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1.
Med Sci Monit ; 26: e924702, 2020 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32379726

RESUMO

BACKGROUND The World Health Organization has declared COVID-19 a global pandemic. This paper presents an epidemiological analysis of the first phase of the COVID-19 epidemic in Poland. MATERIAL AND METHODS This cross-sectional study was carried out between 3 and 27 March 2020 on a sample of 1389 laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 cases in Poland. Data were obtained from epidemiological reports collected by the Chief Sanitary Inspectorate. Analysis includes the number of COVID-19 cases, number of deaths, number of hospitalizations, number of people quarantined, and number of laboratory tests performed. RESULTS The first case was confirmed on 4 March 2020. Over 24 days after the first case, the total number of confirmed infections rose to 1389 (34,000 laboratory tests were performed). The highest incidence rates (over 5 per 100,000) were observed in the 2 central administrative regions (Mazowieckie and Lódzkie) and in the south-western region of Dolnoslaskie, which borders the Czech Republic and Germany. Based on available data about age and sex, a clearly higher incidence was observed in the 20-29 years (4.0 per 100,000), 40-49 years (4.1 per 100,000), and 50-59 years (4.3 per 100,000) age groups. In the period analyzed (24 days), there were 16 confirmed deaths (average age 65.5 years; 81.2% males). CONCLUSIONS The proportion of women and men with confirmed COVID-19 infection was similar to the sex ratio in the general population. Infections were relatively less common in those aged under 20 years. The largest numbers of confirmed cases were detected in 3 of the 4 largest cities, each of which has an international airport.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Betacoronavirus , Criança , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Estudos Transversais , Surtos de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Polônia/epidemiologia , Distribuição por Sexo , Viagem , Adulto Jovem
2.
Med Sci Monit ; 26: e924730, 2020 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32282789

RESUMO

This study aimed (1) to present public health interventions to mitigate the early spread of SARS-CoV-2 implemented in Poland between January 9 and March 29, 2020, and (2) to analyze the potential impact of these regulations on the early phase of the COVID-19 outbreak in Poland. All legal regulations published in the Journal of Laws between January 9 and March 29, 2020, were analyzed. Out of 406 legal regulations identified, 56 were related to the COVID-19 outbreak. Moreover, the official announcements published on the governmental websites dedicated to the coronavirus and health issues were analyzed. On March 4, Poland reported the first laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 case. On March 9, Poland introduced border sanitary control. Six days after the first laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 case, all mass events in Poland were banned. All schools and universities were closed 8 days after the first COVID-19 case. All gastronomic facilities and sport and entertainment services were limited starting on March 14. Eleven days after the first COVID-19 case, controls at all Polish borders were introduced, and a ban on entry into Poland by foreigners (with some exemptions) was implemented. Starting on March 15, all citizens returning from abroad had to undergo compulsory 14 days self-quarantine. On March 20, a state of epidemic was announced, which resulted in new social distancing measures starting on March 25. In Poland, compared to other European countries, far-reaching solutions were implemented relatively early to reduce the spread of infection.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Emergências/epidemiologia , Epidemias/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Polônia/epidemiologia , Quarentena
3.
Pol Przegl Chir ; 92(2): 48-59, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32312919

RESUMO

In the last several weeks we have been witnessing the exponentially progressing pandemic SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus. As the number of people infected with SARS-CoV2 escalates, the problem of surgical management of patients requiring urgent surgery is increasing. Patients infected with SARS-CoV2 virus but with negative test results will appear in general hospitals and may pose a risk to other patients and hospital staff. Health care workers constitutes nearly 17% of infected population in Poland, therefore early identification of infected people becomes a priority to protect human resources and to ensure continuity of the access to a surgical care. Both surgical operations, and endoscopic procedures are considered as interventions with an increased risk of infection. Therefore, determining the algorithm becomes crucial for qualifying patients for surgical treatment, but also to stratify the risk of personnel being infected during surgery and to adequately protect staff. Each hospital should be logistically prepared for the need to perform urgent surgery on a patient with suspected or confirmed infection, including personal protective equipment. Limited availability of the equipment, working under pressure and staff shortages in addition to a highly contagious pathogen necessitate a pragmatic management of human resources in health care. Instant synchronized action is needed, and clear uniform guidelines are essential for the healthcare system to provide citizens with the necessary surgical care while protecting both patients, and staff. This document presents current recommendations regarding surgery during the COVID-19 pandemic in Poland.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Cirurgia Geral/legislação & jurisprudência , Hospitais , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Polônia/epidemiologia
4.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0229354, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32097446

