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1.
Nutrients ; 12(10)2020 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33050404

RESUMO

Unexpected isolation, which has not yet been seen on a global scale, has created the conditions for evaluating nutrition in a situation of reduced spatial activity. The study aimed to assess the influence of lockdown on selected eating habits of Polish adults. An anonymous questionnaire was conducted, including questions about eating habits and self-reported anthropometric measurements, referring to "before" and "during" lockdown. We reported the findings of 312 adults (aged 41.12 ± 13.05 years). Overall, 64.1% of the participants were women, 77.7% urban inhabitants and 78.6% employed. The average length of social isolation was 50.79 ± 10.53 days. The majority (51.6%) of the respondents did not eat outside the house during lockdown (p < 0.0001). The number of meals eaten during the day during lockdown increased significantly, 11.2% of the respondents ate 5 and more meals (p < 0.0001). The percentage of people snacking between meals increased by 5.1% during lockdown (p = 0.0001). Eggs, potatoes, sweets, canned meat and alcohol were consumed considerably more commonly during lockdown, while fast-food products, instant soups and energy drinks were eaten or drunk significantly less frequently. A marked decrease in the number of daily servings of the following products was observed: bakery products, red meat, fast food, instant soups, sweet beverages and energy drinks. Conversely, the number of daily servings of sweets and canned meat significantly increased. Two thirds of the respondents reported body weight changes, with 45.86% of the participants being overweight during lockdown. Significant changes in the diet of Polish adults were found during lockdown due to COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Isolamento Social , Ganho de Peso , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Índice de Massa Corporal , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Fast Foods , Feminino , Preferências Alimentares , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Refeições , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/etiologia , Sobrepeso/etiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Polônia/epidemiologia , Lanches , Inquéritos e Questionários , População Urbana
2.
Psychiatr Pol ; 54(3): 421-436, 2020 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês, Polonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33038878

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 poses a particular risk to the elderly and people with many comorbidities. In the case of people with dementia, the compliance with sanitary recommendations and the necessary physical isolation can have far-reaching negative consequences in terms of limiting the continuation of tailored care, support and treatment. The recommendations related to the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic must take into account not only the medical consequences of lack of access to medical care, but also their long-term effects and the disease progression in accordance with the concept of social health. A plan of action for the psychoeducation of informal carers, adapted to the elderly group (including people with dementia), is also necessary. Prepared under the auspices of the Polish Psychiatric Association, the recommendations for people living alone, with their family and in long-term care facilities are intended to draw attention to key epidemiological issues that can be planned by medical staff within the organization of patient care. However, mental and social needs of patients, whose fulfilment is particularly significant in times of restrictions related to everyday activities, are of equal importance. Further monitoring of the epidemiological situation and scientific reports related to the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic are necessary to verify and update the guidelines.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Cuidadores/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Demência/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Atividades Cotidianas , Idoso , Cuidadores/educação , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Polônia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Medição de Risco , Isolamento Social , Sociedades Médicas
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 747: 142084, 2020 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33076212

RESUMO

Forest habitats change significantly under the influence of global warming. It is important to predict the effects of these changes, especially in primeval forests which currently represent a small percentage of temperate forests. Such changes often manifest themselves in an acceleration of the frequency of mass seeding of trees, which causes cascading effects in various organisms. We evaluated changes in: tree masts (oak Quercus robur and hornbeam Carpinus betulus), rodent abundance (yellow-necked mouse Apodemus flavicollis), folivorous caterpillar abundance (winter moth Operophtera brumata), and the breeding success of a cavity-nesting songbird (collared flycatcher Ficedula albicollis) in over a 30-year period in the Bialowieza Forest (E Poland). We also analysed temperature, precipitation and snow cover to determine the effects of weather on each trophic level. Previous studies have exposed the indirect effect of tree masting on songbirds breeding in open nests. Our study uniquely highlights the relationships between trees, rodents, caterpillars, and a cavity-nesting bird. Precipitation was positively correlated with the fructification of trees, abundance of caterpillars, and the breeding losses of flycatchers (in July, August, October in the previous year, in May in the current year, respectively). We found that along with the changing climate, the frequency of mast years of oak increased, which caused an increasing frequency of rodent outbreaks. The abundance of mice was positively correlated with the predation on flycatcher broods (current year) and negatively - with the abundance of caterpillars (following year). We predict that current global trends in climate change will have a negative impact on the flycatcher due to the cascading effects from the above species. Bearing in mind that F. albicollis is one of the most numerous bird species, it can be assumed that more frequent masting will result in substantial changes in the entire bird assemblage, and presumably also other groups of animals.


