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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33799359

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to determine whether the severity of depressive symptoms was linked to healthy behaviors in Polish postmenopausal women and whether the strength of the link differed between women living in urban versus rural settings. The study was conducted in 2018 in the Lublin region of Poland and included 396 postmenopausal women (239 living in rural areas and 157 in urban areas). The severity of depressive symptoms was evaluated by the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the frequency of healthy behaviors was assessed using the Inventory of Healthy Behaviors. Postmenopausal women living in rural areas underwent menopause significantly earlier, were more often widowed, more often obese, more often less educated, and less likely to have never married when compared to those living in urban areas. Importantly, rural postmenopausal women endorsed more depressive symptoms (p = 0.049). There was a negative correlation between the severity of depressive symptoms and age in urban postmenopausal women (r = -0.174, p = 0.029), but this was not evident in rural women (r = -0.034, p = 0.600). The frequency of healthy behaviors was significantly lower in rural postmenopausal women, especially with respect to nutritional habits. A positive correlation was found between the frequency of healthy behaviors and the level of education in both sets of women (p = 0.034 and p = 0.045, respectively). To summarize, we found a significant link between healthy behaviors and depressive symptoms in postmenopausal women. We also found that this link was more evident in rural than in urban women.


Assuntos
Depressão , Pós-Menopausa , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Polônia/epidemiologia , População Rural , Inquéritos e Questionários , População Urbana
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33802730

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Specific academic environment and time spent on learning may lead to sleep deprivation and a sedentary lifestyle. Insomnia is the most common sleep complaint. The purposes of this study were to describe the prevalence of insomnia in medical students, and to examine physical activity levels and other behavioral factors associated with insomnia in this population group. METHODS: We included 308 medical students from Poland. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) was used to assess physical activity levels and the Athens Insomnia Scale (AIS) was used to assess insomnia among students. A multifactor model of analysis was used to analyze variables related to insomnia. RESULTS: A share of 19.2% of medical students were inactive. Insomnia was reported by 36.8% of students. In the multifactorial model, variables such as smoking cigarettes (ß = 0.21, p < 0.001), consuming energy drinks several times a month (ß = 0.21, p = 0.024), or daily stress (ß = 0.44, p < 0.001) had a negative impact on the quality of sleep of medical students. CONCLUSIONS: Most medical students are physically active, however, approximately one-third of the medical students experience insomnia. This sleep problem is reported more often in students who experience daily stress or smoke cigarettes.


Assuntos
Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono , Estudantes de Medicina , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Polônia/epidemiologia , Sono , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/epidemiologia
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33799848

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic had led universities to introduce lockdowns, which has led to significant shifts in students' lives. Classes were moved online, students had to leave dorms and move; they had to forgo regular meetings with their peers. Subsequently, a vital demand for examining students' mental health emerged. The data were collected at a time when universities in Poland were under lockdowns. Participants represented students of many different fields of study. The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) was used. Student's subjective evaluation of online learning and their adaptation to academic life shifts were reviewed. A total of 1123 participants took part in this study. Relationship analysis included tests, such as U Mann-Whitney, appropriate for specific variables. The impact of variables connected with the pandemic on the GHQ scores was tested using multivariate regression analysis. The results were considered significant at a p-value set at 0.05. Overall, 76.96% of the participants manifested psychopathological symptoms measured by the GHQ. Four demographical variables were possibly associated with the GHQ scores: female sex, living in a big city, necessity to move back home, and being in a relationship. Negative correlations between subjective evaluation of variables concerning e-learning, such as its efficiency or quality, and the GHQ scores were found. Some variables were found to be potential protective factors, whereas others could have contributed to worsened mental health. The study provides data on students' worsened mental health due to the COVID-19 pandemic and the shifts in academic life it caused. Therefore, recommendations for early psychosocial interventions among students are strongly advised.


