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1.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 249: 114412, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36527847

RESUMO

Polystyrene nanoplastics (PS-NPs) are typical accumulated nanoplastics in the marine environment and organisms, and have strong potential risks to marine ecological environment and human health. MiRNAs could respond to and participate in the response process of environmental stressors. However, the response of miRNAs to nanoplastics has not been fully explored. In this study, miRNA responses of digestive glands in mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis treated by 200 nm PS-NPs (20, 200, 2000 µg/L) for 7 days were characterized by BGISEQ-500 deep sequencing and bioinformatics analysis, along with histopathological quantification with planimetric parameters on hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining. Results showed that one novel miRNA (novel_mir63) and seven known miRNAs (miR-34_2, miR-34_5, miR-281_8, let-7-5p_6, miR-10, miR-124, miR-29b-3p) were significantly (adjusted P-value < 0.05) differentially expressed after PS-NPs treatments, and most of them were down-regulated expect for novel_mir63 and miR-34_2. Function analysis of target genes corresponding to these differentially expressed miRNAs indicated that PS-NPs disturbed the process related to metabolism, aging, cardiac function, neural excitation, and repairment. Among them, acetyl-CoA C-acetyltransferase and purine metabolism pathway played vital connection roles. Meanwhile, significantly morphology changes of digestive tubes obtained from H&E stained sections also implied severely disrupted metabolic capability in digestive glands, reflected by significantly increased mean diverticular radius (MDR) and mean luminal radius (MLR) values and the ratio of MLR to mean epithelial thickness (MET), and significantly decreased MET value and MET/MDR. Overall, these findings have revealed new characterization of miRNAs and their target genes in mussel M. galloprovincialis under PS-NPs stress, and provide important clues to further elucidate the toxicity mechanisms of PS-NPs.


Assuntos
MicroRNAs , Mytilus , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Humanos , Poliestirenos/toxicidade , Poliestirenos/metabolismo , Mytilus/metabolismo , Microplásticos/toxicidade , Microplásticos/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo
2.
Chemosphere ; 312(Pt 1): 137077, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36334746

RESUMO

Plastics pose a health hazard to living beings and the environment. Plastic degradation produces nano-sized plastic particles (NPs) that end up in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, including oceans, rivers, and lakes. Their presence in air, drinking water, sediments, food, and personal care products leads to a variety of exposure routes for living beings, including humans. The toxicity mechanisms of these nanomaterials (NMs) in living organisms and ecosystems are currently unknown, making it a priority to understand their effects at the molecular and cellular levels. The zebrafish (Zf) (Danio rerio) is a model organism which has a high homology with humans and has been widely used to assess the hazard of different xenobiotics. In this study, the expression changes of different genes in 120 hpf Zf embryos (Zfe) after exposure to polystyrene (PS) NPs (30 nm) at concentrations of 0.1, 0.5 and 3 ppm were investigated. The results showed that the gene encoding heat shock protein (hsp70) was down-regulated in a dose-dependent manner. The genes encoding superoxide dismutase (SOD 1 and SOD 2), apoptotic genes (cas 1 and cas 8) and interleukin 1-ß (il1ß) were activated at the concentration of 3 ppm PS NP, while the anti-apoptotic gene Bcl2α was inhibited at 0.5 and 3 ppm. In addition, the neurotransmitter-related gene Acetyl-Cholinesterase (ache) was significantly inhibited and the DNA repair genes (gadd45α and rad51) were also down-regulated. In contrast, the mitochondrial metabolism-related gene cox1 did not alter its expression in any of the treatments. Most of the changes in gene expression occurred at the highest concentration of NPs. Overall, the results indicated that NPs generated cellular stress that caused certain alterations in normal gene expression (oxidative stress, apoptotic and inflammatory processes, neurotoxicity and anti-apoptotic proteins), but did not cause any mortality after 120 hpf exposure at the three concentrations assayed. These results highlight the need for further studies investigating the effects, at the molecular level, of these materials in humans and other living organisms.


