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1.
J Environ Manage ; 258: 110036, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31929069

RESUMO

The Clean Air Action is considered an important measure to control air pollution. Despite extensive studies on the benefits or the cost of the Clean Air Action, the overall effect of such an action on green development is largely unknown. This paper tries to fill this gap. Based on panel data of 278 Chinese cities, this paper begins with the construction of a comprehensive indicator, namely green production efficiency, to reflect the green development over the period 2011 to 2016, we then implement the quasi-difference-in-differences framework to identify the policy effect of the Clean Air Action on green development. The following findings are obtained: (1) The Clean Air Action has enhanced the green development of Chinese cities, especially in areas with relatively high reduction target and rich resource endowment; (2) The dynamic analysis reveals that the positive effect of the Clean Air Action on green development presents an intensifying trend with time. This paper provides new insights to understand the Clean Air Action, based on these findings, we propose that future policies should focus on the transformation of overall green development and take full account of regional heterogeneity.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Cidades , Políticas
2.
Waste Manag ; 102: 241-248, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31698228

RESUMO

Illegal dumping of construction and demolition (C&D) waste is a major concern for environmental policy-makers. Three different environmental law enforcement policies, aimed at the reduction of illegal C&D waste dumping, are enforced in Israel. These policies include fines (F), vehicle impoundment (V), and criminal indictment (I) by the court. Although, the scope of illegal C&D waste dumping in Israel appears to decline, little is known which of the above policies has been effective in combating the phenomenon. In an attempt to answer this question, we use data on F-V-I instances, recorded between July 2007 and December 2016, and compare them with monthly changes in the ratio between the amount of waste brought to authorized waste dumping sites and the estimated amount of C&D waste generated in the country each month. As the study shows, only the V-sanction was found to be significantly affecting the ratio (t = 3.083; p < 0.01), while the effect of other policy was found insignificant. We explain low efficiency of other law enforcement policies by relatively small fines imposed on the offenders, long court proceedings, combined with a relatively low chance of being caught. By contrast, the V-sanction may be more effective because it results in immediate and severe economic losses to the offenders, causing C&D waste transporters to haul their load to authorized sites. As we argue, for an environmental enforcement policy to be effective, it should be adequate to the severity of the offense and applied swiftly.


Assuntos
Política Ambiental , Aplicação da Lei , Israel , Políticas , Instalações de Eliminação de Resíduos
3.
Bioresour Technol ; 297: 122497, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31818718

RESUMO

Research attention is increasingly drawn on constructing a circular bioeconomy and enhancing the value of material flows. Circular bioeconomy aims to achieve sustainable consumption and production with reduction of greenhouse gas emission. This study identifies research gaps on how circular bioeconomy can be achieved through sustainable food waste management by comparing the similarities and differences in concepts of bioeconomy and circular economy, reviewing the benefits and limitations of the existing policies, and evaluating the global situations of food waste and its management on household and commercial basis to promote circular bioeconomy. Future development on food waste management is expected to capitalise on the multi-functionality of products, boundary and allocation in a circular system, and trade-off between food waste and resources. With future technological advances, food waste management in circular bioeconomy policy can facilitate the accomplishment of sustainable development goals.


Assuntos
Eliminação de Resíduos , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Alimentos , Políticas
4.
J Environ Manage ; 254: 109721, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31726283