Assuntos
Saúde Mental , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Feminino , Humanos , Pandemias , Polônia/epidemiologia , Estudantes
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33806271

RESUMO

The main objective of this study was to assess mental health during the COVID-19 second wave. The study was conducted using a proprietary questionnaire that had been provided via the Internet to online respondents in Poland. The questionnaire questions included a socio-geographic assessment, proprietary questions assessing the respondents' current approach to the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as a standardised psychometric tool-GHQ-28. The study involved 2155 respondents, 99.8% of whom gave their consent for the participation in the study. A mean GHQ score was 29.25 ± 14.94 points. The criterion for minor mental disorders (≥24 points) was met by 1272 (59.2%) respondents. In overall interpretation as well as in each of GHQ-28 subscales, women obtained significantly higher scores than men (p < 0.001). The restriction on earning opportunities during the COVID-19 pandemic is significantly associated with the feeling of anxiety/insomnia severity among the respondents (9.96 vs. 8.82 points; p < 0.001). The COVID-19 pandemic, although it has already been experienced for nearly a year, has had a significant association with the general mental health of the respondents in Poland. There is a strong need to implement special programs that offer psychological support in the era of the COVID-19 pandemic, especially for those who had direct experience with COVID-19 infection.


Assuntos
Ansiedade , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Pandemias , Polônia/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33808716

RESUMO

Lack of knowledge around seroprevalence levels of COVID-19 in Poland was the reason for the implementation of a seroepidemiological study in the Katowice Region (2,100,000 inhabitants). In October-November 2020, a questionnaire examination and measurement of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG and IgM antibodies were performed in a random sample of the general population (n = 1167). The objectives of the study were to estimate the prevalence of IgG and IgM antibodies and to assess their host-related correlates. The prevalence of IgG seropositivity was 11.4% (95% CI: 9.5-13.2%) and IgM seropositivity was 4.6% (95% CI: 3.5-5.8%). Diagnosis of COVID-19 was found in 4.8% of subjects. A positive IgG test was statistically significantly associated with age (inverse relationship), a person's contact with a COVID-19 patient, quarantine, and two symptoms in the past: fever and loss of smell/taste. Positive IgG tests were less prevalent in subjects who had diagnoses of arterial hypertension, diabetes, or rheumatologic disorders. IgM test positivity was associated with quarantine and loss of smell/taste only with no effect of chronic diseases found. In Poland, in the period October-November 2020, the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection was larger than earlier estimates obtained in other European countries, probably reflecting the measurements obtained during the "second wave" of the epidemic.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Imunoglobulina M , Polônia/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
6.
Wiad Lek ; 74(3 cz 2): 750-755, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33843648

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim: To analyze the data of social health determinants - life expectancy of population and infant mortality in neighboring countries: Ukraine and Poland in cut-away of territory habitation. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: The statistical materials of the Ukrainian and Polish information sources were used in this work: SI "The center of medical statistics of the Ministry of Health of Ukraine", The state statistics service of Ukraine, The central statistical management of Poland (Glówny Urzad Statystyczny). Methods of system approach, bibliosemantic, statistical, analytical were used for analysis. RESULTS: Results: In both countries, Poland and Ukraine, the general dynamics as to the growth of an average life expectancy (ALE) among men and women was observed during 28 years of surveillance, and in both countries it was revealed that the ALE indices in women were much higher than in men. Within the last five years, there is a considerable tendency of decrease in the infant death rate in Ukraine, while in Poland this index is particularly invariable. This may be due to the fact that the level of infant mortality in Poland is half the level in Ukraine; moreover, this correlation is approximate within the last five years of observation. A significant place in the structure of all the causes of infant mortalityin 2019 is occupied by the Ð¥VІ chapter in accordance with ICD-10 "Certain conditions originating in the perinatal period" - 54.39 % in Ukraine and 53.05 % in Poland, the last - "Diseases of the Urogenital system" (chapter ХІV) - 0 % and 0.7 %, correspondingly. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: With a view of an incessant improvement of a high-quality information which is registered when the statistical data are formed, it is necessary to promote a broad intersector cooperation inside the countries and international collaboration between the countries.


