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1.
Bioresour Technol ; 326: 124683, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33524885

RESUMO

The aim of this work was to develop a soap-based method for the isolation of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) from bacterial biomass. The method consisted of adding soap derived from waste cooking oil to a concentrated (25%) biomass suspension, heating and centrifugal separation. Purity above 95% could be achieved with soap:cell dry mass ratios at least 0.125 g/g, making the method comparable to other surfactant-based protocols. Molecular weights Mw of products from all experiments were between 350 and 450 kDa, being high enough for future material applications. Addition of hydrochloric acid to the wastewater led to the precipitation of soap and part of non-P3HB cell mass. The resulting precipitate was utilized as a carbon source in biomass production and increased substrate-to-P3HB conversion.


Assuntos
Reatores Biológicos , Sabões , Ácido 3-Hidroxibutírico , Biomassa , Culinária , Hidroxibutiratos , Poliésteres
2.
Bioresour Technol ; 326: 124767, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33540213

RESUMO

Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) are microbial polyesters which, apart from their primary storage role, enhance the stress robustness of PHA accumulating cells against various stressors. PHA also represent interesting alternatives to petrochemical polymers, which can be produced from renewable resources employing approaches of microbial biotechnology. During biotechnological processes, bacterial cells are exposed to various stressor factors such as fluctuations in temperature, osmolarity, pH-value, elevated pressure or the presence of microbial inhibitors. This review summarizes how PHA helps microbial cells to cope with biotechnological process-relevant stressors and, vice versa, how various stress conditions can affect PHA production processes. The review suggests a fundamentally new strategy for PHA production: the fine-tuned exposure to selected stressors, which might be used to boost PHA production and even to tailor their structure.


Assuntos
Poli-Hidroxialcanoatos , Bactérias , Reatores Biológicos , Biotecnologia , Poliésteres , Temperatura
3.
Bioresour Technol ; 326: 124711, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33550212

RESUMO

This study presents techno-economic evaluation of a biorefinery concept using biodiesel industry by-products (sunflower meal and crude glycerol) to produce poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB), crude phenolic extracts (CPE) and protein isolate (PI). The PHB production cost at two annual production capacities ($12.5/kg for 2,500 t PHB/year and $7.8/kg for 25,000 t PHB/year) was not cost-competitive to current PHB production processes when the revenues derived from co-products were not considered. Sensitivity analysis projected the economic viability of a biorefinery concept that could achieve a minimum selling price of $1.1/kg PHB similar to polypropylene. The annual PHB production capacity and the identification of marketable end-uses with respective market prices for the co-products CPE and PI were crucial in attaining process profitability. Greenhouse gas emissions (ca. 0.64 kg CO2-eq/kg PHB) and abiotic depletion potential (61.7 MJ/kg PHB) were lower than polypropylene. Biorefining of sunflower meal and crude glycerol could lead to sustainable PHB production.


Assuntos
Biocombustíveis , Helianthus , Ácido 3-Hidroxibutírico , Hidroxibutiratos , Poliésteres
4.
Bioresour Technol ; 326: 124800, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33556706

RESUMO

Fermentative poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) production is mainly limited by the cost of raw material. In this present study, low-cost feedstock viz., millet bran residue (MBRH) and rapeseed meal hydrolysates were successfully utilized for PHB production. Metabolic engineering of Bacillus megaterium by co-expression of both precursor (phbRBC) and NADPH cofactor regeneration (zwf) genes resulted in 2.67-fold enhancement in PHB accumulation compared to wild strain. Modified logistic model characterized B.megaterium growth and PHB production effectively. The kinetic analysis proved that maximum cell concentration (15.01 g.L-1) and growth-associated constant (0.22 g.g-1) were found to be higher for initial MBRH concentration (S0 = 20 g.L-1). PHB production kinetics elucidated its expression in B.megaterium was growth-associated. PHB synthesized by B.megaterium was characterized using FTIR, NMR, XRD, DSC/TGA, FESEM and the physio-chemical properties enumerated its as a potential biodegradable plastic for industrial application.