RESUMO

Responsible sourcing refers to the compliance of suppliers with environmental and social standards. In today's supply chains, buyers and external stakeholders use auditing mechanisms to induce responsible sourcing. For the first time, this paper investigates the effect of a buyer's audits on the tactical decisions of supply chains. We address a repeated game with one buyer and one critical supplier. At the strategic stage, the buyer chooses the optimal auditing efforts to induce responsible sourcing. At the tactical stages, the buyer and supplier compete with each other for their profit margins, while the buyer also determines the quantity of production. Moreover, the supplier chooses between responsible and irresponsible production. Two auditing mechanisms are defined for the buyer: strong incentive compatibility (SIC) and weak incentive compatibility (WIC). The effectiveness and backfiring conditions for these auditing mechanisms are identified. The former denotes that the mechanism can induce responsible sourcing, while the latter denotes the conflict between supply chain transparency and responsible sourcing. The results show that the supplier requires an efficiency wage for compliance with responsible sourcing standards. We find that auditing mechanisms in supply chains face an unintended consequence. Higher auditing efforts by the buyer reduce the supplier's wholesale price. This reduction may offset the greater potential for discovery obtained by higher auditing efforts. We also show that the effect of consumer awareness on responsible sourcing is not straightforward and depends strongly on the buyer's auditing mechanism. If the buyer chooses the SIC (WIC) auditing mechanism, consumer awareness always favors (threatens) responsible sourcing. Finally, this research suggests that coordination between buyers and external stakeholders contributes greatly to responsible sourcing.


Assuntos
Comércio , Políticas , Tomada de Decisões
5.
Ambio ; 49(1): 35-48, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31055793

RESUMO

Dairy production systems have rapidly intensified over the past several decades. Dairy farms in many world regions are larger and concentrated in fewer hands. Higher productivity can increase overall economic gains but also incurs site-specific social and environmental costs. In this paper, we review the drivers and impacts of dairy intensification. We identify in the literature four prominent concerns about dairy intensification: the environment, animal welfare, socioeconomic well-being, and human health. We then critically assess three frameworks-sustainable intensification, multifunctionality, and agroecology-which promise win-win solutions to these concerns. We call for research and policy approaches that can better account for synergies and trade-offs among the multiple dimensions of dairy impacts. Specifically, we suggest the need to (1) consider dairy system transitions within broader processes of social-environmental change and (2) investigate how certain framings and metrics may lead to uneven social-environmental outcomes. Such work can help visualize transformations towards more equitable, ethical, and sustainable food systems.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Fazendas , Humanos , Políticas
6.
Disasters ; 44(1): 3-24, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31231813

RESUMO

There is an assumption that with the disintegration of the Soviet Union, the Second World ceased to exist. Yet the demise of the Communist bloc as a geopolitical reality did not mean that it stopped exerting a defining influence over how people think and behave. This article examines how the postsocialist state in Kazakhstan deals with potential crises such as earthquakes and the extent to which the Soviet legacy still shapes intellectual debates, state structures, and civil society organisations in in that country. Drawing on fieldwork and interviews, this paper re-examines the Second World in its historical context and re-establishes it as a conceptual framework for considering disaster risk reduction in the former Soviet bloc. It argues that it is essential to pay attention to this legacy in Kazakhstan both in policy and practice if earthquake risk reduction is to be made more effective.


Assuntos
Terremotos , Socialismo , Planejamento em Desastres/organização & administração , Humanos , Cazaquistão , Políticas
7.
Disasters ; 44(1): 179-204, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31231847

RESUMO

New Zealand introduced a seismic retrofitting policy in the wake of the catastrophic Canterbury earthquakes of 2010-11. The aim was to enforce seismic strengthening of earthquake-prone commercial buildings throughout the country. This study focuses on regional urban centres and the economic obstacles to strengthening their aging building stock. In investigating one town, Whanganui, we describe conditions, analyse cases, and identify incentives that apply equally to many other towns in New Zealand. We argue that incentives that suit high-growth, high-value major urban centres are a poor fit for the periphery. Around the world, many places need to upgrade their privately-owned building stock to protect it from disasters, while governments face similar challenges as they struggle to initiate the strengthening of commercial buildings. We analyse the current incentive schemes that aim to support the achievement of policy goals and suggest alternative incentive schemes that can be implemented to improve strengthening outcomes.