Assuntos
Mortalidade Infantil , Expectativa de Vida , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Polônia/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Ucrânia
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33806148

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has significantly altered existing health care operations, including dentistry. The fear of SARS-CoV-2 infection and the need for increased protection measures have led to a reduction in the number of appointments and the range of performed procedures. Our study aimed to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic (the pre-vaccine period) on the spectrum of performed dental services, with particular emphasis on the change in the proportion of conservative and surgical procedures. The patient base in the University Center of Dentistry and Specialized Medicine (Poznan, Poland) from two periods-pre-pandemic (1 February 2019-31 January 2020) and pandemic (1 February 2020-31 January 2021)-was analyzed. The number of dental services was standardized against the sum of all procedures in a given month. During the COVID-19 pandemic, the number of conservative procedures such as commercial restorations or filled canals has significantly decreased, while the number of surgical procedures has increased. The pandemic has undoubtedly affected the spectrum of dental procedures performed, especially in its acute phase. It is very important to return to performing conservative procedures and educating students in the former range while respecting all safety standards.


Assuntos
Pandemias , Odontologia , Humanos , Polônia/epidemiologia
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33806163

RESUMO

The presented research aimed to identify the impacts of the second wave of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on respondents' mental health state and identify variables related to the respondents' symptoms of anxiety and depression; 618 subjects participated in the research. A specially prepared survey and Polish adaptations of the following methods were used: Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Perceived Stress Scale (PSS 10), MINI-COPE Questionnaire (Brief COPE Inventory), Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT), Scale of Death Anxiety (SDA), The Fear of COVID-19 Scale (FCV-19S). Over 24% of the respondents reported having experienced suicidal thoughts since the start of the pandemic. Almost 16% drank alcohol in a risky or harmful way. The average value of perceived stress indicated its high and very high intensity. Over 20% had symptoms of anxiety disorders, and almost 19% had anxiety and depression symptoms. It means that almost 40% of the respondents probably have mental disorders. More women, younger people, and those with disorders prior to the onset of the pandemic were among those who manifested these disorders. They also used passive and avoidance stress coping strategies more frequently. In conclusion, the second wave of the pandemic negatively affected the mental health of the respondents. A high percentage of the respondents manifested anxiety and anxiety-depressive disorders and declared having of suicidal thoughts.


Assuntos
Pandemias , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Polônia/epidemiologia
9.
Neurol Neurochir Pol ; 55(2): 212-222, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33856686

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to report the course and outcome of SARS-CoV-2 infection in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients treated with disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) in Poland. A major concern for neurologists worldwide is the course and outcome of SARS-CoV-2 infection in patients with MS treated with different DMTs. Although initial studies do not suggest an unfavourable course of infection in this group of patients, the data is limited. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study included 396 MS patients treated with DMTs and confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection from 28 Polish MS centres. Information concerning patient demographics, comorbidities, clinical course of MS, current DMT use, as well as symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 infection, need for pharmacotherapy, oxygen therapy, and/or hospitalisation, and short-term outcomes was collected up to 30 January 2021. Additional data about COVID-19 cases in the general population in Poland was obtained from official reports of the Polish Ministry of Health. RESULTS: There were 114 males (28.8%) and 282 females (71.2%). The median age was 39 years (IQR 13). The great majority of patients with MS exhibited relapsing-remitting course (372 patients; 93.9%). The median EDSS was 2 (SD 1.38), and the mean disease duration was 8.95 (IQR 8) years. Most of the MS patients were treated with dimethyl fumarate (164; 41.41%). Other DMTs were less frequently used: interferon beta (82; 20.70%), glatiramer acetate (42; 10.60%), natalizumab (35;8.84%), teriflunomide (25; 6.31%), ocrelizumab (20; 5.05%), fingolimod (16; 4.04), cladribine (5; 1.26%), mitoxantrone (3; 0.76%), ozanimod (3; 0.76%), and alemtuzumab (1; 0.25%). The overall hospitalisation rate due to COVID-19 in the cohort was 6.81% (27 patients). Only one patient (0.3%) died due to SARS-CoV-2 infection, and three (0.76%) patients were treated with mechanical ventilation; 106 (26.8%) patients had at least one comorbid condition. There were no significant differences in the severity of SARS-CoV-2 infection regarding patient age, duration of the disease, degree of disability (EDSS), lymphocyte count, or type of DMT used. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: Most MS patients included in this study had a favourable course of SARS-CoV-2 infection. The hospitalisation rate and the mortality rate were not higher in the MS cohort compared to the general Polish population. Continued multicentre data collection is needed to increase the understanding of SARS-CoV-2 infection impact on the course of MS in patients treated with DMTs.