Assuntos
Poluentes Químicos da Água , Peixe-Zebra , Animais , Ecossistema , Microplásticos/toxicidade , Plásticos/toxicidade , Poliestirenos/toxicidade , Poliestirenos/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/genética , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Peixe-Zebra/genética , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo
3.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 249: 114380, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36508812

RESUMO

The absorption and accumulation of nanoplastics (NPs) by plants is currently attracting considerable attention. NPs also tend to adsorb surrounding organic pollutants, such as pesticides, which can damage plants. However, molecular mechanisms underlying the phytotoxicity of NPs are not sufficiently researched. Therefore, we analyzed the toxicological effects of 50 mg/L polystyrene NPs (PS 50 nm) and 5 mg/L the herbicide quinolinic (QNC) on rice (Oryza sativa L.) using 7-day hydroponic experiments, explaining the corresponding mechanisms by transcriptome analysis. The main conclusion is that all treatments inhibit rice growth and activate the antioxidant level. Compared with CK, the inhibition rates of PS, QNC, and PS+QNC on rice shoot length were 3.95%, 6.68%, and 11.43%, respectively. The gene ontology (GO) term photosynthesis was significantly enriched by QNC, and the combination PS+QNC significantly enriched the GO terms of amino sugar and nucleotide sugar metabolisms. The chemicals QNC and PS+QNC significantly affected the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) of the MAPK signaling pathway, plant hormone signal transduction, and plant-pathogen interaction. Our findings provide a new understanding of the phytotoxic mechanisms and environmental impacts of the interactions between NPs and pesticides. It also provides insights into the impact of NPs and pesticides on plants in the agricultural system.


Assuntos
Oryza , Praguicidas , Transcriptoma , Oryza/metabolismo , Poliestirenos/metabolismo , Microplásticos/metabolismo , Praguicidas/metabolismo
4.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 249: 114375, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36508836

RESUMO

Microplastics (MPs) are widespread in the environment and can be ingested through food, water, and air, posing a threat to human health. In addition, MPs can have a potential combined effect with other toxic compounds. Polystyrene (PS) has been shown to enhance the cytotoxicity of okadaic acid (OA). However, it remains unclear whether this enhancement effect is related to the size of PS particles. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of the combined effect of PS microplastics (PS-MPs) or PS nanoplastics (PS-NPs) and OA on Caco-2 cells. The results indicated that PS-NPs enhanced the cytotoxicity of OA and induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-mediated apoptosis in Caco-2 cells, compared to PS-MPs. Specifically, PS-NPs and OA cause more severe oxidative stress, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, and mitochondrial membrane depolarization. Furthermore, it induced intracellular calcium overload through store-operated channels (SOCs) and activated the PERK/ATF-4/CHOP pathway to cause ER stress. ER stress promoted mitochondrial damage and finally activated the caspase family to induce apoptosis. This study provided an indirect basis for the assessment of the combined toxicity of MPs or NPs with OA.


Assuntos
Poliestirenos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Humanos , Poliestirenos/toxicidade , Poliestirenos/metabolismo , Microplásticos/toxicidade , Plásticos , Células CACO-2 , Ácido Okadáico/toxicidade , Apoptose
5.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 249: 114371, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36508839

RESUMO

The issue of global environmental contamination of microplastics has recently been receiving widespread attention. However, the effects of polystyrene nanoparticles (Nano-PS) on the female reproductive system remain unclear. We investigated the toxicity and explored the potential underlying mechanisms of Nano-PS in both mouse ovarian tissue in vivo and human ovarian granulosa cell lines in vitro. In vivo experiments: Mice were fed different concentrations of Nano-PS for 8 weeks. In vitro experiments: COV434 cells were treated with increasing concentrations of Nano-PS. In the present study, ovarian reserve was found to decrease significantly, while oxidative stress and apoptosis levels increased. Nano-PS increased the proportion of metestrum and diestrus periods, and decreased the proportion of estrous period. The implantation rates and the number of pups per litter decreased. In COV434 cells, Nano-PS reduced cell viability and mitochondrial membrane potential, increased the expression of apoptotic and oxidative stress markers and led to subsequent cell cycle arrest. Specifically, Nano-PS exert their toxic effects on mouse ovarian tissue and COV434 cells by inducing oxidative stress. A potential strategy to overcome this could be to activate the nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling pathway to mitigate Nano-PS-induced oxidative stress.