Assuntos
Planejamento em Desastres , Terremotos , Arquitetura de Instituições de Saúde , Políticas , Cidades , Humanos , Nova Zelândia
8.
Nature ; 576(7786): 182, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31827301
9.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1419, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31666032

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Childhood stunting is the most common manifestation of chronic malnutrition. A growing body of literature indicates that stunting can have negative repercussions on physical and cognitive development. There are increasing concerns that low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are particularly susceptible to adverse consequences of stunting on economic development. The aim of this review is to synthesize current evidence on interventions and policies that have had success in reducing stunting and explore the impact of successes on economic indicators. METHODS: This review adheres to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Articles were searched through MEDLINE via PubMed and Ovid, Cochrane Library, Web of Science and ProQuest. Only articles that addressed the effects of nutrition and cash-based interventions and/or policies on stunting and reported effects on childhood mortality and/or human capital indicators were included. Two reviewers independently abstracted data and assessed quality. RESULTS: Seventeen studies from Africa (47%), South America (41%), and South Asia (12%) met the eligibility criteria: 8 cohort studies, 4 case studies, 4 Randomized Control Trials (RCTs) and 1 quasi-trial. Three types of interventions/policies were evaluated: multisectoral policies, nutritional supplementations and cash-based interventions (CCT). Overall, 76% of the included studies were successful in reducing stunting and 65% of interventions/policies reported successes on stunting reductions and economic successes. Five of the 11 successful studies reported on nutritional supplementation, 4 reported on multisectoral policies, and 2 reported on CCT interventions. Average Annual Rate of Reduction (AARR) was calculated to assess the impact of multisectoral policies on childhood mortality. AARR for under 5 mortality ranged from 5.2 to 6.2% and all countries aligned with the global target of 4.4% AARR. Quality assessment yielded positive results, with the biggest concerns being attrition bias for cohort studies, blinding for trials and generalizability of results for case studies. CONCLUSIONS: Evidence suggests that investment in fighting chronic malnutrition through multisectoral policies, multi-year nutritional supplementation (protein or multiple micronutrient supplementation) and possibly CCTs can have a long-term impact on economic development of LMICs. More evidence is needed to inform practices in non-represented regions while prioritizing standardization of economic indicators in the literature.


Assuntos
Países em Desenvolvimento , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Assistência Alimentar/economia , Transtornos do Crescimento/prevenção & controle , Desnutrição , Estado Nutricional , Políticas , África , Ásia , Criança , Países em Desenvolvimento/economia , Dieta , Suplementos Nutricionais , Transtornos do Crescimento/economia , Transtornos do Crescimento/etiologia , Humanos , Desnutrição/complicações , Desnutrição/dietoterapia , Desnutrição/economia , Pobreza , América do Sul
10.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(34): 35208-35217, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31696425

RESUMO

Given that the volume of carbon emissions in the US is a significant share of the global greenhouse gas emissions, some salient factors are being currently examined so as to reverse the threat to global environmental sustainability. To this regard, the current study investigates the co-movement and long-term and short-term causal relationship between CO2 emission (a proxy for environmental quality) and renewable consumption, immigration, and healthcare by using the wavelet coherence approach which primarily provides information on dynamic correlations over time and for different time scales. The coherence approach allows the one-dimensional time data into the bi-dimensional time-frequency sphere between the variables. In addition to investigating the causal relationship between CO2 and renewable consumption, immigration, and healthcare, this study also employs gradual-shift causality and Toda-Yamamoto causality tests. With this, the study found a high variation for CO2 emission in the US at 8 scales (8 quarters) from 1999 to 2008. Additionally, there is significant feedback causality between CO2 emission and renewable consumption at different scales while a positive correlation between the variables is observed in the short run. Similarly, the result reveals that immigration significantly causes CO2 emission in the US from 2008 to 2010 and a two-way causality is detected between CO2 emission and healthcare at different frequencies and time period. Moreover, the Toda-Yamamoto causality and gradual-shift causality tests provide supportive evidence to the outcomes of the wavelet coherence-based causality test in this study. Overall, the investigation offers significant policy directive especially toward addressing the potential adverse effects from the country's immigration and healthcare amendments.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Emigração e Imigração , Poluição Ambiental , Energia Renovável , Carbono , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Gases de Efeito Estufa , Políticas , Estados Unidos
14.
J Environ Manage ; 252: 109671, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31610448