RESUMO

Systematic exposure to social media causes social comparisons, especially among women who compare their image to others; they are particularly vulnerable to mood decrease, self-objectification, body concerns, and lower perception of themselves. This study first investigates the possible links between life satisfaction, self-esteem, anxiety, depression, and the intensity of Instagram use with a social comparison model. In the study, 974 women age 18-49 who were Instagram users voluntarily participated, completing a questionnaire. The results suggest associations between the analyzed psychological data and social comparison types. Then, artificial neural networks models were implemented to predict the type of such comparison (positive, negative, equal) based on the aforementioned psychological traits. The models were able to properly predict between 71% and 82% of cases. As human behavior analysis has been a subject of study in various fields of science, this paper contributes towards understanding the role of artificial intelligence methods for analyzing behavioral data in psychology.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/psicologia , Inteligência Artificial , Depressão/psicologia , Autoimagem , Comportamento Social , Mídias Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos , Rede Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polônia/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
5.
Adv Clin Exp Med ; 29(1): 147-155, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32011830

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chest pain is one of the most frequent symptoms in patients seeking treatment at emergency departments (ED). These patients differ according to the cause of their reported symptoms and resultant mortality. OBJECTIVES: Evaluation of the influence of hospitalization and biochemical parameters on mortality rates in patients admitted to the ED with chest pain, in whom no cardiovascular emergencies were established. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study group consisted of 243 patients with chest pain admitted to the ED in the Wroclaw Medical University Clinical Hospital, Poland, between January 1 and March 31, 2015, in whom no specific diagnosis was made at discharge. A retrospective analysis was carried out based on medical documentation, and 60-day and 1-year survival was assessed. RESULTS: In the study group, the 60-day mortality rate was 0.8% (2 persons) while the 1-year mortality rate was 6.6% (16 persons). The stepwise multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that 1-year mortality was related to increased level of D-dimer (odds ratio (OR) = 8.5, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 21.9-37.5, p < 0.005), age (OR (per year) = 1.10, 95% CI = 1.03-1.18, p < 0.03) and lower than 12 g/dL hemoglobin concentration (OR = 18.5, 95% CI = 4.2-80.4, p < 0.001). Troponin I (TNI) levels and hospitalization were not related independently to mortality when other clinical factors were considered. CONCLUSIONS: Hospitalization of patients with chest pain who were not diagnosed with cardiac emergencies is not related with better survival than of those discharged home from the ED. The 60-day mortality is very low and occurs in older patients with numerous comorbidities. In multivariate analysis, survival of the 1-year period depends on the patient's age, hemoglobin levels and D-dimer levels. Risk of death in patients admitted to the ED due to chest pain in whom the cause of the chest pain was not due to cardiovascular emergencies depends on the presence of old age and comorbidities.


Assuntos
Dor no Peito/diagnóstico , Dor no Peito/terapia , Emergências , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Produtos de Degradação da Fibrina e do Fibrinogênio/análise , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Troponina I/sangue , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Dor no Peito/sangue , Dor no Peito/mortalidade , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polônia/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(7): e19241, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32049864

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk factors of relapse and treatment-related deaths in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in children residing in Poland.A total of 1872 patients with newly diagnosed ALL, treated according to the ALL IC-BFM 2002 protocol in 14 Polish pediatric hematology centers from 2002 to 2012 were included in the study. Three-hundred eighty-four patients experienced treatment failure. The last follow-up was 31 December, 2016.Univariate analysis identified factors in each risk group that were significantly different between children whose treatment failed and those who remained in the first remission. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that only the age of 10 years or over at primary diagnosis in the high-risk group was an adverse prognostic factor. To facilitate the analysis, patients were divided into three groups: relapsed children who survived; relapsed children who died; children without relapse who died due to toxicity.Our analysis showed that age older than 10 years is a particular risk factor for the failure of first-line of treatment, both in terms of relapse and treatment-related mortality.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Polônia/epidemiologia , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/mortalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Falha de Tratamento
7.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 120, 2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31996185

