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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(7)2021 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33805293

RESUMO

Genome-wide studies focusing on elucidating the effects on cancer progression have enabled the consequent identification of a distinct subpopulation of pancreatic cancer cells with unstable genomic characteristics. Based on this background, deleterious changes by poly (adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP)-1 have been concentrated in oncology. One of the critical functions of PARP-1 is the response to DNA damage, which plays a pivotal role in DNA repair in cancers. PARP-1 also has widespread functions that are essential for the survival and growth of cancer cells. It regulates oxidative stress in mitochondria through the regulation of superoxide and oxidation. PARP-1 is in charge of regulating mitosis, which is a crucial role in tumorigenesis and remodels histones and chromatin enzymes related to transcriptional regulation, causing alterations in epigenetic markers and chromatin structure. Given the significance of these processes, it can be understood that these processes in cancer cells are at the frontline of the pathogenetic changes required for cancer cell survival, and these contributions can result in malignant transformation. Therefore, this review addresses the current molecular biological features for understanding the multifactorial function of PARP-1 in pancreatic cancer related to the aforementioned roles, along with the summary of recent approaches with PARP-1 inhibition in clinical studies targeting pancreatic cancer. This understanding could help to embrace the importance of targeting PARP-1 in the treatment of pancreatic cancer, which may present the potential to find out a variety of research topics that can be both challenged clinically and non-clinically.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerase-1/antagonistas & inibidores , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Dano ao DNA , Reparo do DNA , Humanos , Estresse Oxidativo , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerase-1/metabolismo , Transcrição Genética
2.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol ; 418: 115492, 2021 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33722665

RESUMO

Cisplatin is a commonly used anti-cancer drug, but it induces nephrotoxicity. As a water-soluble vitamin B family member, nicotinamide (NAM) was recently demonstrated to have beneficial effects for renal injury, but its underlying mechanism remains largely unclear. Here, we suggest that NAM may exert protective effects against cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) mainly via suppressing the poly ADP-ribose polymerase 1 (PARP1)/p53 pathway. In our experiment, NAM protected against cisplatin-induced apoptosis both in cultured renal proximal tubular cells and AKI in mice. Mechanistically, NAM suppressed the expression and activation of p53, a known mediator of cisplatin-induced AKI. Upstream of p53, NAM attenuated the induction of γ-H2AX, a hallmark of DNA damage response. Interestingly, PARP1 was activated in cisplatin AKI and this activation was inhibited by NAM. Pharmacological inhibition of PARP1 with PJ34 significantly ameliorated p53 activation and cisplatin-induced cell death in RPTCs and AKI in mice. Thus, NAM may protect against cisplatin-induced AKI by suppressing the PARP1/p53 pathway.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/prevenção & controle , Cisplatino , Túbulos Renais Proximais/efeitos dos fármacos , Niacinamida/farmacologia , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerase-1/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/farmacologia , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo , Lesão Renal Aguda/induzido quimicamente , Lesão Renal Aguda/enzimologia , Lesão Renal Aguda/patologia , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Histonas/metabolismo , Túbulos Renais Proximais/enzimologia , Túbulos Renais Proximais/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fosfoproteínas/metabolismo , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerase-1/metabolismo , Ratos , Transdução de Sinais
3.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 49(4): 2266-2288, 2021 02 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33511412

RESUMO

PARP-1 is a key early responder to DNA damage in eukaryotic cells. An allosteric mechanism links initial sensing of DNA single-strand breaks by PARP-1's F1 and F2 domains via a process of further domain assembly to activation of the catalytic domain (CAT); synthesis and attachment of poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) chains to protein sidechains then signals for assembly of DNA repair components. A key component in transmission of the allosteric signal is the HD subdomain of CAT, which alone bridges between the assembled DNA-binding domains and the active site in the ART subdomain of CAT. Here we present a study of isolated CAT domain from human PARP-1, using NMR-based dynamics experiments to analyse WT apo-protein as well as a set of inhibitor complexes (with veliparib, olaparib, talazoparib and EB-47) and point mutants (L713F, L765A and L765F), together with new crystal structures of the free CAT domain and inhibitor complexes. Variations in both dynamics and structures amongst these species point to a model for full-length PARP-1 activation where first DNA binding and then substrate interaction successively destabilise the folded structure of the HD subdomain to the point where its steric blockade of the active site is released and PAR synthesis can proceed.


