been no consistent statements on surgical guidelines regarding the perioperative screening or management of COVID-19 patients, and we do not have objective global data that describe the current conditions surrounding this issue. This study aimed to clarify the current global surgical practice including COVID-19 screening, preventive measures and in-hospital infection under the COVID-19 pandemic, and to clarify the international gaps on infection control policies among countries worldwide. Methods: During April 2-8, 2020, a cross-sectional online survey on surgical practice was distributed to surgeons worldwide through international surgical societies, social media and personal contacts. Main outcome and measures included preventive measures and screening policies of COVID-19 in surgical practice and centers' experiences of in-hospital COVID-19 infection. Data were analyzed by country's cumulative deaths number by April 8, 2020 (high risk, >5000; intermediate risk, 100-5000; low risk, <100). Results: A total of 936 centers in 71 countries responded to the survey (high risk, 330 centers; intermediate risk, 242 centers; low risk, 364 centers). In the majority (71.9%) of the centers, local guidelines recommended preoperative testing based on symptoms or suspicious radiologic findings. Universal testing for every surgical patient was recommended in only 18.4% of the centers. In-hospital COVID-19 infection was reported from 31.5% of the centers, with higher rates in higher risk countries (high risk, 53.6%; intermediate risk, 26.4%; low risk, 14.8%; P < 0.001). Of the 295 centers that experienced in-hospital COVID-19 infection, 122 (41.4%) failed to trace it and 58 (19.7%) reported the infection originating from asymptomatic patients/staff members. Higher risk countries adopted more preventive measures including universal testing, routine testing of hospital staff and use of dedicated personal protective equipment in operation theatres, but there were remarkable discrepancies across the countries. Conclusions: This large international survey captured the global surgical practice under the COVID-19 pandemic and highlighted the insufficient preoperative screening of COVID-19 in the current surgical practice. More intensive screening programs will be necessary particularly in severely affected countries/institutions. Study registration: Registered in ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04344197.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Controle de Infecções/estatística & dados numéricos , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/normas , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecção Hospitalar/virologia , Estudos Transversais , Hospitais/normas , Hospitais/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/normas , Programas de Rastreamento/normas , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Políticas , Padrões de Prática Médica/normas , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/efeitos adversos , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(10): e2026010, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33095253

RESUMO

Importance: To cope with the continuing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, state and local officials need information on the effectiveness of policies aimed at curbing disease spread, as well as state-specific characteristics, like the racial mix, associated with increased risks related to the disease. Objective: To investigate whether state-imposed stay-at-home orders (SAHOs) and the proportion of African American population in a state were associated with the state-level COVID-19 cases. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study used daily, state-level data on COVID-19 cases, tests, and fatalities from the COVID Tracking Project. Data from March 1 to May 4, 2020, for all states (except Washington state) as well as the District of Columbia were used. Exposures: The key exposure variables were state-level SAHO (1 if in place, 0 otherwise), and proportion of state population who are African American. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was daily cumulative COVID-19 case rates. A secondary outcome was subsequent COVID-19 fatality rates, derived using mean cumulative fatality rates 21 to 28 days after each date. Multivariate regression models were estimated. Results: The final sample included 3023 pooled state- and day-level observations. The mean (SD) cumulative positive case rate was 103.186 (200.067) cases per 100 000 state population, the mean (SD) cumulative test rate was 744.23 (894.944) tests per 100 000 state population, and the mean (SD) subsequent cumulative fatality rate was 12.923 (21.737) deaths per 100 000 state population. There was a negative association of SAHOs with cumulative case rates (ß = -1.166; 95% CI, -1.484 to -0.847; P < .001) and subsequent fatality rates (ß = -0.204; 95% CI, -0.294 to -0.113; P < .001). Estimation analyses indicated that expected cumulative case rates would have been more than 200% higher and fatality rates approximately 22% higher if there were no SAHOs, as compared with SAHOs fully in place. A higher proportion of African American population was associated with higher case rates (ß = 0.045; 95% CI, 0.014 to 0.077; P = .001) and fatality rates (ß = 0.068; 95% CI, 0.044 to 0.091; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cross-sectional study, SAHOs were associated with reductions in COVID-19 case rates. These findings could help inform policy makers to address the continued COVID-19 pandemic in the US. The proportion of African American population was positively associated with COVID-19 case rates, and this state-level finding adds to evidence from existing ecological studies using county-level data on racial disparities in COVID-19 infection rates and underlines the urgency of better understanding and addressing these disparities.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Políticas , Isolamento Social , Betacoronavirus , Grupos de Populações Continentais , Coronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/etnologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Morbidade , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/etnologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Prevalência , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
7.
Am J Nephrol ; 51(10): 786-796, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33011717