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to assess trends in mortality and the number of lost years of life due to breast cancer in the female population in the years 2000-2016, with consideration given to differences regarding the level of education and place of residence. METHODS: The analysis was based on a database of the Central Statistical Office of Poland, containing information gathered from 92,154 death certificates of all Polish female inhabitants who died in the period 2000-2016 due to breast cancer. The SEYLLp (Standard Expected Years of Life Lost per living person), the SEYLLd (per deaths), the APC (Annual Percentage Change), the AAPC (Average Annual Percentage Change) were calculated to determine years of life lost. RESULTS: The mean age of women who died from breast cancer increased in the study period from 64.7 years to 69.7. The SEYLLp index (per 100,000) increased to 776.8 years in 2016 (AAPC = 0.5%). The most unfavorable changes were observed in the group of women with secondary education. In 2004, the SEYLLp values started to grow at a rate of 2.3% and since 2011, they have been higher than amongst women with elementary education. In the years 2000-2016, the authors observed that SEYLLp was steadily declining (APC = -1.0%) in the group of inhabitants of rural areas, whereas with regards to city dwellers, the SEYLLp index has been increasing since 2004 (APC = 0.5%), which has resulted in increased disproportions regarding the place of residence. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study showed that breast cancer is becoming a serious epidemiological problem in Poland. There is the need to intensify activities among women at highest risk group and it should be the starting point for making key decision in combating breast cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Mortalidade/tendências , Idoso , Bases de Dados Factuais , Atestado de Óbito , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polônia/epidemiologia
8.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0226238, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31978059

RESUMO

Campylobacter jejuni infection is one of the most frequently reported foodborne bacterial diseases worldwide. The main transmission route of these microorganisms to humans is consumption of contaminated food, especially of chicken origin. The aim of this study was to analyze the genetic relatedness of C. jejuni from chicken sources (feces, carcasses, and meat) and from humans with diarrhea as well as to subtype the isolates to gain better insight into their population structure present in Poland. C. jejuni were genotyped using multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and sequence types (STs) were assigned in the MLST database. Among 602 isolates tested, a total of 121 different STs, including 70 (57.9%) unique to the isolates' origin, and 32 STs that were not present in the MLST database were identified. The most prevalent STs were ST464 and ST257, with 58 (9.6%) and 52 (8.6%) C. jejuni isolates, respectively. Isolates with some STs (464, 6411, 257, 50) were shown to be common in chickens, whereas others (e.g. ST21 and ST572) were more often identified among human C. jejuni. It was shown that of 47 human sequence types, 26 STs (106 isolates), 23 STs (102 isolates), and 29 STs (100 isolates) were also identified in chicken feces, meat, and carcasses, respectively. These results, together with the high and similar proportional similarity indexes (PSI) calculated for C. jejuni isolated from patients and chickens, may suggest that human campylobacteriosis was associated with contaminated chicken meat or meat products or other kinds of food cross-contaminated with campylobacters of chicken origin. The frequency of various sequence types identified in the present study generally reflects of the prevalence of STs in other countries which may suggest that C. jejuni with some STs have a global distribution, while other genotypes may be more restricted to certain countries.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana/métodos , Infecções por Campylobacter/microbiologia , Campylobacter jejuni/genética , Diarreia/diagnóstico , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/microbiologia , Carne/análise , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus/métodos , Animais , Infecções por Campylobacter/epidemiologia , Campylobacter jejuni/classificação , Campylobacter jejuni/isolamento & purificação , Galinhas , Diarreia/genética , Diarreia/microbiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Humanos , Carne/microbiologia , Polônia/epidemiologia , Prevalência
9.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1251: 115-121, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31989546

RESUMO

The objective of this review was to elaborate on changes in the virological characteristics of influenza seasons in Poland in the past decade. The elaboration was based on the international influenza surveillance system consisting of Sentinel and non-Sentinel programs, recently adopted by Poland, in which professionals engaged in health care had reported tens of thousands of cases of acute upper airway infections. The reporting was followed by the provision of biological specimens collected from patients with suspected influenza and influenza-like infection, in which the causative contagion was then verified with molecular methods. The peak incidence of influenza infections has regularly been in January-March each epidemic season. The number of tested specimens ranged from 2066 to 8367 per season from 2008/2009 to 2017/2018. Type A virus predominated in nine out of the ten seasons and type B virus of the Yamagata lineage in the 2017/2018 season. Concerning the influenza-like infection, respiratory syncytial virus predominated in all the seasons. There was a sharp increase in the proportion of laboratory confirmations of influenza infection from season to season in relation to the number of specimens examined, from 3.2% to 42.4% over the decade. The number of confirmations, enabling a prompt commencement of antiviral treatment, related to the number of specimens collected from patients and on the virological situation in a given season. Yet influenza remains a health scourge, with a dismally low yearly vaccination rate, which recently reaches just about 3.5% of the general population in Poland.