Assuntos
Aves Canoras , Árvores , Animais , Cruzamento , Mudança Climática , Florestas , Camundongos , Polônia
4.
Wiad Lek ; 73(8): 1593-1599, 2020.
Artigo em Polonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055317

RESUMO

Allergic alveolitis (AA) is a group of diseases with an immunologic background evoked by chronic antigen inhalation. The diagnosis is difficult due to the diversity and non-specific character of symptoms and different clinical severity. AA is the third most often interstitial-lung-disease, comprising 4-15% of all interstitial diseases. It's often related to professional exposure. Farmer's lung, a hypersensitivity pneumonitis is the most common AA. By binding precipitins to form immunologic complexes, antigens trigger an early phase acute reaction in the lung tissue thus initiating disease's progression. In the chronic phase endolobular fibrosis located in the upper lobes prevails. Disease differs in course depending the type and time of antigen exposition. Thus, avoiding antigen exposition is the first-line-therapy. Acute form is characterized by fever, chills, dyspnea, and cough. It usually starts 4-8 hours after intensive exposure. Early diagnosis leads to a good prognosis. When the exposition to the antigen stops, acute form of AA usually self-limits within 24-48 hours. Only in severe cases 0.5-1.0 mg/kg/d (up 60 mg/d) can be required for 1-2 weeks with a subsequent dose reduction. Long-term usually leads to chronic form with more serious deteriorations, including severe dyspnea and chronic cough (it takes months-years for them to develop, however). There is no effective therapy, in rapidly progressing cases 40-60 mg/g of prednisone repeated in 4-week-cycles can be recommended. Usually it does not stop the progression, and pulmonary fibrosis followed by respiratory insufficiency develop. Symptoms duration at diagnosis and effectiveness of antigen elimination are the known prognostic factors.


Assuntos
Alveolite Alérgica Extrínseca , Alveolite Alérgica Extrínseca/diagnóstico , Alveolite Alérgica Extrínseca/tratamento farmacológico , Alveolite Alérgica Extrínseca/etiologia , Doença Crônica , Humanos , Polônia
5.
Wiad Lek ; 73(8): 1632-1636, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055324

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim: The aim of this study was to characterize the general characteristics of the completed interventions by the Voivodeship Rescue Service of Katowice in the time period from 1st January 2018 to 31 December 2018. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Material and methods: Analysis of the characteristics of the trips was done based on the information contained in the dispatch order cards and medical emergency services cards. In the statistical analysis the Chi-Square (p<0.05) test was utilized. RESULTS: Results: The total number of interventions was 211,548 cases. It is also worth observing, that the general number of interventions out of town amounted to 20,344 interventions, whereas, in town, there were 191,204 interventions. It can be observed that the most common decision made by the Emergency Medical Team was the decision to directly transported and received by the emergency department (126,553 cases; p<0.05). The definite most common reason for symptoms, signs and abnormal clinical and laboratory findings, not elsewhere classified (ICD-10 code : R; p<0.05). CONCLUSION: Conclusion: The largest number of interventions completed by the Voivodeship Rescue Service in Katowice in 2018 was due to injuries and poisonings, symptoms, diseases features and incorrect results of diagnostic tests, and in third place were cardiovascular diseases.