Assuntos
Bacillus megaterium , Brassica napus , Ácido 3-Hidroxibutírico , Hidroxibutiratos , Cinética , Milhetes , Poliésteres
5.
Rev Col Bras Cir ; 48: e20202587, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33533824

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: the aim of this study was to compare the outcomes of a new silicone vascular prostheses with PTFE vascular prostheses, on a rabbit experimental model. METHODS: forty rabbits underwent infra-renal aorta replacement with 4 mm diameter prostheses, twenty animals with PDMS and twenty animals with PTFE (control group). Retrograde aortic angiography was performed to assess patency. Histological graft samples were examined by electron microscopy to evaluate prostheses endothelialization. RESULTS: patency rates were 100% for both grafts after 30 days; after 60 days, patency rate for PDMS was 92.3% (±7.4), and 73,8% (±13.1) at 90 days. PTFE grafts had patency rates of 87.5% (±11.7) at 60 and 90 days. No statistically significant difference was found in between groups for patency rates (p=0.62). Postoperative complications (death, paraplegia) rates (p=0.526) and aortic clamping times (p=0.299) were comparable in both groups. No statistically significant difference for stenosis was found on angiographical analysis between groups (p=0.650). Electron microscopy revealed limited anastomotic endothelial ingrowth in both prostheses. CONCLUSION: in this experimental model, PDMS and PTFE vascular prostheses had comparable outcomes and PDMS prosthesis could be used as a vascular graft.


Assuntos
Aorta/cirurgia , Prótese Vascular , Politetrafluoretileno/uso terapêutico , Silicones/uso terapêutico , Animais , Poliésteres , Coelhos
6.
J Chromatogr A ; 1638: 461819, 2021 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33465585

RESUMO

The compositional and stereochemical heterogeneity of copolymers are key molecular metrics, and their knowledge is of pivotal importance for evidence based material development. Yet, while it is state of the art to determine these parameters for many petroleum based polymers, little insight exists in that regard for bio-based materials. Towards this end, size exclusion chromatography (SEC) was hyphenated with nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) in an offline manner and a blend of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and poly(butylene succinate-co-adipate) (PBSA) investigated. Thus, the microstructural heterogeneity could be shown with regard to tacticity of the PLA and regioregularity of the PBSA component. The results show, that the highest molar mass fraction differs in stereochemical composition from the others. It may be assumed that this is the result of misinsertions with regard to stereochemistry occurring during the catalytic polymerization of the lactide. While the content of both constituent polymers along the molar mass axis could be well studied using a univariate analysis of the infrared (IR) spectra, this method failed to profile the adipate and succinate content individually. For this purpose, SEC was coupled to IR spectroscopy in online mode and the spectra were evaluated by a multivariate protocol. Thus, the content of each monomer along the molar mass distribution could be mapped with high chromatographic resolution.


Assuntos
Cromatografia em Gel/métodos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Poliésteres/química , Polímeros/química , Modelos Lineares , Peso Molecular , Polimerização , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Espectrofotometria Infravermelho
7.
Bioresour Technol ; 326: 124734, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33497926

RESUMO

Poly-3-hydroxybutyrate is a biopolymer which has shown tremendous potential for replacing conventional petroleum-based plastics for plummeting the plastic pollution problem. However, the production cost of PHB is high which makes it less attractive for commercial use. To tackle this challenge, various researchers suggest the search for low-cost substrates and energy efficient technologies for PHB production. In this regard, the waste generated from fruit processing industries or fruit wastes could be pre-processed and fermented for effectively generating PHB. Therefore, the aim of this review was to focus on the methods of fruit waste pre-processing and the effect of fermentation variables on PHB production using fruit waste as a substrate. The relevant research findings on the use of different microorganisms, PHB production conditions and fruit waste-based substrates are also covered. Analysis of various studies revealed that pineapple and mixed fruit waste are effective for PHB production.