Assuntos
Ovário , Poliestirenos , Humanos , Feminino , Camundongos , Animais , Poliestirenos/toxicidade , Poliestirenos/metabolismo , Plásticos/metabolismo , Células da Granulosa , Estresse Oxidativo
6.
Chemosphere ; 314: 137656, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36581121

RESUMO

Nanoplastics (NPs) are ubiquitously present in wastewater treatment plants, which would be removed by the flocculation of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) from activated sludge. However, the interaction mechanisms between NPs and EPS of activated sludge remain largely unexplored. This study investigated the interaction mechanisms between polystyrene nanoplastics (PS-NPs) and EPS with sodium acetate (NaAc), methanol (MeOH) and glucose (GLC) as carbon sources. The results showed that the functional group involved in the interactions between PS-NPs and EPS was the carbonyl of protein amide I region. The interaction between PS-NPs and EPS increased the ß-sheets content, decreased the ratio of α-helix to (ß-sheet + random coil), and changed the protein secondary structures to strong rigidity. This enhanced the flocculation of activated sludge cultivated by these three carbon sources. The flocculation between PS-NPs and EPS in activated sludge using NaAc as the carbon source was the strongest among these three carbon sources. Therefore, the degree of flocculation between NPs and EPS of activated sludge in wastewater treatment plants varies with carbon sources. This work provides a reference for the NPs removal mechanisms from wastewater, which will help to understand the migration behavior of MPs and NPs in wastewater treatment processes.


Assuntos
Matriz Extracelular de Substâncias Poliméricas , Esgotos , Esgotos/química , Matriz Extracelular de Substâncias Poliméricas/metabolismo , Poliestirenos/metabolismo , Microplásticos/metabolismo , Carbono/metabolismo , Floculação , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos
7.
J Hazard Mater ; 445: 130543, 2023 03 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36493651

RESUMO

Microplastics (MPs) are ubiquitous in various environmental media and have potential toxicity. However, the neurotoxicity of carboxyl-modified polystyrene microplastics (PS-COOH) and their mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, Caenorhabditis elegans was used as a model to examine the neurotoxicity of polystyrene microplastic (PS) and PS-COOH concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 100 µg/L. Locomotion behavior, neuron development, neurotransmitter level, and neurotransmitter-related gene expression were selected as assessment endpoints. Exposure to low concentrations (1 µg/L) of PS-COOH caused more severe neurotoxicity than exposure to pristine PS. In transgenic nematodes, exposure to PS-COOH at 10-100 µg/L significantly increased the fluorescence intensity of dopaminergic, glutamatergic, serotonergic, and aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic neurons compared to that of the control. Further studies showed that exposure to 100 µg/L PS-COOH can significantly affect the levels of glutamate, serotonin, dopamine, and GABA in nematodes. Likewise, in the present study, the expression of genes involved in neurotransmission was altered in worms. These results suggest that PS-COOH exerts neurotoxicity by affecting neurotransmission of dopamine, glutamate, serotonin, and GABA. This study provides new insights into the underlying mechanisms and potential risks associated with PS-COOH.


Assuntos
Caenorhabditis elegans , Síndromes Neurotóxicas , Animais , Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Microplásticos/toxicidade , Microplásticos/metabolismo , Poliestirenos/toxicidade , Poliestirenos/metabolismo , Plásticos/metabolismo , Ácido Glutâmico , Serotonina/metabolismo , Dopamina , Neurotransmissores/metabolismo , Transmissão Sináptica , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/metabolismo
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 862: 160646, 2023 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36493839