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although diffuse alveolar damage and respiratory failure are the key features of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the involvement of other organs such as the kidney has also been reported. The reports of the incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) in COVID-19 patients vary widely. In this study, we report our unique experience with AKI in COVID-19 patients in a low socioeconomic and predominantly ethnic minority group and provide its incidence, risk factors, and prognosis to expand the current understanding of this complication. METHODS: In this single-center, retrospective cohort study, we analyzed the data of 469 COVID-19 patients admitted to the Brookdale University Hospital in Brooklyn, NY, from March 18 through April 23, 2020. Information regarding demographics, comorbidities, medications, clinical and laboratory data, and outcomes was collected from the electronic medical records. Both univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine the association of AKI with in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: The median age was 66 years (interquartile range [IQR] 25-75; range 19-101 years), and 268 (57.14%) patients were male. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) as determined by the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study Equation was low (<60 mL/min/1.73 m2) in 207 (44.1%) patients. During hospitalization, 128 (27.3%) patients developed AKI, and the incidence was significantly higher in those patients presenting with a low eGFR (N = 81, 39.1%; p < 0.001). Male sex, hypertension, the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and non-steroidal anti-inflammatories, hemodynamic instability, mechanical ventilation, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and admission elevated ferritin, creatinine kinase, brain natriuretic peptide, and troponin 1 were identified as the risk factors for in-hospital AKI. Ninety-seven (28.45%) patients died in the non-AKI group versus 91 (71.1%) in the AKI group (p < 0.001). The Cox proportional hazard model after adjusting for age, gender, comorbidities, hemodynamic status, and PF ratio (arterial oxygen partial pressure [PaO2]/fractional inspired oxygen [FiO2]) determined that on admission, an elevated blood urea nitrogen (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.75; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.23-2.48), a low eGFR (HR 1.43; CI 1.1-2.03), AKI stage 1 (HR 1.14; CI 0.64-2.03), AKI stage 2 (HR 1.86; CI 1.03-3.56), and AKI stage 3 (HR 2.1; CI 1.3-2.81) were independent risk factors for in-hospital mortality. Renal replacement therapy (RRT) did not improve survival in stage III AKI. CONCLUSION: AKI in our hospitalized COVID-19 patients was common and carried a high mortality, especially in patients with AKI stage 3. RRT did not improve survival. Policy changes and planning for this high incidence of AKI in COVID-19 patients and its associated high mortality are necessary at the local and national levels.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/mortalidade , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Hospitais Urbanos/organização & administração , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Políticas , Lesão Renal Aguda/diagnóstico , Lesão Renal Aguda/terapia , Lesão Renal Aguda/virologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Hospitais Urbanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Grupos Minoritários/estatística & dados numéricos , Cidade de Nova Iorque/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Prognóstico , Terapia de Substituição Renal/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
8.
Can J Surg ; 63(5): E454-E459, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33107817

RESUMO

SUMMARY: Small surgical residency programs like plastic surgery can be challenging environments to accommodate parental leave. This study aimed to report the experiences, attitudes and perceived support of Canadian plastic surgery residents, recent graduates and staff surgeons with respect to pregnancy and parenting during training. Residents and staff surgeons were invited via email to participate in an online survey. The results presented here explore experiences of pregnancy and parental leave of current plastic surgery residents and staff surgeons. Residents' and staff surgeons' perceptions of program director support, policies, negative comments and the impact of parental leave on the workload of others were also explored. Although the findings suggest that there may be improvements in the support of program directors, there continues to be a negative attitude in surgical culture toward pregnancy during residency. The perceived confusion of respondents with respect to programspecific policies emphasizes the need for open conversations and standardization of parental leave.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Internato e Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Licença Parental/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez/psicologia , Cirurgia Plástica/educação , Adulto , Canadá , Feminino , Humanos , Internato e Residência/organização & administração , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Diretores Médicos/psicologia , Políticas , Gravidez/estatística & dados numéricos , Cirurgiões/psicologia , Cirurgiões/estatística & dados numéricos , Cirurgia Plástica/psicologia , Cirurgia Plástica/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Carga de Trabalho/psicologia , Carga de Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos
9.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 16(10): e1008388, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33057438