Assuntos
Frutas , Hidroxibutiratos , Poliésteres
8.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 37(1): 196-206, 2021 Jan 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33501801

RESUMO

Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) have obtained much attention in biomaterial fields due to their similar physicochemical properties to those of the petroleum-derived plastics. Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-lactate) [P(3HB-co-LA)] is one member of the PHAs family, and has better toughness and transparency compared to existing polylactic acid (PLA) and poly[(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate] [P(3HB)]. First, we confirmed the one-step biosynthesis of P(LA-co-3HB) with the lactate fraction of 23.8 mol% by introducing P(3HB-co-LA) production module into Escherichia coli MG1655. Then, the lactate fraction was increased to 37.2 mol% in the dld deficient strain WXJ01-03. The genes encoding the thioesterases, ydiI and yciA, were further knocked out, and the lactate fraction in the P(3HB-co-LA) was improved to 42.3 mol% and 41.1 mol% respectively. Strain WXJ03-03 with dld, ydiI and yciA deficient was used for the production of the LA-enriched polymer, and the lactate fraction was improved to 46.1 mol%. Notably, the lactate fraction in P(3HB-co-LA) from xylose was remarkably higher than from glucose, indicating xylose as a potent carbon source for P(3HB-co-LA) production. Therefore, the deficiency of thioesterase may be considered as an effective strategy to improve the lactate fraction in P(3HB-co-LA) in xylose fermentation.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli , Poli-Hidroxialcanoatos , Escherichia coli/genética , Hidroxibutiratos , Ácido Láctico , Poliésteres , Xilose
9.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 106(1): 175-182, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33392683

RESUMO

In order to clarify the effect of biochar-polylactic acid (PLA) composite on reductive dechlorination of HCB in paddy soils, an anaerobic incubation experiment was conducted with four treatments of Sterile control, Control, Biochar, and Biochar-PLA in Hydragric Acrisols (Ac) and Gleyi-Stagnic Anthrosols (An). The results showed that in Ac, biochar addition significantly promoted HCB degradation during the whole incubation period, but biochar-PLA composite inhibited HCB dechlorination due to the low soil pH in the early period and then accelerated HCB degradation while soil pH climbed to nearly neutral. The dechlorination rate of HCB in An was: Biochar-PLA > Biochar > Control > Sterilization control. The degradation rate of HCB in An was faster than in Ac, due to the higher iron content and neutral pH condition in An. The results indicated that biochar-PLA composite promoted the reductive dechlorination of HCB efficiently in paddy soil under nearly neutral pH condition.


Assuntos
Hexaclorobenzeno , Poluentes do Solo , Carvão Vegetal , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Poliésteres , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
10.
Waste Manag ; 121: 237-247, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33385952

RESUMO

In the present study, the potential use of cellulosic microfibers (CMFs) extracted from hemp fiber (HF) and pulp and paper solid waste (mixed sludge (MS), deinked sludge (DS)) as a reinforcing agent in novel bio composite materials produced from recycled Polylactic acid (rPLA) was investigated. CMFs were extracted and treated using physicochemical method followed by enzymatic treatment with laccase and cellulase. The effects of CMFs concentrations (1.5, 3 and 6% w/w) and fiber size (75 µm-1.7 mm) on the mechanical properties (impact and tensile) and biodegradability of the biocomposite samples were investigated. A modified interfacial adhesion between rPLA matrix and the three fibers used, was clearly observed through mechanical tests due to alkali and enzymatic treatments. The use of different types of enzymatically treated cellulosic fibers for polylactic acid (PLA) recycling was assessed by Scaning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The combined physicochemical and enzymatic treatments led to a considerable size reduction of the cellulosic fibers (HF, MS and DS) resulting in the enhanced interfacial adhesion between rPLA matrix and fibers. The biocomposite obtained with rPLA with HF gave the most favorable values for Young's modulus (324.53 ± 3.10 MPa, p-value 0.03), impact strength (27.61 ± 2.94 kJ/m2, p-value 0.01) and biodegradation rate (1.97%).


Assuntos
Poliésteres , Reciclagem , Estudos de Viabilidade , Difração de Raios X
11.
Water Sci Technol ; 83(1): 198-211, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33460418