RESUMO

This article used evidence from tourists' willingness to pay (WTP) for a set of climate change adaptation policies to estimate implicit discount rates under different discounting structures. A choice experiment with two different split samples framed at two different time horizons was used to analyse how WTP changes as a function of the timing of the expected benefits. Results confirm that individuals are time sensitive to different horizons and provide support for the use of a very low discount rate in the evaluation of policies having effects in the long and very long run and show that the social acceptability of climate change (CC) adaptation policies can be affected by the timing of the benefits and the use of one or another discounting model.


Assuntos
Aclimatação , Mudança Climática , Humanos , Políticas
15.
J Glob Health ; 9(2): 020414, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31662849

RESUMO

Background: Mass drug administration (MDA) programmes for neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) depend on voluntary community drug distributors (CDDs) to deliver drugs, and these volunteer schemes need regular training and supervision. NTD policy now includes integration of multiple disease programmes, but we are unsure if there is clarity in what is currently expected of CDDs and how they are managed. We therefore analysed World Health Organization (WHO) policy, strategy and implementation guidance, and select national NTD programme implementation plans. Methods: Included are a) WHO global and WHO-Regional Office for Africa guidelines, strategies, operational manuals and meeting reports published between January 2007 to February 2018 that included policy and plans for CDDs; and b) national NTD programme master plans for Cameroon, Ghana, Liberia and Nigeria. For both review components, we examined the CDD responsibilities through a framework developed iteratively against the documents and prepared a narrative synthesis. Results: Twenty WHO policy documents met the inclusion criteria. In the twelve global and eight regional documents, the CDD role was not explicitly or comprehensively defined. Three documents mentioned CDDs will distribute drugs; some mentioned health promotion, data handling and engagement in clinical care. Four WHO documents noted a need for CDD training or management, eight detailed some aspect of this, and one regional document provided a comprehensive overview. In the national plans, additional responsibilities included case management in two countries and transmission control in two countries. Every plan included training and supervision, but this was not always explicit, and details of the purpose and frequency varied. In all national plans, CDD motivation was identified as a challenge but not comprehensively addressed, although one document mentioned provision of bicycles. Conclusions: WHO and national policies and plans assume CDDs will implement NTD programmes. However, there is almost no clear delineation of responsibilities, nor is there up-to-date practical guidance to guide managers. This ambiguity, in relation to the lack of explicit policies or programmatic guidance, probably impairs the effectiveness of NTD programmes.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/organização & administração , Administração Massiva de Medicamentos , Doenças Negligenciadas/tratamento farmacológico , Camarões , Gana , Humanos , Libéria , Nigéria , Políticas , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde
16.
Nature ; 573(7775): 463, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31554986
17.
Global Health ; 15(1): 57, 2019 09 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533850

RESUMO

In 2015, the World Health Organization (WHO) Expert Committee approved the addition of 16 cancer medicines to the WHO Model List of Essential Medicines (EML), bringing the total number of cancer medicines on the list to 46. This change represented the first major revision to the EML oncology section in recent history and reinforces international recognition of the need to ensure access and affordability for cancer treatments. Importantly, many low and middle-income countries rely on the EML, as well as the children's EML, as a guide to establish national formularies, and moreover use these lists as tools to negotiate medicine pricing. However, EML inclusion is only one component that impacts cancer treatment access. More specifically, factors such as intellectual property rights and international trade agreements can interact with EML inclusion, drug pricing, and accessibility. To better understand this dynamic, we conducted an interdisciplinary review of the patent status of EML cancer medicines compared to other EML noncommunicable disease medicines using the 17th, 18th, 19th, 20th, and 21st editions of the list. We also explored the interaction of intellectual property rights with the international trade regime and how trade agreements can and do impact cancer treatment access and affordability. Based on this analysis, we conclude that patent status is simply one factor in the complex international environment of health systems, IPR policies, and trade regimes and that aligning these oftentimes disparate interests will require shared global governance across the cancer care continuum.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Comércio/organização & administração , Medicamentos Essenciais , Propriedade Intelectual , Cooperação Internacional , Políticas , Antineoplásicos/economia , Antineoplásicos/provisão & distribução , Custos e Análise de Custo , Medicamentos Essenciais/economia , Medicamentos Essenciais/provisão & distribução , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Organização Mundial da Saúde
19.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1198, 2019 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31470843