Assuntos
Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerase-1/química , Regulação Alostérica , Amidas/química , Domínio Catalítico , Cristalografia por Raios X , Dano ao DNA , Ativação Enzimática , Modelos Moleculares , Mutação , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerase-1/antagonistas & inibidores , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerase-1/genética , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerase-1/metabolismo , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/química , Domínios Proteicos
4.
Life Sci ; 267: 118975, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33387580

RESUMO

AIMS: Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase- (PARP)-1 is predominantly triggered by DNA damage. Overexpression of PARP-1 is known for its association with the pathogenesis of several CNS disorders, such as Stroke, Parkinson's disease (PD), Alzheimer's disease (AD), Huntington (HD) and Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). NAD+ depletion resulted PARP related cell death only happened when the trial used extreme high oxidization treatment. Inhibition of PARP1/2 may induce replication related cell death due to un-repaired DNA damage. This review has discussed PARP-1 modulated downstream pathways in neurodegeneration and various FDA approved PARP-1 inhibitors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic literature review of PubMed, Medline, Bentham, Scopus and EMBASE (Elsevier) databases was carried out to understand the nature of the extensive work done on mechanistic role of Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase and its inhibition in Neurodegenerative diseases. KEY FINDINGS: Several researchers have put forward number of potential treatments, of which PARP-1 enzyme has been regarded as a potent target intended for the handling of neurodegenerative ailments. Targeting PARP using its chemical inhibitors in various neurodegenerative may have therapeutic outcomes by reducing neuronal death mediated by PARPi. Numerous PARP-1 inhibitors have been studied in neurodegenerative diseases but they haven't been clinically evaluated. SIGNIFICANCE: In this review, the pathological role of PARP-1 in various neurodegenerative diseases has been discussed along with the therapeutic role of PARP-1 inhibitors in various neurodegenerative diseases.


Assuntos
Doenças Neurodegenerativas/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/enzimologia , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerase-1/metabolismo , Animais , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Central/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Central/metabolismo , Humanos , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/metabolismo , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerase-1/antagonistas & inibidores , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerase-1/genética , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/farmacologia
5.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 133: 111041, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33378949

RESUMO

Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1)-dependent cell death in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is implicated in dry age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Although PARP1 inhibitors are available for treating dry AMD, their delivery route is not ideal for patients. The aim of this study was to test the efficacy of a novel PARP1-inhibitory compound (PIC) in vitro and in vivo. This study presents PIC, a novel small molecule, with superior efficacy to PARP1 inhibitors in the market. PIC demonstrated a distinctive inhibitory profile against PARP isotypes than the FDA-approved PARP1 inhibitors. PIC inhibited PARP1 activation at an IC50 of 0.41 ± 0.15 nM in an enzyme-based assay in vitro and at IC50 and EC50 in ARPE-19 cells of 0.11 ± 0.02 nM and 0.22 ± 0.02 nM, respectively, upon H2O2 insult. PIC also moderated mitochondrial fission and depolarization and maintained cellular energy levels under oxidative stress in ARPE-19 cells. Furthermore, PIC demonstrated good corneal penetration in a rat model, presenting PIC as a promising candidate for eye drop therapeutics for dry AMD. When PIC was administered as an eye drop formulation, RPE morphology was preserved, maintaining the thickness of the outer nuclear layers under sodium iodate (SI) treatment in rats. In SI-treated rabbits, eye drop administration of PIC also retained the structural and functional integrity when analyzed using funduscopy and electroretinogram. Collectively, our data portray PIC as an attractive treatment measure for dry AMD.


Assuntos
Degeneração Macular/tratamento farmacológico , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerase-1/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/farmacologia , Epitélio Pigmentado da Retina/efeitos dos fármacos , Administração Oftálmica , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Iodatos , Degeneração Macular/induzido quimicamente , Degeneração Macular/enzimologia , Degeneração Macular/patologia , Masculino , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/patologia , Absorção Ocular , Soluções Oftálmicas , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerase-1/metabolismo , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/administração & dosagem , Coelhos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Epitélio Pigmentado da Retina/enzimologia , Epitélio Pigmentado da Retina/patologia
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(22)2020 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33233817