RESUMO

Blended organic copolymer (or homopolymer) and inorganic nanoparticles have been widely used (separately or simultaneously) for optimizing membrane pore structure and surface functionality. However, the prepared membranes suffer from degraded stability and insufficient integrity due to the high solubility or incompatibility of the blending additives. In this work, an organic-inorganic nanocomposite (i.e., PLA-TiO2) was designed, and employed for PSF membrane preparation. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis confirmed that bidentate chelating dominated the bonding mechanism between PLA and TiO2. The resultant PSF/PLA-TiO2 membranes possessed a highly porous surface with narrowed pore size distribution, demonstrating the strong pore forming ability of PLA-TiO2 for membrane preparations. Moreover, owing to the distinct inorganic-organic molecular conformation, the PLA-TiO2 exhibited enhanced stability and dispersibility within the PSF substance, which endowed the membrane with long-acting hydrophilicity and UV responsiveness. Given the UV responsiveness that is introduced by PLA-TiO2, UV-assisted strategies (UV-F and UV-C) were designed to further mitigate membrane fouling. The fouling analysis indicated that both reversible fouling and irreversible fouling were reduced in the UV-C process, signifying the synergistic effect between photocatalysis and hydraulics in membrane fouling mitigation. The enhanced membrane performance and the efficient preparation process highlight the potential of PLA-TiO2 in membrane modifications.


Assuntos
Nanocompostos , Polímeros , Poliésteres , Sulfonas , Titânio
12.
Microvasc Res ; 133: 104073, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32949575

RESUMO

In this study, the angiogenic capacity of human endothelial cells was studied after being plated on the surface of polyurethane-poly caprolactone (PU/PCL) scaffolds for 72 h. In this study, cells were designated into five different groups, including PU, PU/PCL (2:1), PU/PCL (1:1); PU/PCL (1:2); and PCL. Data revealed that the PU/PCL (2:1) composition had a higher modulus and breakpoint in comparison with the other groups (p < 0.05). Compared to the other groups, the PU/PCL scaffold with a molar ratio of 2:1 had lower the contact angle θ and higher tensile stress (p < 0.05). The mean size of the PU nanofibers was reduced after the addition of PCL (p < 0.05). Based on our data, the culture of endothelial cells on the surface of PU/PCL (2:1) did not cause nitrosative stress and cytotoxic effects under static conditions compared to cells plated on a conventional plastic surface (p > 0.05). Based on data from the static condition, we fabricated a tubular PU/PCL (2:1) construct for six-day dynamic cell culture inside loop air-lift bioreactors. Scanning electron microscopy showed the attachment of endothelial cells to the luminal surface of the PU/PCL scaffold. Cells were flattened and aligned under the culture medium flow. Immunofluorescence imaging showed the attachment of cells to the luminal surface indicated by blue nuclei on the luminal surface. These data demonstrated that the application of PU/PCL substrate could stimulate endothelial cells activity under static and dynamic conditions.


Assuntos
Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/fisiologia , Nanofibras , Poliésteres/química , Poliuretanos/química , Tecidos Suporte , Reatores Biológicos , Adesão Celular , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Proliferação de Células , Sobrevivência Celular , Células Cultivadas , Módulo de Elasticidade , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/ultraestrutura , Humanos , Resistência à Tração , Fatores de Tempo
13.
J Environ Manage ; 279: 111763, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33310237

RESUMO

Solid-phase denitrification (SPD) is a promising technology for nitrate-rich water purification. This study aimed to examine the variation in denitrification performance and denitrifying community under high-dose acute oxytetracycline (OTC) exposure and various biorecovery strategies. The denitrification performance was impaired significantly after one-day OTC shock at 50 mg L-1 in a continuous-flow SPD system supported by a polycaprolactone (PCL) carrier but could rapidly recover without the addition of OTC. When 50 mg L-1 OTC stress was applied for a longer time in the batch tests, a natural recovery period of more than 20 days was required to reach more than 95% nitrate reduction. Under the same conditions, the addition of both mature biofilm-attached PCL carrier and fresh biofilm-free PCL carrier significantly shortened the recovery time for efficient nitrate reduction, mainly due to the increase in organic availability from the PCL carriers. However, the composition of the microbial community notably changed due to the effects of OTC according to high-throughput sequencing and metagenomic analysis. Genes encoding NAR and NIR were much more sensitive than those encoding NOR and NOS to OTC shock. Tetracycline resistance gene (TRG) enrichment was 15.86% higher in the biofilm that experienced short-term OTC shock than in the control biofilm in the continuous-flow SPD system.