RESUMO

A stochastic compartmental network model of SARS-CoV-2 spread explores the simultaneous effects of policy choices in three domains: social distancing, hospital triaging, and testing. Considering policy domains together provides insight into how different policy decisions interact. The model incorporates important characteristics of COVID-19, the disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, such as heterogeneous risk factors and asymptomatic transmission, and enables a reliable qualitative comparison of policy choices despite the current uncertainty in key virus and disease parameters. Results suggest possible refinements to current policies, including emphasizing the need to reduce random encounters more than personal contacts, and testing low-risk symptomatic individuals before high-risk symptomatic individuals. The strength of social distancing of symptomatic individuals affects the degree to which asymptomatic cases drive the epidemic as well as the level of population-wide contact reduction needed to keep hospitals below capacity. The relative importance of testing and triaging also depends on the overall level of social distancing.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Isolamento Social , Betacoronavirus , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/normas , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Hospitais/normas , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Políticas , Fatores de Risco
10.
Ambio ; 49(12): 1860-1877, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33034874

RESUMO

This review article examines how social science literature co-produces various imaginaries of forest-based bioeconomy transformations and pathways for reaching desired ends. Based on an analysis of 59 research articles, we find that despite a growing number of social sciences studies on the forest-based bioeconomy, much of the research tends to replicate a bioeconomy imaginary articulated in EU and national bioeconomy policies and strategies. Accordingly, the research primarily reproduces a weak approach to sustainability, which prioritize economic growth and competitiveness. Expectations are largely directed at national and regional corporate interests and forest industrial renewal, while the state has a supportive rather than restricting role. We discuss the findings against the role of social sciences, and conclude that social science scholars may adopt various strategies if interested in opening up forest-based policy debates and offer alternative imaginaries of sustainable bioeconomy transformations.


Assuntos
Biotecnologia , Florestas , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Indústrias , Políticas
11.
Afr J Prim Health Care Fam Med ; 12(1): e1-e3, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33054266

RESUMO

Early in the course of the coronavirus infection disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in South Africa, the Department of Health implemented a policy of community screening and testing (CST). This was based on a community-orientated primary care approach and was a key strategy in limiting the spread of the pandemic, but it struggled with long turnaround times (TATs) for the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction test. The local experience at Symphony Way Community Day Centre (Delft, Cape Town), highlighted these challenges. The first positive tests had a median TAT of 4.5 days, peaking at 29 days in mid-May 2020. Issues that contributed to long TATs were unavailability of viral transport medium, sample delivery and storage difficulties, staffing problems, scarcity of testing supplies and other samples prioritised over CST samples. At Symphony Way, many patients who tested COVID-19 positive had abandoned their self-isolation because of the delay in results. Employers were unhappy with prolonged sick leave whilst waiting for results and patients were concerned about not getting paid or job loss. The CST policy relies on a rapid TAT to be successful. Once the TAT is delayed, the process of contacting patients, and tracing and quarantining contacts becomes ineffective. With hindsight, other countries' difficulties in upscaling testing should have served as warning. Community screening and testing was scaled back from 18 May 2020, and testing policy was changed to only include high-risk patients from 29 May 2020. The delayed TATs meant that the CST policy had no beneficial impact at local level.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Programas de Rastreamento , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Políticas , Betacoronavirus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Coronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Fatores de Risco , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave , África do Sul , Fatores de Tempo
12.
Br J Nurs ; 29(18): 1082-1083, 2020 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33035084

RESUMO

Emeritus Professor Alan Glasper, from the University of Southampton, discusses the Prime Minister's personal campaign to reduce the impact of COVID-19 by addressing rising levels of obesity in society.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Governo , Humanos , Pandemias , Políticas , Medicina Estatal , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
13.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-47868

RESUMO

Dia Mundial sem Tabaco


Assuntos
Tabagismo , Políticas , Redução do Dano
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32992966