RESUMO

At least since March 2020, the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic and the multi-organ coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are keeping a firm grip on the world. Although most cases are mild, older patients and those with co-morbidities are at increased risk of developing a cytokine storm, characterized by a systemic inflammatory response leading to acute respiratory distress syndrome and organ failure. The present paper focuses on the small molecule MP1032, describes its mode of action, and gives rationale why it is a promising option for the prevention/treatment of the SARS-CoV-2-induced cytokine storm. MP1032 is a phase-pure anhydrous polymorph of 5-amino-2,3-dihydro-1,4-phthalazinedione sodium salt that exhibits good stability and bioavailability. The physiological action of MP1032 is based on a multi-target mechanism including localized, self-limiting reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging activities that were demonstrated in a model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced joint inflammation. Furthermore, its immune-regulatory and PARP-1-modulating properties, coupled with antiviral effects against SARS-CoV-2, have been demonstrated in various cell models. Preclinical efficacy was elucidated in LPS-induced endotoxemia, a model with heightened innate immune responses that shares many similarities to COVID-19. So far, during oral clinical development with three-month daily administrations, no serious adverse drug reactions occurred, highlighting the outstanding safety profile of MP1032.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Fatores Imunológicos/farmacologia , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Luminol/análogos & derivados , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Aminação , Animais , Antivirais/química , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Chlorocebus aethiops , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Citocinas/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos/química , Inflamação/imunologia , Luminol/química , Luminol/farmacologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerase-1/antagonistas & inibidores , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerase-1/imunologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/imunologia , Células Vero
7.
Biosci Rep ; 40(10)2020 10 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33063092

RESUMO

COVID-19 induces a proinflammatory environment that is stronger in patients requiring intensive care. The cytokine components of this environment may determine efficacy or otherwise of glucocorticoid therapy. The immunity modulators, the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and the nuclear NAD+-consuming enzyme poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP 1) may play a critical role in COVID-19 pathophysiology. The AhR is overexpressed in coronaviruses, including COVID-19 and, as it regulates PARP gene expression, the latter is likely to be activated in COVID-19. PARP 1 activation leads to cell death mainly by depletion of NAD+ and adenosine triphosphate (ATP), especially when availability of these energy mediators is compromised. PARP expression is enhanced in other lung conditions: the pneumovirus respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). I propose that PARP 1 activation is the terminal point in a sequence of events culminating in patient mortality and should be the focus of COVID-19 immunotherapy. Potent PARP 1 inhibitors are undergoing trials in cancer, but a readily available inhibitor, nicotinamide (NAM), which possesses a highly desirable biochemical and activity profile, merits exploration. It conserves NAD+ and prevents ATP depletion by PARP 1 and Sirtuin 1 (silent mating type information regulation 2 homologue 1) inhibition, enhances NAD+ synthesis, and hence that of NADP+ which is a stronger PARP inhibitor, reverses lung injury caused by ischaemia/reperfusion, inhibits proinflammatory cytokines and is effective against HIV infection. These properties qualify NAM for therapeutic use initially in conjunction with standard clinical care or combined with other agents, and subsequently as an adjunct to stronger PARP 1 inhibitors or other drugs.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Niacinamida/farmacologia , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerase-1/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/farmacologia , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/metabolismo , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Citocinas/sangue , Humanos , Imunoterapia/métodos , Indolamina-Pirrol 2,3,-Dioxigenase/metabolismo , Cinurenina/metabolismo , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerase-1/metabolismo , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/metabolismo
8.
Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol ; 63(5): 571-590, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32640172

RESUMO

PARP1, the major isoform of a family of ADP-ribosylating enzymes, has been implicated in the regulation of various biological processes including DNA repair, gene transcription, and cell death. The concept that PARP1 becomes activated in acute lung injury (ALI) and that pharmacological inhibition or genetic deletion of this enzyme can provide therapeutic benefits emerged over 20 years ago. The current article provides an overview of the cellular mechanisms involved in the pathogenetic roles of PARP1 in ALI and provides an overview of the preclinical data supporting the efficacy of PARP (poly[ADP-ribose] polymerase) inhibitors. In recent years, several ultrapotent PARP inhibitors have been approved for clinical use (for the therapy of various oncological diseases): these newly-approved PARP inhibitors were recently reported to show efficacy in animal models of ALI. These observations offer the possibility of therapeutic repurposing of these inhibitors for patients with ALI. The current article lays out a potential roadmap for such repurposing efforts. In addition, the article also overviews the scientific basis of potentially applying PARP inhibitors for the experimental therapy of viral ALI, such as coronavirus disease (COVID-19)-associated ALI.