Assuntos
Desnitrificação , Oxitetraciclina , Reatores Biológicos , Nitratos , Poliésteres
14.
Food Chem ; 334: 127487, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32688178

RESUMO

Biodegradable films poly(butylene adipate-co-butylene terephthalate) (PBAT)/poly(lactic acid) (PLA) incorporated with nano-polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS(epoxy)8) as a reactive compatibilizer were developed by melt processing. Structural, morphological, mechanical, and gas permeability properties of the films were determined. 1H NMR and GPC demonstrated that the POSS(epoxy)8 was chemically bound at the PBAT/PLA boundary phase via an epoxide ring opening reaction. SEM micrographs of impact fracture surfaces demonstrated the POSS(epoxy)8 improved interfacial adhesion between PBAT and PLA matrix. The mechanical properties of the PBAT/PLA films containing POSS(epoxy)8 were enhanced relative to pristine PBAT/PLA films. The water vapor, CO2 and O2 permeability of the PBAT/PLA films were improved by POSS(epoxy)8 addition. PBAT/PLA films containing POSS(epoxy)8 were shown to be superior to pristine PBAT/PLA films and polyethylene films in food storage tests. Results suggest that POSS(epoxy)8 addition during PBAT/PLA film production offers a simple strategy for the production of high performance biodegradable plastic packaging films.


Assuntos
Plásticos Biodegradáveis/química , Embalagem de Alimentos/métodos , Nanocompostos/química , Poliésteres/química , Dióxido de Carbono/química , Armazenamento de Alimentos/métodos , Oxigênio/química , Permeabilidade , Resistência à Tração
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 753: 141859, 2021 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32898808

RESUMO

Monitoring studies have revealed the presence of large numbers of natural as well as anthropogenic microfibers, plastic and non-plastic, in environmental samples. However, the interaction of organisms with microfibers is largely understudied. This is the first ecotoxicological study that compares short-term feeding of anthropogenic plastic and non-plastic microfibers on a consumer (leaf-shredding detritivores) species. The freshwater amphipod Gammarus duebeni was selected for this study as it is a model ecotoxicological species. After a 96-hour exposure, 58.3% and 41.7% of the amphipods contained cellulose or polyester fibers in their digestive tracts, respectively. Microfiber ingestion was analysed per polymers in presence or absence of food. The G. duebeni group exposed to 'polyester fibers in presence of food' accumulated highest numbers of microfibers in their digestive tracts (5.2 ±â€¯3.4 MFs/amphipod) followed by those exposed to 'cellulose in presence of food' (2.5 ±â€¯0.9 MFs/amphipod). A significantly (Three-way ANOVA, p-value <0.05) higher number of microfibers was found in the midgut-hindgut (posterior) sections, compared to the foregut (anterior) section. Microfiber uptake had no apparent short-term negative effect on amphipod survival at 96 h. Yet, as amphipods are both predators and prey, and therefore are key species in the aquatic food web, the rapid accumulation of anthropogenic microfibers in their digestive system has potentially further ecological implications. Future studies need to consider the possible transfer of ingested anthropogenic microfibers to higher trophic levels in freshwater communities.


Assuntos
Anfípodes , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Celulose , Água Doce , Microesferas , Plásticos , Poliésteres , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
16.
Waste Manag ; 119: 72-81, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33045489

RESUMO

Due to the extensive use of plastics, their quantity in the environment is constantly increasing, which creates a global problem. In the present study, we sought to isolate, test and identify Antarctic microorganisms which possess the ability to biodegrade bioplastics such as poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL), poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) and poly(butylene succinate-co-butylene adipate) (PBSA) at low temperatures. 161 bacterial and 38 fungal isolates were isolated from 22 Antarctic soil samples. Among them, 92.16% of bacterial and 77.27% of fungal isolates formed a clear zone on emulsified PBSA, 98.04% and 81.82% on PBS and 100% and 77.27% on PCL as an additive to minimal medium at 20 °C. Based on the 16S and 18S rRNA sequences, bacterial strains were identified as species belonging to Pseudomonas and Bacillus and fungal strains as species belonging to Geomyces, Sclerotinia, Fusarium and Mortierella, while the yeast strain was identified as Hansenula anomala. In the biodegradation process conducted under laboratory conditions at 14, 20 and 28 °C, Sclerotinia sp. B11IV and Fusarium sp. B3'M strains showed the highest biodegradation activity at 20 °C (49.68% for PBSA and 33.7% for PCL, 45.99% for PBSA and 49.65% for PCL, respectively). The highest biodegradation rate for Geomyces sp. B10I was noted at 14 °C (25.67% for PBSA and 5.71% for PCL), which suggested a preference for lower temperatures (at 20 °C the biodegradation rate was only 11.34% for PBSA, and 4.46% for PCL). These data showed that microorganisms isolated from Antarctic regions are good candidates for effective plastic degradation at low temperatures.