Assuntos
Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Polônia , Estudos Retrospectivos
6.
Wiad Lek ; 73(8): 1771-1779, 2020.
Artigo em Polonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055350

RESUMO

Nurses are the largest group of Polish medical staff. There are currently approximately 230,000 nurses employed in Poland. There is a statutory profession for many years. Nurses provide health services on the basis of a medical order or on their own. As a result of changes in the law, the scope of their professional competences has been increasing for several years, including to independently administer medicines and issue prescriptions. The purpose of the article is to present and analyze legal norms determining the status of a nurse in the Polish health care system. In addition, the definition of the statutory principles of cooperation between doctors and nurses. The analysis shows that changes in law in recent years have significantly influenced the increase in the role of nurses in the health care system and they are also relevant to the practice of the medical profession.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde , Médicos , Humanos , Polônia , Competência Profissional
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33053787

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic is a great threat to both physical and mental health as it may lead to psychological stress connected with an economic crisis, threat of unemployment, or fear of losing family members. Emerging data shows that the general public may be vulnerable to the pandemic-related stress and experience frequently prevalent anxiety. A study involving 471 subjects (85.6% female) was conducted online during the COVID-19 pandemic. We used the following scales: Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Revised University of California, Los Angeles (R-UCLA) Loneliness Scale, and Daily Life Fatigue scale (DLF). Women had higher mean scores of depression, loneliness, and daily life fatigue and more often than males started exercising. Among people professionally active before the pandemic, there were more cases of increased alcohol consumption than among students. No differences in alcohol consumption patterns were found between genders. People living alone had higher scores of loneliness and daily life fatigue compared to those living with someone. Respondents who started taking any new drugs during COVID-19 home confinement had higher outcomes in all questionnaires. During home confinement, high scores of depression, insomnia, loneliness, and everyday fatigue were observed.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Depressão/epidemiologia , Fadiga/epidemiologia , Solidão , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/epidemiologia , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Polônia/epidemiologia
8.
Wiad Lek ; 73(8): 1641-1649, 2020.
Artigo em Polonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055326

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Introduction: Current information suggests the existence of two main transmission routes for SARS-CoV-2. This is the drip trajectory and contact transmission. The order to cover the mouth and nose in the public space has been introduced as one of the preventive measures to limit the spread of some virus-induced respiratory diseases, including COVID-19. Both medical and non-medical masks have become the most popular tool. Is there any evidence of their effectiveness? What can be the disadvantages of using them? The aim: To analyze social behaviour towards the order to cover the nose and mouth during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic and to confront them with the results of research on the effectiveness of medical and non-medical masks. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Material and methods: The study involved a group of 2512 respondents from all over Poland. The research tool was an original questionnaire containing 24 questions. RESULTS: Results: 76.1% of the respondents declare that they always obey the current order. 83% use a material mask and 26.9% wear a surgical mask. 35.2% of respondents think that the order to cover their nose and mouth is not justified. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: The authors confronted the results of the questionnaire with the scientific research mentioned above. There is limited evidence to resolve the question - "Masks - protection or danger?" However, it is worth noting the small harmfulness and indirect evidence of benefits, which together have precedence over the lack of clear arguments supporting the use of masks by Polish society in times of epidemics.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Máscaras , Boca , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Atitude , Betacoronavirus , Humanos , Polônia
9.
Wiad Lek ; 73(8): 1659-1662, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055329

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Introduction: The SARS-CoV-2 virus was recognized in December 2019 in China. From that moment it has quickly spread around the whole world. It causes COVID-19 disease manifested by breathlessness, coughing and high temperature. The COVID-19 pandemic has become a great challenge for humanity. The aim: To analyze interventions of emergency medical teams during the SAR-CoV-2 pandemic, and to compare obtained data with the same periods in 2018-2019. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Material and methods: The study retrospectively analyzed interventions of emergency medical teams in the period from 15.03 to 15.05 in 2018 - 2020. 1,479,530 interventions of emergency medical teams were included in the study. The number of interventions, reasons for calls, and diagnoses made by heads of the emergency medical teams during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic were compared to the same period in 2018-2019. RESULTS: Results: Authors observed the decline in the number of interventions performed by emergency medical teams during the pandemic in relation to earlier years by approximately 25%. The big decline concerned interventions that were the reason for calls to public places, such as "traffic accident" and "collapse". In the case of diagnoses made by the head of the emergency medical team, the diagnoses regarding stroke or sudden cardiac arrest remained at the similar level. Others showed a marked decline. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: Reduced social activity contributed to a reduced number of interventions by emergency medical teams in public places. The societal fear of the unknown also contributed to the decrease in the number of interventions performed by emergency medical teams. People began to avoid contact with other people.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Polônia/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
10.
Wiad Lek ; 73(8): 1756-1760, 2020.
Artigo em Polonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055347