Assuntos
Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerase-1/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/uso terapêutico , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/enzimologia , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/virologia , Animais , Antivirais/efeitos adversos , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/enzimologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Pulmão/enzimologia , Pulmão/virologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/enzimologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerase-1/metabolismo , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/efeitos adversos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
9.
Leukemia ; 34(11): 2992-3006, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32572188

RESUMO

Inactivating mutations in TET2 serve as an initiating genetic lesion in the transformation of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs). Thus, effective therapy for this subset of patients would ideally include drugs that are selectively lethal in TET2-mutant HSPCs, at dosages that spare normal HSPCs. In this study, we tested 129 FDA-approved anticancer drugs in a tet2-deficient zebrafish model and showed that topoisomerase 1 (TOP1)-targeted drugs and PARP1 inhibitors selectively kill tet2-mutant HSPCs. We found that Tet2-deficient murine bone marrow progenitors and CRISPR-Cas9-induced TET2-mutant human AML cells were more sensitive to both classes of drugs compared with matched control cells. The mechanism underlying the selective killing of TET2-mutant blood cells by these drugs was due to aberrantly low levels of tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase 1 (TDP1), an enzyme that is important for removing TOP1 cleavage complexes (TOP1cc). Low TDP1 levels yield sensitivity to TOP1-targeted drugs or PARP1 inhibitors and an inability to remove TOP1 cleavage complexes, leading to DNA double-strand breaks and cell death. The finding that TET2 mutations render HSPCs uniquely vulnerable to disruption of TOP1 and PARP1 activity may therefore represent a unique opportunity to use relatively low dosages of these drugs for the "precision therapy" of TET2-mutant myeloid malignancies.


Assuntos
DNA Topoisomerases Tipo I/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/metabolismo , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerase-1/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/genética , Mutações Sintéticas Letais , Inibidores da Topoisomerase I/farmacologia , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/genética , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/genética , Quebras de DNA de Cadeia Dupla/efeitos dos fármacos , Genótipo , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Fenótipo , Topotecan/farmacologia , Peixe-Zebra
10.
J Infect Public Health ; 13(9): 1196-1201, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32534944

RESUMO

The aging-associated decline of biological functions represents an important contributor to the increase in morbidity and mortality of human beings. Of these biological functions deterioration; there is a significant decline in the heart function, impairments in the lungs gas exchange, and impairments in the immune function. Many alterations in the body humeral and cellular immune response were observed with ageing process: The circulating pro-inflammatory cytokines are increased, the naive lymphocytes are decreased, the numbers of the antigen-presenting cells areelevated and the overall response is impaired. In addition, ageing is associated with a progressive restriction in the telomere length. Telomeres are located at chromosomes ends and play an essential role in preserving chromosome stability. Also, telomere length is very important to the immune system, because of the high sensitivity of the immune cells to the shortening of telomeres. Telomeres shortening adversely affect the immune cells' function and developments. These adverse changes increased the susceptibility for severe infection, risk of hospitalization, and even death. Elderly COVID-19 patients are at a real risk of complications due to impaired immune function, cytokine storm and defective respiratory function. Administration of anti-ageing immunomodulation factors like Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide NAD+ can minimize these changes through its potent immunomodulation and longevity effects. NAD+ has a direct inhibitory effect on PARP-1 and can prevent pro-inflammatory cytokines over-activation. Increasing the NAD+ level will also result in stabilizing telomeres and this has a positive impact on immune cells function.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , NAD/imunologia , NAD/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Encurtamento do Telômero/imunologia , Doenças Autoimunes/imunologia , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Citocinas/imunologia , Humanos , NAD/uso terapêutico , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerase-1/antagonistas & inibidores
11.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2662, 2020 05 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32471999