RESUMO

In Kenya, millions of children have limited access to nurturing care. With the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, it is anticipated that vulnerable children will bear the biggest brunt of the direct and indirect impacts of the pandemic. This review aimed to deepen understanding of the effects of COVID-19 on nurturing care from conception to four years of age, a period where the care of children is often delivered through caregivers or other informal platforms. The review has drawn upon the empirical evidence from previous pandemics and epidemics, and anecdotal and emerging evidence from the ongoing COVID-19 crisis. Multifactorial impacts fall into five key domains: direct health; health and nutrition systems; economic protection; social and child protection; and child development and early learning. The review proposes program and policy strategies to guide the reorientation of nurturing care, prevent the detrimental effects associated with deteriorating nurturing care environments, and support the optimal development of the youngest and most vulnerable children. These include the provision of cash transfers and essential supplies for vulnerable households and strengthening of community-based platforms for nurturing care. Further research on COVID-19 and the ability of children's ecology to provide nurturing care is needed, as is further testing of new ideas.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Criança , Cuidado da Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Quênia , Pandemias , Políticas
16.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239402, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32997681

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence indicates that early life is critical for determining future obesity risk. A sharper policy focus on pregnancy and early childhood could help improve obesity prevention efforts. This study aimed to systematically identify and categorise policy levers used in England with potential to influence early life course (pregnancy, 0-5 years) and identify how these interface with energy balance behaviours. The objective is to identify gaps and where further policy actions could most effectively focus. METHODS: A behavioural science approach was taken using the Capability-Opportunity-Motivation-Behaviour (COM-B) model and Behaviour Change Wheel (BCW) framework. The key determinants of energy balance in the early years were identified from the Foresight Systems Map. Policy actions were scoped systematically from available literature, including any health or non-health policies which could impact on energy balance behaviours. Foresight variables and policy actions were considered in terms of COM-B and the BCW to determine approaches likely to be effective for obesity prevention and treatment. Existing policies were overlaid across the map of key risk factors to identify gaps in obesity prevention and treatment provision. RESULTS: A wide range of policy actions were identified (n = 115) to address obesity-relevant risk factors. These were most commonly educational or guidelines relating to environmental restructuring (i.e. changing the physical or social context). Scope for strengthening policies relating to the food system (e.g. the market price of food) and psychological factors contributing to obesity were identified. Policies acted via all aspects of the COM-B model, but there was scope for improving policies to increase capability through skills acquisition and both reflective and automatic motivation. CONCLUSIONS: There is substantial policy activity to address early years obesity but much is focused on education. Scope exists to strengthen actions relating to upstream policies which act on food systems and those targeting psychological factors contributing to obesity risk.


Assuntos
Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Políticas , Ciências do Comportamento , Inglaterra , Humanos , Motivação , Obesidade/psicologia
17.
RECIIS (Online) ; 14(3): 563-579, jul.-set. 2020. ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1121421

RESUMO

Um dos desafios das mudanças e evoluções das tecnologias de informação e comunicação (TIC) em corporações é a preservação das informações digitais. Entre as corporações com grande geração de informações digitais estão as universidades. Neste artigo, é apresentada uma estratégia para se elaborar uma política de preservação digital no bojo de uma política arquivística direcionada para a manutenção da autenticidade dos documentos de arquivo. O objetivo é expor um modelo para elaboração de políticas de preservação digital de documentos de arquivo por instituições de ensino superior (IES), com os elementos que devem compô-las, a partir da literatura estudada e da política elaborada e aprovada na Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp). São apresentados os conceitos relacionados à política arquivística para a preservação digital de documentos de arquivo, sua definição, seus aspectos e elementos. Concluiu-se que o modelo pode ser adaptado para outros objetos digitais, bem como para outras instituições.


One of the challenges of the changes and evolutions of the information and communication technology (ICT) in corporations is the preservation of digital information. The universities are among the corporations with a large generation of digital information. This article presents a strategy for the elaboration of a digital preservation policy, in the context of an archival policy which is aimed at maintaining the authenticity of archival documents. The objective of this article is to present a model so that the higher education institutions could making policies for the digital preservation of their archival documents, showing the elements that must compose each one, based on the studied literature and on the policy elaborated in Unesp and which was officially approved by that institution. Concepts related to archival policy for the digital preservation of archival documents, their definition, aspects and elements are presented here. It was concluded that the model can be adapted for other digital objects, as well as for other institutions.