Assuntos
Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/virologia , Estações do Ano , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza B/isolamento & purificação , Vacinas contra Influenza/administração & dosagem , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Polônia/epidemiologia , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos
10.
J Appl Microbiol ; 128(1): 292-300, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529556

RESUMO

AIMS: Multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria are an emerging cause of morbidity and mortality after haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The aim of the study was to analyse the incidence, clinical characteristics and survival from bacterial infections (BI) caused by MDR pathogens in paediatric HSCT recipients. METHODS AND RESULTS: Among 971 transplanted patients, BI were found in 416 children between the years 2012 and 2017. Overall, there were 883 bacterial episodes, which includes 85·8% after allo-HSCT and 14·2% after auto-HSCT. MDR strains were responsible for half of the total number of bacterial episodes. Over 50% of MDR pathogens were Enterobacteriaceae causing mainly gut infections or urinary tract infections. CONCLUSIONS: Regarding HSCT type, we did not find differences in the profile of MDR BI between allo- and auto-HSCT recipients. However, survival in MDR and non-MDR infections was comparable. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: The large sample size enables unique analysis and makes our data more applicable to other paediatric HSCT centres. In the absence of local epidemiological data, presented clinical characteristics of MDR-caused infections may be used to optimize the prophylactic strategies, early identification of infectious complications of MDR aetiology and thus promptly initiate adequate antibiotic therapy and further improve patients' outcome.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Masculino , Polônia/epidemiologia , Análise de Sobrevida , Adulto Jovem
11.
J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med ; 33(1): 62-67, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29879855

RESUMO

Purpose: The aim of this paper is to identify predictors of cesarean delivery (CD) in patients with an unfavorable cervix undergoing cervical ripening and labor induction with Foley catheter.Materials and methods: A retrospective cohort study of singleton pregnancies induced using Foley catheter was performed to evaluate whether factors in the maternal history and during the process of labor induction are useful in predicting the risk of CD.Results: During the study period there were 2221 births in the Chair and Department of Obstetrics and Perinatology, Medical University of Lublin, Poland. From a cohort of 402 women with Foley catheter induction (FCI), 327 met inclusion criteria. There were 236 vaginal labors (72.2%) and 91 CDs (27.8%). Nulliparity (OR 2.344), Bishop score of 1-2 points (OR 1.473), and meconium-stained amniotic fluid (OR 1.980) are linked to the risk of CD. In nulliparous patients, factors associated with an increased risk of CD included maternal age greater than 30 years (OR 3.200), meconium-stained amniotic fluid (OR 2.505), and birthweight ≥3400 g (OR 1.803). Among multiparous women none of the evaluated factors was significantly connected to CD.Conclusions: Nulliparity, low Bishop score, and meconium-stained amniotic fluid are important risk factors of CD after FCI.


Assuntos
Maturidade Cervical/fisiologia , Cesárea , Trabalho de Parto Induzido/métodos , Cateterismo Urinário , Adolescente , Adulto , Colo do Útero/fisiologia , Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Idade Materna , Paridade , Polônia/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Projetos de Pesquisa , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
12.
Pol J Microbiol ; 68(4): 541-548, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31880897