RESUMO

Plastic pollution is recognized as a major threat to ecosystems in the 21st century. Large plastic objects undergo biotic and abiotic degradation to generate micro- and nano-sized plastic pieces. Despite tremendous efforts to evaluate the adverse effects of microplastics, a comprehensive understanding of the toxicity of nanoplastics remains elusive, especially at the protein level. To this end, we used isobaric-tag-for-relative-and-absolute-quantitation-based quantitative proteomics to investigate the proteome dynamics of the soil nematode Caenorhabditis elegans in response to exposure to 100 nm polystyrene nanoplastics (PS-NPs). After 48 h of exposure to 0.1, 1, or 10 mg/L PS-NPs, 136 out of 1684 proteins were differentially expressed and 108 of these proteins were upregulated. These proteins were related to ribosome biogenesis, translation, proteolysis, kinases, protein processing in the endoplasmic reticulum, and energy metabolism. Remarkably, changes in proteome dynamics in response to exposure to PS-NPs were consistent with the phenotypic defects of C. elegans. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that disruption of proteome homeostasis is a biological consequence of PS-NPs accumulation in C. elegans, which provides insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the toxicology of nanoplastics.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Caenorhabditis elegans , Plásticos , Microplásticos/toxicidade , Proteoma , Proteômica , Ecossistema , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Poliestirenos/toxicidade , Poliestirenos/metabolismo , Nanopartículas/toxicidade
9.
Chemosphere ; 313: 137582, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36529175

RESUMO

Microplastics (MPs) have emerged as a global concern, with a recent study being the first to detect them in the bloodstream of healthy people. However, precise information regarding the toxic effects of MPs on the human vascular system is currently lacking. In this study, we used human vascular endothelial EA. hy926 cells to examine the toxic potential of polystyrene MPs (PSMPs) under realistic blood concentrations. Our findings indicated that PSMPs can cause oxidative stress by reducing the expression of antioxidants, thereby leading to apoptotic cytotoxicity in EA. hy926 cells. Furthermore, the protective potential of heat shock proteins can be reduced by PSMPs. PSMP-induced apoptosis might also lower the expression of rho-associated protein kinase-1 and nuclear factor-κB expression, thus dampening LRR- and pyrin domain-containing protein 3 in EA. hy926 cells. Moreover, we observed that PSMPs induce vascular barrier dysfunction via the depletion of zonula occludens-1 protein. However, although protein expression of the nuclear hormone receptor 77 was inhibited, no significant increase in ectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 was noted in PSMP-treated EA. hy926 cells. These results demonstrate that exposure to PSMPs may not sufficiently increase the risk of developing atherosclerosis. Overall, our research signifies that exposure to realistic blood concentrations of PSMPs is associated with low atherosclerotic cardiovascular risk in humans.


Assuntos
Microplásticos , Poliestirenos , Humanos , Microplásticos/toxicidade , Microplásticos/metabolismo , Poliestirenos/metabolismo , Plásticos/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo
10.
Chemosphere ; 313: 137571, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36535503

RESUMO

Microplastic (MP) pollution has become a major concern in recent years. In agricultural production, MPs can not only affect the growth of crops but also affect yield. Compared with micron-sized MPs, nanoplastics (NPs) may be more harmful to plants. However, the effects of NPs on plant growth and development have attracted relatively little attention. As such, research has currently plateaued at the level of morphology and physiology, and the molecular mechanisms are still unclear. In this study, soybeans (Glycine max L.) were treated with polystyrene nanoplastics (PS-NPs) to observe phenotypic changes and measure the effects of PS-NPs on diverse aspects of soybeans. Compared to the control group, the soybean stem and root lengths were inhibited by 11.78% and 12.58%, respectively. The reactive oxygen species content and the antioxidant enzyme activities changed significantly (p < 0.05). The accumulation of manganese (Mn) and magnesium (Mg) in the roots revealed that root transmembrane transport was affected by PS-NPs stress. The content of salicylic acid 2-O-ß-glucoside was inhibited whereas the accumulation of l-tryptophan, the precursor of auxin synthesis, was significantly increased (p < 0.05) in leaves. Transcriptomic analysis showed that PS-NPs could affect soybean DNA repair, membrane protein transport, and hormone synthesis and response. This study revealed the toxicity of NPs to soybeans and that NPs affected a variety of biological processes through transcriptome and hormone metabolome analysis, which provides a theoretical basis to further study the molecular mechanism of the effects on plants.