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Electronic gambling machines (EGMs) are considered a risky form of gambling. Internationally, studies have reported that the density of EGMs tends to be higher in socioeconomically disadvantaged areas than in more advantaged ones. We examined whether this holds true in the Finnish context where a decentralised system of EGMs guarantees wide accessibility to this form of gambling. More precisely, we investigated the association between the density of EGMs and area-level socio-economic status (SES). METHODS: The primary measure was the EGM density, referring to the number of EGMs per 1000 adults. The area-level SES was defined on the basis of the median income of inhabitants, the proportion of unemployment in the area and educational attainment (% of those beyond primary education). Three additional area characteristics were used as control variables in the analyses; the overall population density, economic activity (the number of jobs in the area per employed inhabitant), and the mean age of the inhabitants. Analyses were based on linear regression. RESULTS: The EGM density was 3.68 per 1000 inhabitants (SD = 2.63). A lower area-level SES was correlated with a higher EGM density. In further analyses, this effect was mostly explained by the income of the inhabitants. Of the control variables, the population density had no detectable effect on the EGM density while areas with a higher mean age of the inhabitants, as well a higher density of jobs, had more EGMs. CONCLUSIONS: EGMs are unequally located in Finland, with more EGMs located in socio-economically less advantaged areas. The higher machine density in areas of social disadvantage is not in line with the aim of the Finnish gambling policy, which is to prevent and reduce harm caused by gambling. Changes in policy are required, especially with regard to the decisions on the placement of EGMs. This should not be made solely by gaming operators and/or from fiscal perspectives.


Assuntos
Jogo de Azar/epidemiologia , Áreas de Pobreza , Adulto , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Políticas , Política , Fatores Socioeconômicos
20.
BMC Oral Health ; 19(1): 185, 2019 08 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31412821

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In 2013, the national dental scaling insurance policy was introduced in South Korea. The purpose of this study is to determine the impact of the policy on inequalities in dental scaling usage. METHODS: Data of a nationally representative sample of 1,517,097 people over the age of 20 were obtained from the 2010-2016 Community Health Survey. Respondents who reported that they had not received dental scaling in the past year were defined as dental scaling non-users. The excess prevalence and relative prevalence ratio of dental scaling non-users were calculated for the pre-policy (2010-2012) and post-policy periods (2014-2016) using monthly household income levels. Additionally, trends of dental scaling inequalities were shown as concentration indexes. RESULTS: The prevalence of dental scaling non-users declined from 58.0 to 48.7% in the highest income group and from 86.3 to 78.8% in the lowest income group. However, the adjusted excess prevalence for the lowest income group compared with the highest had increased from 11.9 (95% CI: 11.9-11.9) to 15.5 (95% CI: 15.5-15.5)%, and the adjusted prevalence ratio increased from 1.19 (95% CI: 1.19-1.20) to 1.29 (95% CI: 1.29-1.30). Absolute and relative concentration indexes of dental scaling non-users increased after policy implementation. CONCLUSIONS: The national dental scaling insurance policy has increased socioeconomic inequalities in dental scaling usage. Because dental care access generally requires high individual agency, expanded dental coverage may have had limited effects in attenuating inequalities and inadvertently widened the gap. To reduce dental care inequalities, universal access with universal dental coverage should be considered.


Assuntos
Raspagem Dentária , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Renda , Raspagem Dentária/economia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Políticas , República da Coreia , Fatores Socioeconômicos
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