RESUMO

Analysis of the epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus (SA) ocular infections and virulence factors of the isolates with a special emphasis on their drug resistance, and the ability of biofilm formation. In a period from 2009 to 2013, 83 isolates of SA were prospectively collected and preserved in a multicenter laboratory-based study carried out in southern Poland. Epidemiological, phenotypic, and genotypic analyses were performed. The resistance and virulence genes were analyzed. Screening for the biofilm formation was provided. Among the materials derived from ocular infections from 456 patients, SA was found in 18.2% (n = 83) of cases (one SA isolate per one patient). Most infections were identified in the age group of over 65 years (OR 8.4 95%CI; 1.03-68.49). The majority of patients (73.4%) were hospitalized. Among the virulence and resistance genes, the most frequently detected were the lukE (72.2%, n = 60) and ermA (15.6%, n = 13) genes. A positive result of the CRA test (the ability of biofilm formation) was found in 66.2% (n = 55) of isolates. Among the strains under study, 6.0% (n = 5) had the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus phenotype, and 26.5% (n = 22) had the macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B phenotype. In 48 (57.8%) isolates the neomycin resistance was revealed. All isolates under study were sensitive to vancomycin. The population most susceptible to ocular SA infections consists of hospitalized patients aged 65 and more. The SA strains under study showed the increased ability to biofilm formation. In the strains tested, high susceptibility to chloramphenicol and fluoroquinolones was demonstrated. However, the high level of drug resistance to neomycin detected in this study among SA isolates and the blood-ocular barrier makes it difficult to treat ocular infections.Analysis of the epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus (SA) ocular infections and virulence factors of the isolates with a special emphasis on their drug resistance, and the ability of biofilm formation. In a period from 2009 to 2013, 83 isolates of SA were prospectively collected and preserved in a multicenter laboratory-based study carried out in southern Poland. Epidemiological, phenotypic, and genotypic analyses were performed. The resistance and virulence genes were analyzed. Screening for the biofilm formation was provided. Among the materials derived from ocular infections from 456 patients, SA was found in 18.2% (n = 83) of cases (one SA isolate per one patient). Most infections were identified in the age group of over 65 years (OR 8.4 95%CI; 1.03-68.49). The majority of patients (73.4%) were hospitalized. Among the virulence and resistance genes, the most frequently detected were the lukE (72.2%, n = 60) and ermA (15.6%, n = 13) genes. A positive result of the CRA test (the ability of biofilm formation) was found in 66.2% (n = 55) of isolates. Among the strains under study, 6.0% (n = 5) had the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus phenotype, and 26.5% (n = 22) had the macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B phenotype. In 48 (57.8%) isolates the neomycin resistance was revealed. All isolates under study were sensitive to vancomycin. The population most susceptible to ocular SA infections consists of hospitalized patients aged 65 and more. The SA strains under study showed the increased ability to biofilm formation. In the strains tested, high susceptibility to chloramphenicol and fluoroquinolones was demonstrated. However, the high level of drug resistance to neomycin detected in this study among SA isolates and the blood-ocular barrier makes it difficult to treat ocular infections.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Infecções Oculares/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Fatores de Virulência/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Criança , Infecções Oculares/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polônia/epidemiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/classificação , Staphylococcus aureus/metabolismo , Fatores de Virulência/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
13.
Pol J Microbiol ; 68(3): 303-308, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31880875

RESUMO

The data on susceptibility to antifungals of new species within Candida glabrata complex are limited. Our study was to enrich a global knowledge of yeast epidemiology and drug resistance. The study was focused on the identification of species within clinical isolates of the C. glabrata complex and on the determination of their resistance to antifungals. Four hundred forty-five clinical C. glabrata sensu lato strains were isolated from different clinical samples at routine mycological exams at the Infant Jesus Teaching Hospital in Warsaw. The identification of the most of tested isolates to species complex level was performed using the ID 32 C system. The identification of C. nivariensis and C. bracarensis species within the C. glabrata complex was performed by DNA sequencing. The MICs of amphotericin B, fluconazole, itraconazole, posaconazole, voriconazole, caspofungin, anidulafungin, and micafungin were determined by E-test. Twenty-four isolates did not have an ITS-1 region, characteristic of C. glabrata sensu stricto and their D1/D2 regions of the 26S rRNA were 99% homologous to C. nivariensis 26S rRNA. No strains of C. bracarensis were recovered. C. nivariensis strains were very susceptible to amphotericin B, anidulafungin, micafungin, and caspofungin. Ninety-two percent of C. nivariensis were resistant to itraconazole. The halves of the strains was resistant to posaconazole. Eighty-three percent of C. nivariensis were susceptible to voriconazole. None of the tested strains were susceptible to fluconazole. In the present study, none of the C. nivariensis strains were simultaneously resistant to azoles and echinocandins. C. nivariensis should be recognized as an emerging pathogen, resistant to azoles.The data on susceptibility to antifungals of new species within Candida glabrata complex are limited. Our study was to enrich a global knowledge of yeast epidemiology and drug resistance. The study was focused on the identification of species within clinical isolates of the C. glabrata complex and on the determination of their resistance to antifungals. Four hundred forty-five clinical C. glabrata sensu lato strains were isolated from different clinical samples at routine mycological exams at the Infant Jesus Teaching Hospital in Warsaw. The identification of the most of tested isolates to species complex level was performed using the ID 32 C system. The identification of C. nivariensis and C. bracarensis species within the C. glabrata complex was performed by DNA sequencing. The MICs of amphotericin B, fluconazole, itraconazole, posaconazole, voriconazole, caspofungin, anidulafungin, and micafungin were determined by E-test. Twenty-four isolates did not have an ITS-1 region, characteristic of C. glabrata sensu stricto and their D1/D2 regions of the 26S rRNA were 99% homologous to C. nivariensis 26S rRNA. No strains of C. bracarensis were recovered. C. nivariensis strains were very susceptible to amphotericin B, anidulafungin, micafungin, and caspofungin. Ninety-two percent of C. nivariensis were resistant to itraconazole. The halves of the strains was resistant to posaconazole. Eighty-three percent of C. nivariensis were susceptible to voriconazole. None of the tested strains were susceptible to fluconazole. In the present study, none of the C. nivariensis strains were simultaneously resistant to azoles and echinocandins. C. nivariensis should be recognized as an emerging pathogen, resistant to azoles.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Candida/efeitos dos fármacos , Candidíase/microbiologia , Anfotericina B/farmacologia , Candida/classificação , Candida/genética , Candida/isolamento & purificação , Candidíase/epidemiologia , Farmacorresistência Fúngica , Fluconazol/farmacologia , Hospitais de Ensino/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Polônia/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Triazóis/farmacologia
14.
Pol J Microbiol ; 68(3): 371-376, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31880882