Assuntos
Microplásticos , Soja , Soja/metabolismo , Microplásticos/metabolismo , Plásticos/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Poliestirenos/metabolismo , Hormônios/metabolismo
11.
Metabolomics ; 19(1): 1, 2022 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36538272

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The rapid growth in the worldwide use of plastics has resulted in a vast accumulation of microplastics in the air, soil and water. The impact of these microplastics on pregnancy and fetal development remains largely unknown. In pregnant mice, we recently demonstrated that exposure to micro- and nanoplastics throughout gestation resulted in significant fetal growth restriction. One possible explanation for reduced fetal growth is abnormal placental metabolism. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of maternal exposure to microplastics on placental metabolism. METHODS: In the present study, CD-1 pregnant mice were exposed to 5 µm polystyrene microplastics in filtered drinking water at one of four concentrations (0 ng/L (controls), 102 ng/L, 104 ng/L, 106 ng/L) throughout gestation (n = 7-11/group). At embryonic day 17.5, placental tissue samples were collected (n = 28-44/group). Metabolite profiles were determined using 1 H high-resolution magic angle spinning magnetic resonance spectroscopy. RESULTS: The relative concentration of lysine (p = 0.003) and glucose (p < 0.0001) in the placenta were found to decrease with increasing microplastic concentrations, with a significant reduction at the highest exposure concentration. Multivariate analysis identified shifts in the metabolic profile with MP exposure and pathway analysis identified perturbations in the biotin metabolism, lysine degradation, and glycolysis/gluconeogenesis pathways. CONCLUSION: Maternal exposure to microplastics resulted in significant alterations in placental metabolism. This study highlights the potential impact of microplastic exposure on pregnancy outcomes and that efforts should be made to minimize exposure to plastics, particularly during pregnancy.


Assuntos
Microplásticos , Placenta , Humanos , Gravidez , Feminino , Animais , Camundongos , Placenta/metabolismo , Microplásticos/metabolismo , Poliestirenos/metabolismo , Plásticos/metabolismo , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Lisina/metabolismo , Metabolômica
12.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 246: 114157, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36228361

RESUMO

Microplastics are ubiquitous in the natural environment, especially in waters, and their potential impact is also a key issue of concern. In this study, we used 1 µm, 1000 µg/L, polystyrene (PS-MPs) particles to analyze the effects after exposure for 14 and 28 days in rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus). Results indicated that PS-MPs induce structural alterations in the intestinal tissue, including epithelial damage, villi damage and the inflammatory cell infiltration, while the changes were severer after exposure for 28 days. Polystyrene microplastics also significantly increased the activities of catalase (CAT, increased 142 % and 385 % in 14d and 28d), superoxide dismutase (SOD, increased 17.76 % and 23.43 % in the 14d and 28d) and the content of malondialdehyde (MDA, increased 14.5 % and 442 % in the 14d and 28d), glutathione (GSH, increased 146 % and 298 % in the 14d and 28d). The results not only showed the characterization of gut microbial communities in rare minnow, but also indicated that microbial diversity and composition were altered in gut of fish exposed to PS-MPs. In the control groups, Proteobacteria (31.36-54.54 %), Actinobacteriota (39.99-52.54 %), Fusobacteriota (1.43-1.78 %), Bacteriadota (0.31-0.57 %) were the four dominant bacterial phyla in the intestinal of rare minnow. After exposure to microplastics, In the gut microbiota, the proportion of Proteobacteria increased 9.27 % and 30 % with exposure time, while Actinobacteria decreased 37.89 % and significantly different after 28 days. In addition, metabolomic analysis suggested that exposure to PS-MPs induced alterations of metabolic profiles in rare minnow and differential metabolites were involved in energy metabolism, inflammatory responsible secretion, oxidative stress, nucleotide and its metabolomics. In conclusion, our findings suggest that long-term exposure to microplastics could induce intestinal inflammation, oxidative stress, microbiota dysbiosis and metabolic disorder in rare minnow, and the alterations and severity were exacerbated by prolonged exposure. This study has extended our cognition of the toxicity of polystyrene, and enriched theoretical data for exploring the toxicological mechanism of microplastics.