Assuntos
Esclerose Múltipla Recidivante-Remitente , Esclerose Múltipla , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos , Imunossupressores , Masculino , Esclerose Múltipla/tratamento farmacológico , Esclerose Múltipla/epidemiologia , Polônia/epidemiologia
10.
Ann Transplant ; 26: e929946, 2021 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33888674

RESUMO

BACKGROUND This single-center study analyzed distinctions between lung transplants performed in the Department of Cardiac and Vascular surgery of the University Clinical Center in Gdansk, Poland before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. MATERIAL AND METHODS There were 189 patients who underwent the qualification procedure to lung transplantation in the Department of Cardiac and Vascular Surgery of the University Clinical Center in Gdansk, Poland in the years 2019 and 2020. The control group consisted of 12 patients transplanted in 2019, and the study group consisted of 16 patients transplanted in 2020. RESULTS During 2019, the qualification process was performed in 102 patients with pulmonary end-stage diseases. In 2020, despite the 3-month lockdown related to organizational changes in the hospital, 87 qualification processes were performed. The mortality rate of patients on the waiting list in 2020 was 14.3% (6 patients died), and during 2019 the rate was also 14.3% (4 patients died). Donor qualifications were according to ISHLT criteria. The distribution of donors in both years was similar. There was no relationship between the geographic area of residence and source of donors. In 2019, all 12 patients had double-lung transplant. In 2020, 11 patients had double-lung transplant and 5 patients had single-lung transplant. There was no difference in ventilation time and PGD aside from a shorter ICU stay in 2020. CONCLUSIONS Lung transplants were relatively well-conducted despite the continued obstacles of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/tendências , Transplante de Pulmão/tendências , Obtenção de Tecidos e Órgãos/tendências , Listas de Espera/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , /prevenção & controle , Feminino , Seguimentos , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos , Transplante de Pulmão/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Pandemias , Polônia/epidemiologia , Obtenção de Tecidos e Órgãos/organização & administração
11.
Adv Clin Exp Med ; 30(4): 449-454, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33908195

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fabry disease (FD) is an X-linked disorder related to a deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme alpha-galactosidase A. In Poland, enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) for FD is offered by the National Health Fund only at selected hospital infusion centers. Patients with FB are considered at a high risk of developing complications from COVID-19. Some patients omitted infusions due to fear of infection or outbreaks in hospitals. Lack of alternative infusion sites hampered the situation. OBJECTIVES: To analyze the impact of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic on FD patients, especially their fears and expectations, the Polish FD Collaborative Group collaborated on a survey project. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Between September and November 2020, we distributed a customized survey exploring expectations and fears among FD subjects. RESULTS: Fifty-five individuals (35 receiving ongoing ERT) from different FD centers completed the study. The median age was 40 years [IQR 25; 50], and gender distribution was almost equal (27 F; 28 M). One-fourth of FD patients reported severe disability limiting transportation for infusions that, in the opinion of the other 25% of responders, consumed >4 h. Forty-four (80%) of all would prefer home infusions performed by a nurse (n = 37, 67.3%) or by a trained non-medical person (n = 7, 12.7%), while 8 (14.5%) patients would choose a local hospital. As expected, transportation time (in one direction) was longer in those preferring home infusions (89.4 ±63 vs 36.2 ±67 min; p = 0.02). Also, those with more severe FD manifestation would prefer home infusions to treatment in FD centers (p = 0.03). The vast majority of respondents (n = 46; 83%) would not change their preferences after pandemic termination. CONCLUSIONS: To maintain ERT, FD patients prefer home infusions or those given in the nearest hospital, especially during a pandemic.


Assuntos
Doença de Fabry , Adulto , Doença de Fabry/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Fabry/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pandemias , Polônia/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33803428