RESUMO

The article presents the life and work of dr. Mieczyslaw Biernacki, a Polish doctor of medicine, freemason, social, economic and political activist unknown to the younger generation of Polish doctors, who was born in 1862, Throughout his life, he actively worked to raise the level of education and health of Lublin's inhabitants. He held managerial positions in numerous associations, economic institutions, local government and political organizations. Above all, he was a doctor who effectively fought against infectious diseases, venereal diseases and tuberculosis. As an editor and publicist, he took the floor by writing on medical, economic and literary subjects. He died in 1948, at the age of eighty-eight.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis , Médicos , Doenças Transmissíveis/terapia , História do Século XIX , Humanos , Masculino , Polônia , Política
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33007804

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19), announced as a pandemic by the World Health Organization, recently has dominated people's lifestyle. The impact of COVID-19 seems to be relevant to the sexual health as well. METHODS: This prospective study was conducted on two occasions involving 764 female patients between March and April 2020-before and during the time of social quarantine. The sexual function was assessed using the Polish version of the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). Every patient filled out the survey concerning socio-demographic characteristics as well as the influence of SARS-CoV-2 pandemic on their lives. RESULTS: The overall FSFI score before the pandemic was 30.1 ± 4.4 and changed to 25.8 ± 9.7 during it. Scores of every domain: desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction and pain decreased as well (p < 0.001). There was statistically significant association between the workplace and the change of FSFI scores before and during COVID-19 pandemic (p < 0.01). We noticed the biggest decrease in FSFI score in the group of women who did not work at all (5.2 ± 9.9). Religion had a statistically important impact on level of anxiety (p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: The main finding of our study was the influence of COVID-19 pandemic on the quality of sexual lifestyle and frequency of intercourse among Polish women.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Saúde Sexual , Ansiedade , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Polônia , Estudos Prospectivos , Local de Trabalho
12.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0238141, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866171

RESUMO

Academic dishonesty is a common problem at universities around the world, leading to undesirable consequences for both students and the education system. To effectively address this problem, it is necessary to identify specific predispositions that promote cheating. In Polish undergraduate students (N = 390), we examined the role of psychopathy, achievement goals, and self-efficacy as predictors of academic dishonesty. We found that the disinhibition aspect of psychopathy and mastery-goal orientation predicted the frequency of students' academic dishonesty and mastery-goal orientation mediated the relationship between the disinhibition and meanness aspects of psychopathy and dishonesty. Furthermore, general self-efficacy moderated the indirect effect of disinhibition on academic dishonesty through mastery-goal orientation. The practical implications of the study include the identification of risk factors and potential mechanisms leading to students' dishonest behavior that can be used to plan personalized interventions to prevent or deal with academic dishonesty.


Assuntos
Motivação/fisiologia , Má Conduta Profissional/psicologia , Má Conduta Profissional/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Universidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Decepção , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motivação/ética , Polônia , Má Conduta Profissional/ética , Autoeficácia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades/ética , Adulto Jovem
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32867149

RESUMO

While food insecurity (FI) has been extensively studied in many countries, there have been few empirical contributions in Poland to date. The main objective of our research was to identify the socio-demographic factors affecting the risk of FI in Poland within 2014-2019. Moreover, we aimed to examine the effects of the family-oriented social program "Family 500+" by comparing the situation in various types of households with children a few years before and after the program was launched. The analysis was based on the set of eight-item FI indicators adopted by the Food and Agriculture Organization using the Gallup World Poll nationally representative survey data. Based on our results the most vulnerable groups in the context of FI were identified. We confirmed the importance of education, gender, age, marital status, household composition, status of employment and income in preventing FI. The effectiveness of the support program in reducing FI was demonstrated as households with at least three children experienced significant improvement in the FI status during the studied years. These findings should be especially important in the context of the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on FI. As FI can affect the quality and quantity of food choices it is associated with a poorer health status, which increases the risk of infection, including COVID-19, and worsens recovery prognosis. Planning an efficient response to the pandemic requires a comprehension of the increased risk of exposure experienced by people, especially those who are food insecure.