Assuntos
Cyprinidae , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Microplásticos/toxicidade , Plásticos/toxicidade , Plásticos/metabolismo , Poliestirenos/toxicidade , Poliestirenos/metabolismo , Disbiose/induzido quimicamente , Cyprinidae/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Glutationa/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo
13.
Environ Pollut ; 314: 120262, 2022 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36162560

RESUMO

Micro and nanoplastics are new generation contaminants of global concern. It is important to evaluate the effects on edible products due to the presence of micro- and nano-sized plastics in the treated wastewater. A hydroponic experiment was carried out to explore the effect of polsytrene nanoplastics (PS-NPs; 20 nm) at different concentrations (0, 12.5, 25, and 50 mg L-1) on Glycine max L. (soybean) seedlings for 7-days. In the current study, firstly the uptake of PS-NPs by Glycine max L. (soybean) roots were confirmed by laser confocal scanning microscope. Exposure to PS-NPs, negatively affected growth parameters and increased Fe, Zn and Mn contents in roots and leaves of soybean seedlings. PS-NPs treatments caused oxidative stress in soybean seedlings. The hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde contents, showed similar increase pattern in seedlings exposed to PS-NPs. Response to PS-NPs, the level of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, and guaiacol peroxidase) and proline content were generally enhanced in roots and leaves of soybean. The expression level of stress-related genes examined in the study included CSD5, FSD3, APX1, and POD up-regulated in PS-NPs treated-soybean seedlings in a tissue specific manner. The results of the present study showed the adverse effects of PS-NPs on soybean seedlings, which may have important implications for the risk assessment of NPs on crop production and environmental safety.


Assuntos
Plântula , Soja , Catalase/metabolismo , Poliestirenos/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Microplásticos , Ascorbato Peroxidases/metabolismo , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Prolina/metabolismo , Prolina/farmacologia
14.
J Hazard Mater ; 439: 129616, 2022 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36104895

RESUMO

The effects of polystyrene microplastic (PS-MP) size on neurotoxicity remain to be evaluated at various microsizes, and the seizurogenic effects of PS-MPs are unknown. This study aimed to evaluate the swimming behavior of zebrafish larvae under light-dark transitions after exposure to four PS-MP sizes (i.e., 1, 6, 10, and 25 µm) at concentrations of 500, 5,000, and 50,000 particles/mL. Changes in electroencephalographic signals, seizure-related gene expression, and neurochemical concentrations were measured. Locomotor activity was inhibited only by 10-µm PS-MPs. According to electroencephalographic signals, the number and total duration of seizure-like events significantly increased by 10-µm PS-MPs, which was confirmed by the altered expression of seizure-related genes c-fos and pvalb5. Additionally, an increase in the levels of neurochemicals choline, betaine, dopamine, 3-methoxytyramine, and gamma-aminobutyric acid indicated that the observed hypoactivity and seizure-like behavior were associated with the dysregulation of the cholinergic, dopaminergic, and GABAergic systems. Overall, these findings demonstrate that exposure to PS-MPs can potentially cause seizurogenic effects in developing zebrafish embryos, and we highlight that PS-MPs 10 µm in size dominantly affect neurotoxicity.


Assuntos
Microplásticos , Poliestirenos , Animais , Microplásticos/toxicidade , Plásticos/toxicidade , Poliestirenos/metabolismo , Poliestirenos/toxicidade , Convulsões , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo
15.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 630: 8-15, 2022 11 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36126467