RESUMO

Elderly people living in nursing homes are a high-risk population for Staphylococcus aureus infection. Multiple comorbidities, a weakened immune system, inadequate hygienic conditions, and crowding might increase the prevalence rates of this opportunistic pathogen. However, the epidemiological aspects, genetic diversity, and transmission of S. aureus in nursing homes are still poorly understood, especially in Poland. This study aimed to determine the genetic relatedness and prevalence of colonization of S. aureus isolated from the anterior nares and the throat of residents and staff in a nursing home located in Lublin, Poland. The study showed a high S. aureus prevalence rate among participants (46.1%), yet there was a low frequency of MRSA strains among residents (1.7%) and staff (0%). The multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat fingerprinting (MLVF) analysis demonstrated a high degree of genetic diversity of S. aureus strains colonizing the anterior nares and the throat of the participants. The occurrence of simultaneous colonization with more than one unique S. aureus strain in any one individual as well as the incidence of colonization with the same genetic variant of S. aureus in different individuals was observed. These findings suggest that inter-participant S. aureus transmission might contribute to the development of cross-infections.Elderly people living in nursing homes are a high-risk population for Staphylococcus aureus infection. Multiple comorbidities, a weakened immune system, inadequate hygienic conditions, and crowding might increase the prevalence rates of this opportunistic pathogen. However, the epidemiological aspects, genetic diversity, and transmission of S. aureus in nursing homes are still poorly understood, especially in Poland. This study aimed to determine the genetic relatedness and prevalence of colonization of S. aureus isolated from the anterior nares and the throat of residents and staff in a nursing home located in Lublin, Poland. The study showed a high S. aureus prevalence rate among participants (46.1%), yet there was a low frequency of MRSA strains among residents (1.7%) and staff (0%). The multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat fingerprinting (MLVF) analysis demonstrated a high degree of genetic diversity of S. aureus strains colonizing the anterior nares and the throat of the participants. The occurrence of simultaneous colonization with more than one unique S. aureus strain in any one individual as well as the incidence of colonization with the same genetic variant of S. aureus in different individuals was observed. These findings suggest that inter-participant S. aureus transmission might contribute to the development of cross-infections.


Assuntos
Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Sistema Respiratório/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Feminino , Variação Genética , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Casas de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Filogenia , Polônia/epidemiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/classificação , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação
15.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 26(4): 566-571, 2019 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31885229

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Air pollution is one of the most important issues of our times. Air quality assessment is based on the measurement of the concentration of substances formed during the combustion process and micro-particles suspended in the air in the form of an aerosol. Microscopic atmospheric particulate matters (PM) 2.5 and 10 are mixtures of organic and inorganic pollutants smaller than 2.5 and 10 µm, respectively. They are the main cause of negative phenomena in the earth's atmosphere of Earth and human health, especially on the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. Particulates have the ability to cause permanent mutations of tissue, leading to neoplasms and even premature deaths. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is one of the main pollutants which arises mainly during the burning of fossil fuels. Based on numerous scientific researches, it has been proved that long-term exposure to NO2 could increase morbidity of cancer due to inflammatory processes increasing abnormal mutations. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data available in the Polish National Cancer Registry, Chief Inspectorate for Environmental Protection and Map of Health Needs in the Field of Oncology for Poland, WHO Air Quality Guidelines 2005 were analyzed. Air pollution was also evaluated: PM2.5, PM10, NO2, and compared with lung cancer morbidity. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Based on the available data and literature, it can be concluded that in 2009-2017, on average, each Pole smoked ten cigarettes a day +/- 2. Therefore, it can be estimated that after 60 years everyone had 30 package-years of smoking, leading to a high risk of lung cancer and other smoking related diseases. Additionally air quality in Poland is not satisfactory, exceeding the standards presented in the WHO Guidelines 2005. It can be assumed that this may translate into an additional, independent continuous increase in morbidity and mortality dependent on smoking.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etiologia , Produtos do Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Saúde , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/efeitos adversos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Polônia/epidemiologia , Produtos do Tabaco/análise
16.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 26(4): 656-660, 2019 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31885241