RESUMO

Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) encompasses molecularly different subgroups, with a subgroup harboring evidence of defective homologous recombination (HR) DNA repair. Here, within a phase 2 window clinical trial, RIO trial (EudraCT 2014-003319-12), we investigate the activity of PARP inhibitors in 43 patients with untreated TNBC. The primary end point, decreased Ki67, occured in 12% of TNBC. In secondary end point analyses, HR deficiency was identified in 69% of TNBC with the mutational-signature-based HRDetect assay. Cancers with HRDetect mutational signatures of HR deficiency had a functional defect in HR, assessed by impaired RAD51 foci formation on end of treatment biopsy. Following rucaparib treatment there was no association of Ki67 change with HR deficiency. In contrast, early circulating tumor DNA dynamics identified activity of rucaparib, with end of treatment ctDNA levels suppressed by rucaparib in mutation-signature HR-deficient cancers. In ad hoc analysis, rucaparib induced expression of interferon response genes in HR-deficient cancers. The majority of TNBCs have a defect in DNA repair, identifiable by mutational signature analysis, that may be targetable with PARP inhibitors.


Assuntos
Indóis/uso terapêutico , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerase-1/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/uso terapêutico , Reparo de DNA por Recombinação/genética , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , DNA Tumoral Circulante/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Rad51 Recombinase/metabolismo , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
12.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2174, 2020 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32358582

RESUMO

Poly-ADP-ribosylation (PARylation) is a fully reversible post-translational modification with key roles in cellular physiology. Due to the multi-domain structure of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP1) and the highly dynamic nature of the PARylation reaction, studies on the biochemical mechanism and structural dynamics remain challenging. Here, we report label-free, time-resolved monitoring of PARP1-dependent PARylation using ATR-FTIR spectroscopy. This includes PARP1 activation by binding to DNA strand break models, NAD+ substrate binding, PAR formation, and dissociation of automodified PARP1 from DNA. Analyses of PARP1 activation at different DNA models demonstrate a strong positive correlation of PARylation and PARP1 dissociation, with the strongest effects observed for DNA nicks and 3' phosphorylated ends. Moreover, by examining dynamic structural changes of PARP1, we reveal changes in the secondary structure of PARP1 induced by NAD+ and PARP inhibitor binding. In summary, this approach enables holistic and dynamic insights into PARP1-dependent PARylation with molecular and temporal resolution.


Assuntos
Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerase-1/química , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerase-1/metabolismo , Poli ADP Ribosilação/genética , Quebras de DNA de Cadeia Dupla , Quebras de DNA de Cadeia Simples , Humanos , Cinética , NAD/análogos & derivados , NAD/biossíntese , NAD/metabolismo , Oligonucleotídeos/química , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerase-1/antagonistas & inibidores , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerase-1/genética , Poli ADP Ribosilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Poli ADP Ribosilação/fisiologia , Ligação Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional/efeitos dos fármacos , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier/métodos
13.
Hum Cell ; 33(3): 801-809, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32388810

RESUMO

Endometrial cancer (EC) is one of the most common cancers among females worldwide. Advanced stage patients of EC have poor prognosis. Inevitable side effects and treatment tolerance of chemotherapy for EC remain to be addressed. Our results in this study showed that EC cells with higher tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 4 (TRAF4) expression have lower sensitivity to poly ADP-ribose polymerase 1 (PARP1) inhibitors. Upon TRAF4 knockdown, the colony numbers of EC cells were markedly down-regulated, and the markers of DNA double-strand breakage were significantly up-regulated after the treatment of olaparib, a PARP1 inhibitor. TRAF4 knockdown reduced the phosphorylation of protein kinase B (Akt), promoted DNA double-strand breakage, and decreased levels of DNA repair related proteins, including phosphorylated-DNA-dependent protein kinase (p-DNA-PK) and RAD51 recombinase (RAD51). In addition, TRAF4's effect on the sensitivity of EC cells to olaparib was further found to be mainly mediated by Akt phosphorylation. Moreover, in vivo results showed that TRAF4 knockdown enhanced the sensitivity of EC to PARP1 inhibitors using a mouse xenograft model. Collectively, our data suggest that combined application of TRAF4 knockdown and PARP1 inhibition can be used as a promising strategy for synthetic lethality in EC treatment.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Endométrio/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias do Endométrio/genética , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Ftalazinas/farmacologia , Ftalazinas/uso terapêutico , Piperazinas/farmacologia , Piperazinas/uso terapêutico , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerase-1/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Quebras de DNA de Cadeia Dupla , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Neoplasias do Endométrio/patologia , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Camundongos , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Fosforilação/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Fator 4 Associado a Receptor de TNF/genética , Fator 4 Associado a Receptor de TNF/metabolismo , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
14.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 1669, 2020 04 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32245950