Assuntos
Abastecimento de Alimentos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Criança , Infecções por Coronavirus , Estudos Transversais , Características da Família , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Polônia , Prevalência
14.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238973, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32915908

RESUMO

New technological solutions play an important role in preventing the spread of Covid-19. Many countries have implemented tracking applications or other surveillance systems, which may raise concerns about privacy and civil rights violations but may be also perceived by citizens as a way to reduce threat and uncertainty. Our research examined whether feelings evoked by the pandemic (perceived threat and lack of control) as well as more stable ideological views predict the acceptance of such technologies. In two studies conducted in Poland, we found that perceived personal threat and lack of personal control were significantly positively related to the acceptance of surveillance technologies, but their predictive value was smaller than that of individual differences in authoritarianism and endorsement of liberty. Moreover, we found that the relationship between the acceptance of surveillance technologies and both perceived threat and lack of control was particularly strong among people high in authoritarianism. Our research shows that the negative feelings evoked by the unprecedented global crisis may inspire positive attitudes towards helpful but controversial surveillance technologies but that they do so to a lesser extent than ideological beliefs.


Assuntos
Atitude , Busca de Comunicante/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Aplicativos Móveis , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Quarentena/psicologia , Busca de Comunicante/instrumentação , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Cultura , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Polônia , Ativismo Político , Privacidade
15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(37): e22147, 2020 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925771

RESUMO

Health disorders in mothers and their children are subject to mutual influences arising from the nature of mother-child relationship. The aim of the study was to analyze the issue of anxiety amongst mothers of short children in aspect of growth hormone (GH) therapy in Poland.The study was based on a group of 101 mothers of originally short-stature children: 70 with GH deficiency treated with recombinant human GH and 31 undergoing the diagnostic process, without any treatment. Collected medical data included the child's gender, height and weight, chronological age, bone age delay, and GH therapy duration. For all children the height SDS (standard deviation score of height) and BMI SDS (standard deviation score of body mass index) were calculated. The Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) was used to evaluate anxiety levels among the recruited mothers. Obtained results revealed low trait anxiety levels in all mothers, with no statistically significant differences between the groups. State anxiety levels were significantly higher in mothers of children without diagnosis and treatment than in mothers of children receiving appropriate therapy. Significantly lower levels of maternal state anxiety were observed during the first stage of the GH therapy, and they were further reduced in mothers of children treated for more than 4 years.Growth failure in Polish children is not associated with high maternal anxiety as a personality trait, but lack of diagnosis and lack of appropriate treatment seem to generate high levels of anxiety as a transient state in mothers. The initiation of GH therapy induces a substantial reduction of maternal state anxiety, and the duration of this treatment causes its further decrease. Mothers of short children undergoing diagnostic process could benefit from psychological support, but it seems to be unnecessary when their children are treated with GH.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Crescimento/psicologia , Hormônio do Crescimento/deficiência , Hormônio do Crescimento Humano/uso terapêutico , Mães/psicologia , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Estatura , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Transtornos do Crescimento/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Crescimento/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Masculino , Polônia/epidemiologia , Fatores Sexuais
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32992515