Uno de los desafíos de los cambios y la evolución de las TIC en las corporaciones es la preservación de informaciones digitales. Entre las corporaciones con una gran generación de información digital se encuentran las universidades. En este artículo, se presenta una estrategia para elaborar una política de preservación digital, en medio de una política de archivo dirigida a mantener la autenticidad de los documentos de archivo. El objetivo del artículo es presentar un modelo para la elaboración de políticas de preservación digital de documentos de archivo por instituciones de enseñanza superior, con los elementos que deben componerlas, basado en la literatura estudiada y en la política desarrollada y aprobada en la Unesp. Se presentan conceptos relacionados con la política de archivo para la preservación digital de documentos de archivo, su definición, aspectos y elementos. Se concluyó que este modelo puede adaptarse para otros objetos digitales, así como para otras instituciones.


Assuntos
Humanos , Registros , Instituições de Ensino Superior , Tecnologia da Informação , Políticas , Arquivamento , Cultura Organizacional , Armazenamento e Recuperação da Informação , Administração das Tecnologias da Informação
18.
N C Med J ; 81(5): 324-330, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32900896

RESUMO

Emerging and endemic vector-borne diseases remain significant causes of morbidity and economic burden in North Carolina. Effective policies must promote climate change resilience through public health preparedness at local and regional scales to proactively address the diverse environmental, climatic, and demographic factors amplifying vector-borne disease risk.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Doenças Transmitidas por Vetores , Humanos , North Carolina , Políticas , Saúde Pública
19.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239135, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32931522

RESUMO

The rising public health threat of antimicrobial resistance, the influence of food service companies, as well as the overall lack of positive image of using medical products in intensive farming are major drivers curbing antimicrobial use. In the future, government policies may affect practices of antimicrobial use in beef production in feedlots, a prominent current user of antimicrobials in animal agriculture, but also the agricultural industry generating the highest cash receipt in the U.S. Our objective was to estimate the cost effect from the following policies in feedlots: 1) using antimicrobials for disease prevention, control, and treatment; 2) using antimicrobials only for treatment of disease; and 3) not using antimicrobials for any reason. We modelled a typical U.S. feedlot, where high risk cattle may be afflicted by diseases requiring antimicrobial therapy, namely respiratory diseases, liver abscesses and lameness. We calculated the net revenue loss under each policy of antimicrobial use restriction. With moderate disease incidence, the median net revenue loss was $66 and $96 per animal entering the feedlot, for not using antimicrobials for disease prevention and control, or not using any antimicrobials, respectively, compared to using antimicrobials for disease prevention, control, and treatment. Losses arose mainly from an increase of fatality and morbidity rates, almost doubling for respiratory diseases in the case of antimicrobial use restrictions. In the case of antimicrobial use prohibition, decreasing the feeder cattle price by 9%, or alternatively, increasing the slaughter cattle price by 6.3%, would offset the net revenue losses for the feedlot operator. If no alternatives to antimicrobial therapy for prevention, control and treatment of current infectious diseases are implemented, policies that economically incentivize adoption of non-antimicrobial prevention and control strategies for infectious diseases would be necessary to maintain animal welfare and the profitability of beef production while simultaneously curbing antimicrobial use.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/economia , Antibacterianos/normas , Doenças dos Bovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Fazendas/economia , Políticas , Criação de Animais Domésticos/normas , Bem-Estar do Animal/economia , Bem-Estar do Animal/normas , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/economia , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Simulação por Computador , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Análise Custo-Benefício , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Fazendas/normas , Incidência , Modelos Econômicos , Carne Vermelha/economia
20.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 32(4): 419-422, 2020 Jun 29.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32935521

RESUMO

This paper summarizes the changes in the policy associated with schistosmiasis control in the new era, analyzes the background of Health China Strategy and its association with the current schistosomiasis control program in China, describes several schistosomiasis control models and proposes some suggestions responding to the challenges in current schistosomiasis control program of China, so as to provide insights into the development of the effective control strategy for schistosomiasis.


Assuntos
Erradicação de Doenças , Políticas , Esquistossomose , China , Humanos , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle
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