RESUMO

Programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1)/programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1) interaction plays a crucial role in tumor-associated immune escape. Here, we verify that triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) has higher PD-L1 expression than other subtypes. We then discover that nucleophosmin (NPM1) binds to PD-L1 promoter specifically in TNBC cells and activates PD-L1 transcription, thus inhibiting T cell activity in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, we demonstrate that PARP1 suppresses PD-L1 transcription through its interaction with the nucleic acid binding domain of NPM1, which is required for the binding of NPM1 at PD-L1 promoter. Consistently, the PARP1 inhibitor olaparib elevates PD-L1 expression in TNBC and exerts a better effect with anti-PD-L1 therapy. Together, our research has revealed NPM1 as a transcription regulator of PD-L1 in TNBC, which could lead to potential therapeutic strategies to enhance the efficacy of cancer immunotherapy.


Assuntos
Antígeno B7-H1/genética , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerase-1/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Antígeno B7-H1/antagonistas & inibidores , Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Mama/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/metabolismo , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Ftalazinas/farmacologia , Ftalazinas/uso terapêutico , Piperazinas/farmacologia , Piperazinas/uso terapêutico , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerase-1/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/farmacologia , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/uso terapêutico , Prognóstico , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Análise Serial de Tecidos , Ativação Transcricional/imunologia , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/imunologia , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/mortalidade , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos
15.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 2585, 2020 02 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32066817

RESUMO

Polypharmacology plays an important role in defining response and adverse effects of drugs. For some mechanisms, experimentally mapping polypharmacology is commonplace, although this is typically done within the same protein class. Four PARP inhibitors have been approved by the FDA as cancer therapeutics, yet a precise mechanistic rationale to guide clinicians on which to choose for a particular patient is lacking. The four drugs have largely similar PARP family inhibition profiles, but several differences at the molecular and clinical level have been reported that remain poorly understood. Here, we report the first comprehensive characterization of the off-target kinase landscape of four FDA-approved PARP drugs. We demonstrate that all four PARP inhibitors have a unique polypharmacological profile across the kinome. Niraparib and rucaparib inhibit DYRK1s, CDK16 and PIM3 at clinically achievable, submicromolar concentrations. These kinases represent the most potently inhibited off-targets of PARP inhibitors identified to date and should be investigated further to clarify their potential implications for efficacy and safety in the clinic. Moreover, broad kinome profiling is recommended for the development of PARP inhibitors as PARP-kinase polypharmacology could potentially be exploited to modulate efficacy and side-effect profiles.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/química , Indazóis/química , Indóis/química , Ftalazinas/química , Piperazinas/química , Piperidinas/química , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerase-1/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/química , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Sítios de Ligação , Quinases Ciclina-Dependentes/antagonistas & inibidores , Quinases Ciclina-Dependentes/genética , Quinases Ciclina-Dependentes/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Indazóis/administração & dosagem , Indazóis/efeitos adversos , Indóis/administração & dosagem , Indóis/efeitos adversos , Isoenzimas/antagonistas & inibidores , Isoenzimas/genética , Isoenzimas/metabolismo , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/enzimologia , Neoplasias/patologia , Ftalazinas/administração & dosagem , Ftalazinas/efeitos adversos , Piperazinas/administração & dosagem , Piperazinas/efeitos adversos , Piperidinas/administração & dosagem , Piperidinas/efeitos adversos , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerase-1/genética , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerase-1/metabolismo , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/administração & dosagem , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/efeitos adversos , Polifarmacologia , Ligação Proteica , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/genética , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/metabolismo , Especificidade por Substrato
16.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 752, 2020 02 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32029722

RESUMO

Isogenic pairs of cell lines, which differ by a single genetic modification, are powerful tools for understanding gene function. Generating such pairs of mammalian cells, however, is labor-intensive, time-consuming, and, in some cell types, essentially impossible. Here, we present an approach to create isogenic pairs of cells that avoids single cell cloning, and screen these pairs with genome-wide CRISPR-Cas9 libraries to generate genetic interaction maps. We query the anti-apoptotic genes BCL2L1 and MCL1, and the DNA damage repair gene PARP1, identifying both expected and uncharacterized buffering and synthetic lethal interactions. Additionally, we compare acute CRISPR-based knockout, single cell clones, and small-molecule inhibition. We observe that, while the approaches provide largely overlapping information, differences emerge, highlighting an important consideration when employing genetic screens to identify and characterize potential drug targets. We anticipate that this methodology will be broadly useful to comprehensively study gene function across many contexts.