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Regardless of the country, advancements in medical care and infection prevention and control of bloodstream infections (BSIs) are an enormous burden of modern medicine. OBJECTIVES: The aim of our study was to describe the epidemiology and drug-resistance of laboratory-confirmed BSI (LC-BSIs) among adult patients of 16 hospitals in the south of Poland. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Data on 4218 LC-BSIs were collected between 2016-2019. The identification of the strains was performed using MALDI-TOF. Resistance mechanisms were investigated according to European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing, EUCAST recommendations. RESULTS: Blood cultures were collected from 8899 patients, and LC-BSIs were confirmed in 47.4%. The prevalence of Gram-positive bacteria was 70.9%, Gram-negative 27.8% and yeast 1.4%. The most frequently isolated genus was Staphylococcus (50% of all LC-BSIs), with a domination of coagulase-negative staphylococci, while Escherichia coli (13.7%) was the most frequent Gram-negative bacterium. Over 4 years, 108 (2.6%) bacteria were isolated only once, including species from the human microbiota as well as environmental and zoonotic microorganisms. The highest methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) prevalence was in intensive care units (ICUs) (55.6%) but S. aureus with resistance to macrolides, lincosamides and streptogramins B (MLSB) in surgery was 66.7%. The highest prevalence of E. faecalis with a high-level aminoglycoside resistance (HLAR) mechanism was in ICUs, (84.6%), while E. faecium-HLAR in surgery was 83.3%. All cocci were fully glycopeptide-sensitive. Carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacilli were detected only in non-fermentative bacilli group, with prevalence 70% and more. CONCLUSIONS: The BSI microbiology in Polish hospitals was similar to those reported in other studies, but the prevalence of MRSA and enterococci-HLAR was higher than expected, as was the prevalence of carbapenem-resistant non-fermentative bacilli. Modern diagnostic techniques, such as MALDI-TOF, guarantee reliable diagnosis.


Assuntos
Bacteriemia , Infecção Hospitalar , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina , Sepse , Adulto , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Bacteriemia/epidemiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/tratamento farmacológico , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Assistência à Saúde , Humanos , Laboratórios , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Polônia/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Staphylococcus aureus
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33804520

RESUMO

The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess the prevalence of abnormal weight and anthropometric parameters along with abnormal blood pressure values in adolescents in Poland. Anthropometric measurements were taken in the studied age group and the correlation between these values and blood pressure values and the diagnosis of hypertension was analyzed. The main aim of the study was to characterize the particular age group in the selected population: 690 students aged 15-17 years were examined. Blood pressure and anthropometric values including height, weight, circumferences of the hips, abdomen and arms, as well as skinfolds on the back of the arm, below the scapula and the stomach, were taken. The following indexes were calculated: WHR (waist to hip ratio), WHtR (waist to height ratio), BAI (body adiposity index-hip to height ratio) and BMI (body mass index). Mean SBP (systolic blood pressure) was 112.3 (standard deviation (SD) 12.2) mmHg, and DBP (diastolic blood pressure) was 66.9 (SD 6.9) mmHg. The prevalence of hypertension in the studied group was 5.8% (3.2% boys, 2.6% girls) and prehypertension was present in 4.4% (1.6% boys, 2.8% girls). The prevalence of excess body weight was 23.6%-obesity 11.3% (40 girls, 27 boys) and overweight 12.3% (50 girls, 34 boys). Correlations between BMI and waist, hip and arm circumference, subscapular and abdominal skinfold thickness, WHtR and BAI were r = 0.86, r = 0.84, r = 0.88, r = 0.81, r = 0.75, r = 0.88 and r = 0.81, respectively (p < 0.05). Significant differences (p < 0.05) of SBP and DBP values, depending on weight category, as defined by BMI, were observed. Abnormal blood pressure values occur in one tenth and abnormal body weight in almost a quarter of the studied population. Obese and overweight children have higher SBP and DBP values compared to children with normal body weight.


Assuntos
Hipertensão , Obesidade , Adolescente , Pressão Sanguínea , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Polônia/epidemiologia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Circunferência da Cintura
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33808724

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The study aimed to analyze the burden and territorial diversification of adolescent suicide and the link between suicide attempts and selected socioeconomic variables in Poland. METHODS: Rates of suicide by voivodeships for years 1999-2019 were obtained from the General Police Headquarters of Poland database. The burden of premature death was expressed in years of life lost (YLL) and costs of lost productivity, which were estimated using the human capital approach. The link between suicide rates and socioeconomic determinants has been analyzed with Pearson's correlation coefficient. RESULTS: Over the analyzed period, an increase in suicide attempt rates and a decrease in suicide death rates have been observed. Mean YLL and costs of lost productivity per year amounted to 11,982 and 153,172,415 PLN, respectively. Territorial diversification in suicide attempt rates corresponds to the living condition, poverty, association-based capital, and satisfaction with family situation in individual voivodeships. The number of deaths due to suicide is negatively correlated with an indicator of good living conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide quantitative evidence of the national impact of suicide and suggest that addressing social capital and poverty may have a role in preventing adolescent mortality due to suicide.