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The global outbreak of COVID-19set new challenges and threats for every human being. In the psychological field it is similar to deep existential crises or a traumatic experience that may lead to the appearance or exacerbation of a serious mental disorder and loss of life meaning and satisfaction. Courtney et al. (2020) discussed deadly pandemic COVID-19 in the light of TMT theory and named it as global contagion of mortality that personally affected every human being. Such unique conditions activate existential fears as people start to be aware of their own mortality. OBJECTIVE: The main aim of this study was to test the mediating effect of existential anxiety, activated by COVID-19 and life satisfaction (SWLS) on the relationship between PTSD symptoms and post-traumatic growth (PTG). We also examined the moderated mediating effect of severity of trauma symptoms on life satisfaction and existential anxiety and its associations with PTG. METHOD: We conducted an online survey during the peak of the COVID-19 outbreak in Poland. The participants completed existential anxiety scale (SNE), life satisfaction scale (SWLS), IES-R scale for measuring the level of PTSD symptoms and post-traumatic growth inventory (PTGI). RESULTS: The effect of PTSD on PTG was found to be mediated by existential anxiety and life satisfaction. We also confirmed two indirect effects: (1) the indirect effect of PTSD on PTG via existential anxiety and life satisfaction tested simultaneously; (2) the indirect effect of life satisfaction on PTG through severity of trauma symptoms. An intermediate or high level of PTSD level was related to less PTG when low and full PTSD stress symptoms strengthened PTG experiences. CONCLUSIONS: A therapeutic intervention for individuals after traumatic experience should attempt to include fundamental existential questions and meaning of life as well as the severity of PTSD symptoms. The severity of traumatic sensations may affect the relationship between life satisfaction and post-traumatic growth.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Pandemias , Satisfação Pessoal , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Crescimento Psicológico Pós-Traumático , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Polônia/epidemiologia
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32992807

RESUMO

Background: The aim of this study was to assess the mental state of Poles in the first weeks of the SARS-COV-2 epidemic. Methods: In the study, the General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-18), The Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10), and Mini-Cope were used. Results: The study was conducted on a group of 443 individuals, including 348 women (78.6%) and 95 men (21.4%). There were more women (χ2 = 6.42, p = 0.02) in the group of people with high results in the GHQ-28 questionnaire and the differentiating factors between those with sten scores above 7 (significantly deteriorated mental health) and those with average or low results (sten score below 7) turned out to be: treatment for mental disorders before the pandemic (χ2 = 19.57, p < 0.001) and the use of psychotherapy during the pandemic (χ2 = 4.21, p = 0.04) and psychiatric pharmacotherapy (χ2 = 8.31, p = 0.01). The presence of suicidal thoughts since the appearance of the pandemic-related restraints and limitations significantly differentiates the compared groups (χ2 = 38.48, p < 0.001). Conclusions: Every fourth person in the examined group (over 26% of the respondents) recorded results that indicate a high probability of mental functioning disorders. Approximately 10% of the respondents signalled the occurrence of suicidal thoughts since the beginning of the pandemic. The respondents complain mainly about problems in everyday life, lack of satisfaction from one's own activities, tension, trouble sleeping, and feelings of exhaustion. Individuals with significantly reduced mental well-being use non-adaptive coping strategies, such as denying problems, emotional discharge, taking substances, discontinuation of action, and blaming themselves for the situation. The risk factors for the deterioration of the mental state of the respondents during the pandemic include psychiatric treatment before the beginning of the pandemic, the presence of suicidal thoughts during forced isolation, and the use of non-adaptive coping strategies (denial of the existence of problems, emotional discharge, use of psychoactive substances, discontinuation of action, and blaming oneself for the situation).


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Saúde Mental , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Adaptação Psicológica , Betacoronavirus , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Polônia
18.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0234532, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32991587

RESUMO

This article describes the isolation, molecular characterization, and genotyping of two fowl adenovirus (FAdVs) strains with GenBank Accession numbers (MT478054, JSN-G033-18-L and MT478055, JSN-G033-18-B) obtained from the internal organs of black grouse (Lyrurus tetrix). This study also reveals the first confirmation of fowl adenovirus in Poland, supporting one of the hypotheses about the probability of fowl adenovirus interspecies transmission. The adenovirus strain sequences were investigated via phylogenetic analysis and were found to have an overall mean pairwise distance of 2.189. The heterogeneity, Relative Synonymous Codon Usage (RSCU), codon composition, and nucleotide frequencies were examined. Statistical analyses and Tajima's test for the examined sequences were carried out. The Maximum Likelihood for the examined sequences substitutions was performed. The results of the sequence analysis identified MT478054, JSN-G033-18-L and MT478055, JSN-G033-18-B as strains of fowl adenovirus 2/11/D, with the Fowl adenovirus D complete sequence showing a 93% match. Wild birds may act as a natural reservoir for FAdVs and likely play an important role in the spreading of these viruses in the environment. The findings reported here suggest horizontal transmission within and between avian species.