Assuntos
Testes Genéticos/métodos , Apoptose/genética , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Linhagem Celular , Células Clonais , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Biblioteca Gênica , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Humanos , Família Multigênica , Proteína de Sequência 1 de Leucemia de Células Mieloides/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteína de Sequência 1 de Leucemia de Células Mieloides/deficiência , Proteína de Sequência 1 de Leucemia de Células Mieloides/genética , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerase-1/antagonistas & inibidores , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerase-1/deficiência , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerase-1/genética , Análise de Célula Única , Proteína bcl-X/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteína bcl-X/deficiência , Proteína bcl-X/genética
17.
Cell Death Dis ; 11(1): 71, 2020 01 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31992690

RESUMO

Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) regulates gene transcription in addition to functioning as a DNA repair factor. Forkhead box O1 (FoxO1) is a transcription factor involved in extensive biological processes. Here, we report that PARP1 binds to two separate motifs on the FoxO1 promoter and represses its transcription in a polymerase-independent manner. Using PARP1-knock out (KO) cells, wild-type-PARP1-complemented cells and catalytic mutant PARP1E988K-reconstituted cells, we investigated transcriptional regulation by PARP1. PARP1 loss led to reduced DNA damage response and ~362-fold resistance to five PARP inhibitors (PARPis) in Ewing sarcoma cells. RNA sequencing showed 492 differentially expressed genes in a PARP1-KO subline, in which the FoxO1 mRNA levels increased up to more than five times. The change in the FoxO1 expression was confirmed at both mRNA and protein levels in different PARP1-KO and complemented cells. Moreover, exogenous PARP1 overexpression reduced the endogenous FoxO1 protein in RD-ES cells. Competitive EMSA and ChIP assays revealed that PARP1 specifically bound to the FoxO1 promoter. DNase I footprinting, mutation analyses, and DNA pulldown FREP assays showed that PARP1 bound to two particular nucleotide sequences separately located at -813 to -826 bp and -1805 to -1828 bp regions on the FoxO1 promoter. Either the PARPi olaparib or the PARP1 catalytic mutation (E988K) did not impair the repression of PARP1 on the FoxO1 expression. Exogenous FoxO1 overexpression did not impair cellular PARPi sensitivity. These findings demonstrate a new PARP1-gene promoter binding mode and a new transcriptional FoxO1 gene repressor.


Assuntos
Proteína Forkhead Box O1/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerase-1/metabolismo , Sarcoma de Ewing/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/genética , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína Forkhead Box O1/metabolismo , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Humanos , Mutação , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerase-1/antagonistas & inibidores , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerase-1/genética , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/farmacologia , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Ligação Proteica , Sarcoma de Ewing/genética , Regulação para Cima
18.
Cell Death Dis ; 11(1): 22, 2020 01 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31924749

RESUMO

Accelerated atherosclerotic calcification is responsible for plaque burden, especially in diabetes. The regulatory mechanism for atherosclerotic calcification in diabetes is poorly characterized. Here we show that deletion of PARP-1, a main enzyme in diverse metabolic complications, attenuates diabetic atherosclerotic calcification and decreases vessel stiffening in mice through Runx2 suppression. Specifically, PARP-1 deficiency reduces diabetic arteriosclerotic calcification by regulating Stat1-mediated synthetic phenotype switching of vascular smooth muscle cells and macrophage polarization. Meanwhile, both vascular smooth muscle cells and macrophages manifested osteogenic differentiation in osteogenic media, which was attenuated by PARP-1/Stat1 inhibition. Notably, Stat1 acts as a positive transcription factor by directly binding to the promoter of Runx2 and promoting atherosclerotic calcification in diabetes. Our results identify a new function of PARP-1, in which metabolism disturbance-related stimuli activate the Runx2 expression mediated by Stat1 transcription to facilitate diabetic arteriosclerotic calcification. PARP-1 inhibition may therefore represent a useful therapy for this challenging complication.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/enzimologia , Subunidade alfa 1 de Fator de Ligação ao Core/metabolismo , Complicações do Diabetes/enzimologia , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerase-1/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição STAT1/metabolismo , Calcificação Vascular/enzimologia , Animais , Apolipoproteínas E/genética , Apolipoproteínas E/metabolismo , Aterosclerose/genética , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Complicações do Diabetes/genética , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Músculo Liso Vascular/citologia , Músculo Liso Vascular/metabolismo , Osteogênese/genética , Fenantrenos/farmacologia , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerase-1/antagonistas & inibidores , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerase-1/genética , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/farmacologia , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Ligação Proteica , Fator de Transcrição STAT1/genética , Calcificação Vascular/genética
19.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(4): 2032-2042, 2020 01 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31932422