Assuntos
Eficiência , Mortalidade Prematura , Adolescente , Custos e Análise de Custo , Humanos , Polônia/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33918658

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by the novel coronavirus. The role of environmental factors in COVID-19 transmission is unclear. This study aimed to analyze the correlation between meteorological conditions (temperature, relative humidity, sunshine duration, wind speed) and dynamics of the COVID-19 pandemic in Poland. Data on a daily number of laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 cases and the number of COVID-19-related deaths were gatheredfrom the official governmental website. Meteorological observations from 55 synoptic stations in Poland were used. Moreover, reports on the movement of people across different categories of places were collected. A cross-correlation function, principal component analysis and random forest were applied. Maximum temperature, sunshine duration, relative humidity and variability of mean daily temperature affected the dynamics of the COVID-19 pandemic. An increase intemperature and sunshine hours decreased the number of confirmed COVID-19 cases. The occurrence of high humidity caused an increase in the number of COVID-19 cases 14 days later. Decreased sunshine duration and increased air humidity had a negative impact on the number of COVID-19-related deaths. Our study provides information that may be used by policymakers to support the decision-making process in nonpharmaceutical interventions against COVID-19.


Assuntos
Pandemias , Humanos , Umidade , Conceitos Meteorológicos , Polônia/epidemiologia , Temperatura
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33920916

RESUMO

The subject matter of the article relates to the assessment of the perception of selected types of risk in economic activities of the SME sector, which change their intensity as a result of the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic. The current economic downturn is unprecedented and involves many companies and industries that have faced new, previously unknown challenges and threats. The objective of the article is to identify the most important risks and their resources based on the empirical research carried out in small and medium-sized enterprises in Poland. The formulated objective was accomplished using the data collection method, i.e., the survey and reports on the condition of the SME sector in Poland as well as statistical data analysis methods, i.e., structure index and the analysis of variance, using the SPSS system. The process of primary data collection was carried out by means of an electronic survey among selected enterprises of the SME sector, conducting business activities in Poland. In the study, the employment factor was taken into account as a determinant of the perception and assessment of the intensity of selected risks arising from the economic activity in the Polish market in the conditions of the current economic downturn. On the basis of the obtained results, the impact of market, economic, financial and operational risks, depending on their intensity, on the functioning of micro-, small and medium-sized enterprises was identified. Based on the analysis of variance, the effect of the size of the company on the level of individual risks was also examined. As a result of the observations made, it was established that, during the pandemic, the level and type of risk is similar in all the surveyed enterprises. They are most often threatened by strong competition in the industry, an increase in energy prices and insufficient profit. The overall results of the empirical research indicate the importance and the need to manage the key threats to the Polish SME sector.


Assuntos
Pandemias , Humanos , Polônia/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33922673

RESUMO

In Poland, 92% of elderly people with dementia are cared for at home from diagnosis until death, and 44% of caregivers provide care on their own, without any support from other people. The aim of this study was to identify the needs, created because of the Covid-19 pandemic, of caregivers of people with Alzheimer's disease (AD). The study group consisted of 85 caregivers in the age range from 23 to 78 years and 80 (91.1%) were women. The questionnaire on the life situation of the caregiver and 10-item Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10) were used. High levels of stress were found in 75 of the 85 subjects, representing 88% of the total. The greatest difficulties were identified in health care and in finding additional care for the charge. PSS-10 correlated with the deterioration of illness during Covid-19, changes in daily functioning, and concerns about both the health of the charge and caregiver. The level of stress severity in the caregiver group of charges with mild AD was higher than in the caregiver group of charges with moderate AD. The provision of extra care and professional psychological support for caregivers were identified as the greatest needs.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Adulto , Idoso , Doença de Alzheimer/epidemiologia , Cuidadores , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Polônia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33924173