Assuntos
Plásticos , Poliésteres , Biodegradação Ambiental , Fungos/genética , Saccharomycetales
17.
Waste Manag ; 119: 295-305, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33125938

RESUMO

Recently, the use of bio-based products, including biodegradable poly(lactic acid) (PLA), has increased, causing their rapid growth in municipal waste streams. The presence of PLA in biowaste may increase biogas production (BP). However, the rate of PLA biodegradation, which affects the time frame of anaerobic digestion, is a key parameter for an efficient process. In this study, detailed kinetics of BP from PLA were determined at 58 °C and 37 °C. At both temperatures, lag phases were observed: 40 days at 37 °C, and 10 days at 58 °C. After the lag phase BP proceeded in two phases, differed in process rate. At 58 °C, during the 1st phase (up to day 30), the rate of BP (rB1,58) equaled about 35 L/(kg OM·d). At the end of this phase, the amount of biogas was 710 L/kg OM, which constituted 84% of the maximal BP (831-849 L/kg OM). In the 2nd phase (10 days), only 13% of maximal BP was produced (rB2,58 of 16.1 L/(kg OM·d)). At 37 °C, maximal BP (obtained after 280 days) was 1.5-fold lower (558-570 L/kg OM) than at 58 °C. In the 1st phase (100 days), rB1,37 was 1.4 L/(kg OM·d); at the end of this phase, BP constituted merely 14% of the maximal BP. A majority of biogas was produced in the 2nd phase (the next 180 days), and rB2,37 doubled to 2.6 L/(kg OM·d)). At 58 °C, intensive biogas production took place when PLA pieces were still visible. At 37 °C, in contrast, biogas was mainly produced when the PLA pieces had been disintegrated. Although PLA anaerobically biodegrades and produces a high yield of biogas, the time frame of PLA digestion is much longer than that of biowaste and, in thermophilic conditions requires separate digesters. In mesophilic conditions, however, is unacceptable at technical scale.


Assuntos
Biocombustíveis , Reatores Biológicos , Anaerobiose , Biodegradação Ambiental , Metano , Poliésteres , Temperatura
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 756: 143729, 2021 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33310224

RESUMO

The large quantities of non-degradable single use plastics, production and disposal, in addition to increasing amounts of municipal and industrial wastewaters are among the major global issues known today. Biodegradable plastics from biopolymers such as Poly-ß-hydroxybutyrates (PHB) produced by microorganisms are potential substitutes for non-degradable petroleum-based plastics. This paper reviews the current status of wastewater-cultivated microbes utilized in PHB production, including the various types of wastewaters suitable for either pure or mixed culture PHB production. PHB-producing strains that have the potential for commercialization are also highlighted with proposed selection criteria for choosing the appropriate PHB microbe for optimization of processes. The biosynthetic pathways involved in producing microbial PHB are also discussed to highlight the advancements in genetic engineering techniques. Additionally, the paper outlines the factors influencing PHB production while exploring other metabolic pathways and metabolites simultaneously produced along with PHB in a bio-refinery context. Furthermore, the paper explores the effects of extraction methods on PHB yield and quality to ultimately facilitate the commercial production of biodegradable plastics. This review uniquely discusses the developments in research on microbial biopolymers, specifically PHB and also gives an overview of current commercial PHB companies making strides in cutting down plastic pollution and greenhouse gases.