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: Free-living animals can play an important role as a reservoir of Toxoplasma gondi;, however, data concerning this issue in Poland are still limited.The aim of study was to assess the occurrence of T. gondii infection by using molecular methods in free-living animals in selected regions of Poland. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Tissues samples of 396 animals (foxes, muskrats, birds, martens, badgers, polecats, raccoons, minks, raccoon dogs, otters, small rodents and insectivores, and grass snakes were collected from various regions of Poland. After samples digestion, DNA was isolated using QIAmp DNA Mini Kit (Qiagen). DNA extraction from small rodents and insectivores samples was performed without digestion. Next, nested PCR (B1 gene) and, for a part of nested PCR positive amplicons, RFLP PCR, were performed according to the method by Grigg and Boothroyd (2001). The other part of nested PCR positive DNA isolates were genotyped using 5 genetic markers: SAG1, SAG2 (5'- and 3'), SAG3, BTUB and GRA6, based on the method by Dubey et al. (2006). These PCR products were sequenced and compared with the NCBI database using Blast. RESULTS: In total, in 50 of the 396 examined animals DNA of T. gondii was detected (12.6%). The highest percentages of positive results in PCR was obtained in martens (40.9%) and badgers (38.5%), lower in birds (27.3%) and the lowest in foxes (7.4%). The RFLP and multilocus PCR analysis showed the dominance of T. gondii clonal type II (or II/III). CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study indicate the frequent T. gondii infection among free-living animals in Poland, especially martens and badgers, which may indirectly indicate that these animals contribute to the spread of the parasite in the sylvatic environment in Poland. The genotyping analysis showed the dominance of T. gondii clonal type II (or II/III).


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Toxoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Toxoplasmose Animal/parasitologia , Animais , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Raposas/parasitologia , Genótipo , Vison/parasitologia , Mustelidae/parasitologia , Polônia/epidemiologia , Cães Guaxinins/parasitologia , Roedores/parasitologia , Toxoplasma/classificação , Toxoplasma/genética , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia
17.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 26(4): 661-664, 2019 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31885242

RESUMO

Introduction. Before cigarettes became popular, lung cancer was an extremely rare disease, but currently it is the most common cause worldwide of cancer death in both genders. Therefore, it constitutes a huge epidemiological, diagnostic and socio-economic challenge around the world. In Poland, lung cancer is the second most common carcinoma in both men and women, and it is also the most prevailing cause of carcinous death. Undoubtedly, although smoking classical cigarettes is the strongest risk factor of developing the cancer, unfortunately it is not the only one. Objective. The aim of this study was to present smoking-related factors, e.g. cigars, pipes, e-cigarettes or marijuana smoking, etiologically related to lung cancer incidence.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Produtos do Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Cannabis/efeitos adversos , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etiologia , Masculino , Polônia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 688: 970-975, 2019 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31726579

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypertension (HT) affects >1/3 of adult populations in developed countries. Several studies reported periodic changes in blood pressure (BP) values depending on atmospheric conditions, and analyzed the impact of outdoor temperature, atmospheric pressure, relative humidity and other meteorological parameters. The Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI) is a bio-meteorological index derived from an analysis of human thermal balance that comprehensively describes the impact of meteorological factors, including both cold stress and heat stress and their physiological consequences. AIM: Our aim was to assess the relationship between UTCI values and the number of consultations for HT within the framework of the healthcare system. METHODS: This work presents a retrospective epidemiological study of data collected in Olsztyn (Poland), characterized by cold climate type. The analytical material comprised 5578 consultations in emergency departments (EDs) due to HT. RESULTS: Seasonal differences in the numbers of HT consultations with a significant increase in winter months were noticed, especially as regards women. Under cold stress conditions, the relative risk (RR) related to consultations for HT was 2-fold higher for women as compared to thermoneutral conditions (p < 0.001). For men these differences were also statistically significant, though at a much smaller level (p = 0.03). The increased RR of HT due to cold stress was found among younger and older women contrary to the women at the perimenopausal age. CONCLUSIONS: Cold stress should be considered as a significant risk factor among patients, particularly women, diagnosed with cardiovascular diseases. The UTCI is an adequate bio-meteorological tool for the assessment of relationships between atmospheric conditions and occurrence of cardiac symptoms.