RESUMO

(1) Background: Detection of asymptomatic or subclinical human coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 infection in healthcare workers (HCWs) is crucial for understanding the overall prevalence of the new coronavirus and its infection potential in public (non-infectious) healthcare units with emergency wards. (2) Methods: We evaluated the host serologic responses, measured with semi-quantitative ELISA tests (IgA, IgG, IgM abs) in sera of 90 individuals in Hospital no. 4 in Bytom, 84 HCWs in the University Hospital in Opole and 25 in a Miasteczko Slaskie local surgery. All volunteers had negative RT-PCR test results or had not had the RT-PCR test performed within 30 days before sampling. The ELISA test was made at two different time points (July/August 2020) with a 2-weeks gap between blood collections to avoid the "serological window" period. (3) Results: The IgG seropositivity of asymptomatic HCWs varied between 1.2% to 10% (Opole vs. Bytom, p < 0.05; all without any symptoms). IgA seropositivity in HCWs was 8.8% in Opole and 7.14% in Bytom. IgM positive levels in HCWs in Opole and Bytom was 1.11% vs. 2.38%, respectively. Individuals with IgA and IgM seropositivity results were observed only in Opole (1.19%). More studies are needed to determine whether these results are generalizable to other populations and geographic as well as socio-demographic locations. (4) Conclusions: 100% of IgG(+) volunteers were free from any symptoms of infection in the 30 days before first or second blood collection and they had no awareness of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Asymptomatic HCWs could spread SARS-CoV-2 infection to other employees and patients. Only regular HCWs RT-PCR testing can reduce the risk of SARS-CoV-2 spreading in a hospital environment. The benefit of combining the detection of specific IgA with that of combined specific IgM/IgG is still uncertain.


Assuntos
Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Polônia/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33924261

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: According to published data the number of deaths attributed to COVID-19 is underestimated between 30 and 80%. AIM: The aim of this study is to assess the impact of COVID-19 on total mortality of Poland and the Silesian voivodship. METHODS: Secondary epidemiological data on COVID-19 deaths were obtained from the Ministry of Health registry and data on total mortality were gathered from the National Statistical Office and Registry Office in Poland. Three scenarios were used to estimated COVID-19 deaths: real number + an extra 30%, 60%, and 70% excess total deaths. RESULTS: In 2020, there were 73,254, 64,584, and 67,677 excess deaths in comparison to 2017-2019, respectively. For the Silesian voivodship, it was 8339, 7946, and 8701, respectively. The total mean increase in deaths was 16% for the whole country and the Silesian voivodship. The simulation for 30% extra COVID-19 deaths gave COVID-19 mortality equal to 12.5%; n = 50,708 deaths, for extra 60%; 17.9% n = 72,866 and for extra 70%; 19.7% n = 80,251 for Poland; and 11.9% (n = 6072), 17.2% (n = 8740), 24.2% (n = 12,297), respectively, for the Silesian voivodship. CONCLUSIONS: The participation of COVID-19 in total deaths should not exceed 20% for Poland and 24% for the Silesian voivodship in 2020.


Assuntos
Pandemias , Humanos , Mortalidade , Polônia/epidemiologia , Sistema de Registros
20.
Viruses ; 13(4)2021 03 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33810283

RESUMO

The cold season is usually accompanied by an increased incidence of respiratory infections and increased air pollution from combustion sources. As we are facing growing numbers of COVID-19 cases caused by the novel SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus, an understanding of the impact of air pollutants and meteorological variables on the incidence of respiratory infections is crucial. The incidence of influenza-like illness (ILI) can be used as a close proxy for the circulation of influenza viruses. Recently, SARS-CoV-2 has also been detected in patients with ILI. Using distributed lag nonlinear models, we analyzed the association between ILI, meteorological variables and particulate matter concentration in Bialystok, Poland, from 2013-2019. We found an exponential relationship between cumulative PM2.5 pollution and the incidence of ILI, which remained significant after adjusting for air temperatures and a long-term trend. Pollution had the greatest effect during the same week, but the risk of ILI was increased for the four following weeks. The risk of ILI was also increased by low air temperatures, low absolute humidity, and high wind speed. Altogether, our results show that all measures implemented to decrease PM2.5 concentrations would be beneficial to reduce the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and other respiratory infections.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Infecções Respiratórias/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , /virologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Conceitos Meteorológicos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Material Particulado/análise , Polônia/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
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