Assuntos
Hidroxibutiratos , Águas Residuárias , Biopolímeros , Poliésteres
19.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 207: 111253, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32911183

RESUMO

Phytoremediation of polyester resin wastewater containing 1,4-dioxane and heavy metals using Lemna gibba (L.gibba) was enhanced by incorporation of perforated polyethylene carrier materials (PCM) onto the duckweed pond (DWP) system. The DWP module was operated at a hydraulic retention times (HRTs) of 2, 4 and 6 days and as well as 1,4-dioxane loading rate of 16, 25 and 48 g/m3.d. The maximum removal efficiency of 54 ± 2.5% was achieved for 1,4-dioxane at an HRT of 6 days and loading rate of 16 g1,4-dioxane/m3.d. Similarly, the DWP system provided removal efficiencies of 28.3 ± 2.1, 93.2 ± 7.6, 95.7 ± 8.9 and 93.6 ± 4.9% for Cd2+, Cu2+, Zn2+ and Ni2+ at influent concentration of 0.037 ± 0.01, 1.2 ± 0.9, 27.2 ± 4.7 and 4.6 ± 1.2 mg/L respectively. The structural analysis by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) clearly displayed a reduction of 1,4- dioxane in the treated effluent. A strong peak was detected for L. gibba plants at frequency of 3417.71 cm-1 due to N-H stretching, which confirm the proposed mechanism of partially conversion of 1,4-dioxane into amino acids. Glycine, serine, aspartic, threonine and alanine content were increased in L. gibba by values of 35 ± 2.2, 40 ± 3.2, 48 ± 3.7, 31 ± 2.8, and 56 ± 4.1%, respectively. The contribution of DWP unit as a greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions were relatively low (1.65 gCO2/Kg BODremoved.d., and 18.3 gCO2/Kg biomass.d) due to photosynthesis process, low excess sludge production and consumption of CO2 for nitrification process (1.4 gCO2/kgN removed.d). Based on these results, it is recommended to apply such a technology for treatment of polyester resin wastewater containing 1,4-dioxane and heavy metals at a HRT not exceeding 6 days.


Assuntos
Dioxanos/análise , Gases de Efeito Estufa/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Araceae , Biodegradação Ambiental , Biomassa , Nitrificação , Poliésteres , Tanques/análise , Esgotos/análise , Águas Residuárias/análise
20.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 10453-10467, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33380795

RESUMO

Purpose: Ginkgolide B (GB) is a terpene lactone derivative of Ginkgo biloba that is believed to function in a neuroprotective manner ideal for treating Parkinson's disease (PD). Despite its promising therapeutic properties, GB has poor bioavailability following oral administration and cannot readily achieve sufficient exposure in treated patients, limiting its clinical application for the treatment of PD. In an effort to improve its efficacy, we utilized poly(ethylene glycol)-co-poly(ε-caprolactone) (PEG-PCL) nanoparticles as a means of encapsulating GB (GB-NPs). These NPs facilitated the sustained release of GB into the blood, thereby improving its ability to accumulate in the brain and to treat PD. Methods and Results: Using Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells, we were able to confirm that these NPs could be taken into cells via multiple nonspecific mechanisms including micropinocytosis, clathrin-dependent endocytosis, and lipid raft/caveolae-mediated endocytosis. Once internalized, these NPs tended to accumulate in the endoplasmic reticulum and lysosomes. In zebrafish, we determined that these NPs were readily able to undergo transport across the chorion, gastrointestinal, blood-brain, and blood-retinal barriers. In a 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion (MPP+)-induced neuronal damage model system, we confirmed the neuroprotective potential of these NPs. Following oral administration to rats, GB-NPs exhibited more desirable pharmacokinetics than did free GB, achieving higher GB concentrations in both the brain and the blood. Using a murine PD model, we demonstrated that these GB-NPs achieved superior therapeutic efficacy and reduced toxicity relative to free GB. Conclusion: In conclusion, these results indicate that NPs encapsulation of GB can significantly improve its oral bioavailability, cerebral accumulation, and bioactivity via mediating its sustained release in vivo.


Assuntos
Ginkgolídeos/administração & dosagem , Ginkgolídeos/farmacologia , Lactonas/administração & dosagem , Lactonas/farmacologia , Nanopartículas/administração & dosagem , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Doença de Parkinson/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Oral , Animais , Disponibilidade Biológica , Barreira Hematoencefálica/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Cães , Embrião não Mamífero/efeitos dos fármacos , Etilenoglicóis/química , Feminino , Ginkgolídeos/farmacocinética , Humanos , Lactonas/farmacocinética , Células Madin Darby de Rim Canino , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Nanopartículas/química , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/administração & dosagem , Poliésteres/química , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Peixe-Zebra/embriologia
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