Assuntos
Infecções por Adenoviridae/veterinária , Aviadenovirus/isolamento & purificação , Galliformes/virologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Infecções por Adenoviridae/virologia , Animais , Aviadenovirus/classificação , Aviadenovirus/genética , Uso do Códon , DNA Viral/genética , Filogenia , Polônia
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32906590

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic can not only affect physical health, but also mental health, resulting in sleep problems, depression, and traumatic stress. Our research investigates the level of posttraumatic stress, perceived social support, opinions on positive and negative consequences of the pandemic, sense of security and sense of meaning among nurses in the face of this new and not fully understood global epidemiological phenomenon. For this purpose, computer-assisted web interviews were conducted between May 1 and May 15, 2020. Participating nurses completed the following research tools: The Impact Event Scale-Revised (IES-R), The Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS), The Changes in Outlook Questionnaire (CIOQ), The Safety Experience Questionnaire (SEQ) and The Meaning in Life Questionnaire (MLQ). Three hundred and twenty-five nurses of an average age of 39.18 ± 11.16 years and working throughout Poland joined the study. The average overall IES-R score in the study group was 1.78 ± 0.65. Among the dimensions of traumatic stress, the highest score was obtained in the "avoidance" dimension was 1.86 ± 0.73. Amongst participating nurses, the highest support rates were provided by significant others (22.58 ± 5.22). Higher average scores were noted among participants in the subscale measuring positive psychological changes (18.56 ± 4.04). The mean MLQ score was 5.33 ± 0.87. A slightly higher result was observed in the subscale "presence" (5.35 ± 1.14). The results of the research implemented during the period of severe psychological pressure associated with the COVID-19 pandemic provided information on symptoms of traumatic stress in the examined group of nurses. Their sense of security has been lowered and accompanied by an intensified reflection on issues concerning security. However, their current sense of meaning in life remains higher than the tendency to searching for it. The surveyed nurses received individual support mostly from significant others (i.e., other than family and friends). They see positive changes resulting from painful experiences related to the COVID-19 pandemic, which can be characterized by adaptation in the form of post-traumatic growth.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/etiologia , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Polônia , Senso de Coerência , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32932684

RESUMO

Although pharmacy employees' involvement in patient education has great potential, the extent to which they actually provide cognitive services seems inadequate. Given the overburdening of the healthcare system and limited access to medical services due to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic outbreak, this study aimed to evaluate the preparedness of Polish pharmacy employees for patient education on the new threat. The study was conducted using the mystery shopper method. Two interviewers phoned 90 randomly chosen community pharmacies throughout Poland and presented some inquiries on the SARS-CoV-2. Pharmacists devoted more time to patients than pharmacy technicians (2:22 vs. 1:54), and the information they provided was significantly more comprehensive (p = 0.006). The majority of respondents provided an evidence-based recommendation on prevention, symptoms, and management of SARS-CoV-2; however, the scope of advice significantly varied. Community pharmacy staff often expressed their concern about the lack of time to address patients' questions adequately. No statistically significant differences were found in recommendations provided by chain and non-chain pharmacy staff. Obtained results seem to confirm the possibility of involving pharmacists in public health activities during a pandemic. Nevertheless, providing proper working conditions and adequate just-in-time learning solutions is crucial.


Assuntos
Serviços Comunitários de Farmácia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Farmacêuticos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Papel Profissional , Betacoronavirus , Estudos Transversais , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Pandemias , Polônia/epidemiologia
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