Assuntos
Resposta ao Choque Frio , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Adulto , Pressão Sanguínea , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Clima , Humanos , Conceitos Meteorológicos , Polônia/epidemiologia
19.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 930, 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31684884

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The potential HPV transmission route includes horizontal transmission "in utero" and vertical transmission from parents. Less is known about the role of child's father as a potential source of HPV infection and involved in the pathogen's epidemic chain. A possible consequence of perinatal infection includes HPV-related childhood diseases and carrying the risk of cervical cancer development in female offspring. In view of the evidence, studies of HPV co-occurrence in one or both parents and their offspring seem vital for the implementation of respective preventive measures. Consequently, the aim of this study was to determine the incidence of common HPV 16/18 infections in newborns and their parents, and to assess its role of the periconceptional transmission. METHODS: To determine the incidence of common HPV infections in newborns from single pregnancies and their parents. The study included 146 pregnant women, as well as their partners, and newborns. They were tested for the presence of HPV 16/18 DNA using the PCR method. HPV types 16 and/or 18 were identified using type-specific PCR primers. The quality of the extracted DNA was evaluated by PCR using PC03/PC04 ß-globin-specific primers. The relationship between the presence of neonatal and parental HPV infection was analyzed using a multivariable regression model. Calculations were carried out with the Statistica 10. RESULTS: The presence of HPV DNA was detected in 19 (13,01%) newborns, 28 (19,18%) mothers, and 20 (13,7%) fathers. The viral DNA was detected in 14 newborns delivered by HPV-positive mothers (OR = 26,08; CI: 8,07-84,31, p < 0.001), 12 descendants of HPV-positive fathers (OR = 22,13; CI: 6,97-70,27, p < 0.001), and 10 children originating from two infected parents (OR = 24,20; CI: 6,84-85,57 p < 0.001). Those findings points to a increase risk of an acquired infection in newborns with HPV-positive parents. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest the possible role of the periconceptional transmission in the mode of acquired HPV 16/18 infections.


Assuntos
Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/virologia , Adolescente , Adulto , DNA Viral/sangue , Feminino , Papillomavirus Humano 16/genética , Papillomavirus Humano 18/genética , Humanos , Incidência , Recém-Nascido , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa , Masculino , Mães , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , Pais , Polônia/epidemiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
20.
Int J Occup Med Environ Health ; 32(6): 853-863, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31691679

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Only a few studies have been undertaken to analyze the dietary habits of people with cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the dietary behaviors of working people who were hospitalized due to experiencing the first acute cardiovascular incident. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In the study, the Functional Activity Questionnaire was used. The study was conducted in 2 groups. The first group included all the men hospitalized during 1 year (January-December 2009) in 2 clinics of cardiology, who were professionally active until the first myocardial infarction (MI). It comprised 243 men aged 26-70 years. The reference group consisted of 403 men, blue- and white-collar workers, aged 35-65 years. RESULTS: The body mass index of the MI patients was significantly higher (p = 0.006). The frequency of consumption of particular products in the MI group and in the reference group differed significantly for 11 of 21 products. The MI patients significantly less frequently reported the daily consumption of fruit, raw vegetables, cheese, vegetable oils and fish. In this group, the consumption of salty (p = 0.0226) or fatty (p < 0.0001) foods was significantly higher. It was shown that, after adjusting for age, education and the type of work, the daily consumption of fish, salads and cooked vegetables, as well as fruit and vegetable oils, significantly reduced the risk of myocardial infarction. An increased MI risk was, in turn, associated with obesity and preference for fatty foods. CONCLUSIONS: The authors found that diet significantly modified the MI risk in the examined workers. This indicates that an important aspect of prevention activities among working people should involve education about proper dietary habits. Int J Occup Med Environ Health. 2019;32(6):853-63.


Assuntos
Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Gorduras na Dieta , Emprego , Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Preferências Alimentares , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polônia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta , Inquéritos e Questionários
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