RESUMO

Resistance to androgen deprivation therapy, or castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), is often accompanied by metastasis and is currently the ultimate cause of prostate cancer-associated deaths in men. Recently, secondary hormonal therapies have led to an increase of neuroendocrine prostate cancer (NEPC), a highly aggressive variant of CRPC. Here, we identify that high levels of cell surface receptor Trop2 are predictive of recurrence of localized prostate cancer. Moreover, Trop2 is significantly elevated in CRPC and NEPC, drives prostate cancer growth, and induces neuroendocrine phenotype. Overexpression of Trop2 induces tumor growth and metastasis while loss of Trop2 suppresses these abilities in vivo. Trop2-driven NEPC displays a significant up-regulation of PARP1, and PARP inhibitors significantly delay tumor growth and metastatic colonization and reverse neuroendocrine features in Trop2-driven NEPC. Our findings establish Trop2 as a driver and therapeutic target for metastatic prostate cancer with neuroendocrine phenotype and suggest that high Trop2 levels could identify cancers that are sensitive to Trop2-targeting therapies and PARP1 inhibition.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Ósseas/secundário , Carcinoma Neuroendócrino/patologia , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/metabolismo , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerase-1/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/patologia , Animais , Antígenos de Neoplasias/genética , Apoptose , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias Ósseas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Ósseas/metabolismo , Carcinoma Neuroendócrino/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Neuroendócrino/metabolismo , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/genética , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos SCID , Invasividade Neoplásica , Fenótipo , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerase-1/antagonistas & inibidores , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerase-1/genética , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/farmacologia , Prognóstico , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/metabolismo , Taxa de Sobrevida , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
20.
Leukemia ; 34(6): 1599-1612, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31974435

RESUMO

The deletion of 11q (del(11q)) invariably comprises ATM gene in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Concomitant mutations in this gene in the remaining allele have been identified in 1/3 of CLL cases harboring del(11q), being the biallelic loss of ATM associated with adverse prognosis. Although the introduction of targeted BCR inhibition has significantly favored the outcomes of del(11q) patients, responses of patients harboring ATM functional loss through biallelic inactivation are unexplored, and the development of resistances to targeted therapies have been increasingly reported, urging the need to explore novel therapeutic approaches. Here, we generated isogenic CLL cell lines harboring del(11q) and ATM mutations through CRISPR/Cas9-based gene-editing. With these models, we uncovered a novel therapeutic vulnerability of del(11q)/ATM-mutated cells to dual BCR and PARP inhibition. Ex vivo studies in the presence of stromal stimulation on 38 CLL primary samples confirmed a synergistic action of the combination of olaparib and ibrutinib in del(11q)/ATM-mutated CLL patients. In addition, we showed that ibrutinib produced a homologous recombination repair impairment through RAD51 dysregulation, finding a synergistic link of both drugs in the DNA damage repair pathway. Our data provide a preclinical rationale for the use of this combination in CLL patients with this high-risk cytogenetic abnormality.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Proteínas Mutadas de Ataxia Telangiectasia/genética , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/genética , Mutagênese Sítio-Dirigida/métodos , Animais , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Deleção Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Par 11/genética , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Humanos , Camundongos , Mutação , Ftalazinas/farmacologia , Piperazinas/farmacologia , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerase-1/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/farmacologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcr/antagonistas & inibidores , Pirazóis/farmacologia , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
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