RESUMO

Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is a key signaling molecule produced by osteocytes in response to mechanical loading, but its effect on osteocytes is less understood. This work examined the effect of PGE2 on IDG-SW3-derived osteocytes in standard 2D culture (collagen-coated tissue culture polystyrene) and in a 3D degradable poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogel. IDG-SW3 cells were differentiated for 35 days into osteocytes in 2D and 3D cultures. 3D culture led to a more mature osteocyte phenotype with 100-fold higher Sost expression. IDG-SW3-derived osteocytes were treated with PGE2 and assessed for expression of genes involved in PGE2, anabolic, and catabolic signaling. In 2D, PGE2 had a rapid (1 h) and sustained (24 h) effect on many PGE2 signaling genes, a rapid stimulatory effect on Il6, and a sustained inhibitory effect on Tnfrsf11b and Bglap. Comparing culture environment without PGE2, osteocytes had higher expression of all four EP receptors and Sost but lower expression of Tnfrsf11b, Bglap, and Gja1 in 3D. Osteocytes were more responsive to PGE2 in 3D. With increasing PGE2, 3D led to increased Gja1 and decreased Sost expressions and a higher Tnfrsf11b/Tnfsf11 ratio, indicating an anabolic response. Further analysis in 3D revealed that EP4, the receptor implicated in PGE2 signaling in bone, was not responsible for the PGE2-induced gene expression changes in osteocytes. In summary, osteocytes are highly responsive to PGE2 when cultured in an in vitro 3D hydrogel model suggesting that autocrine and paracrine PGE2 signaling in osteocytes may play a role in bone homeostasis.


Assuntos
Dinoprostona , Osteócitos , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Dinoprostona/metabolismo , Dinoprostona/farmacologia , Expressão Gênica , Hidrogéis/farmacologia , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Osteócitos/metabolismo , Polietilenoglicóis/farmacologia , Poliestirenos/metabolismo
16.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 241: 113843, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36068765

RESUMO

Microplastics (MPs), due to their impacts on the ecosystem and their integration into the food web either through trophic transfer or ingestion directly from the ambient environment, are an emerging class of environmental contaminants posing a great threat to marine organisms. Most reports on the toxic effects of MPs exclusively focus on bioaccumulation, oxidative stress, pathological damage, and metabolic disturbance in fish. However, the collected information on fish immunity in response to MPs is poorly defined. In particular, little is known regarding mucosal immunity and the role of mucins. In this study, marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma) larvae were exposed to 6.0 µm beads of polystyrene microplastics (PS-MPs) at three environmentally relevant concentrations (102 particles/L, 104 particles/L, and 106 particles/L) for 14 days. The experiment was carried out to explore the developmental and behavioural indices, the transcriptional profiles of mucins, pro-inflammatory, immune, metabolism and antioxidant responses related genes, as well as the accumulation of PS-MPs in larvae. The results revealed that PS-MPs were observed in the gastrointestinal tract, with a concentration- and exposure time-dependent manner. No significant difference in the larval mortality was found between the treatment groups and the control, whereas the body length of larvae demonstrated a significant reduction at 106 particles/L on 14 days post-hatching. The swimming behaviour of the larvae became hyperactive under exposure to 104 and 106 particles/L PS-MPs. In addition, PS-MP exposure significantly up-regulated the mucin gene transcriptional levels of muc7-like and muc13-like, however down-regulated the mucin gene expression levels of heg1, muc2, muc5AC-like and muc13. The immune- and inflammation and metabolism-relevant genes (jak, stat-3, il-6, il-1ß, tnf-а, ccl-11, nf-κb, and sod) were significantly induced by PS-MPs at 104 and 106 particles/L compared to the control. Taken together, this study suggests that PS-MPs induced inflammation response and might obstruct the immune functions and retarded the growth of the marine medaka larvae even at environmentally relevant concentrations.


Assuntos
Oryzias , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Ecossistema , Imunidade , Inflamação , Larva , Microplásticos/toxicidade , Mucinas/genética , Mucinas/metabolismo , Oryzias/metabolismo , Plásticos/toxicidade , Poliestirenos/metabolismo , Poliestirenos/toxicidade , Natação , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
17.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol ; 453: 116212, 2022 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36057402

RESUMO

Microplastic particles degraded from plastic litters are recognized as a global environmental pollutant, which can be transferred and enriched via the food chain to impact ecosystems and human health. A balanced gut microbiota contributes to human health through host-gut interactions, environmentally-driven factors such as microplastic exposure would disturb the gut bacteria and affect its functionality. Dietary compounds can remodel the compositions of gut microbes, and interact with bacteria exerting profound effects on host physiology. This study explored the effects of bayberry-derived anthocyanin cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (C3G) and microplastic polystyrene (PS) on the gut microbiome in C57BL/6 mice, especially the alterations in gut bacteria and its metabolites. Using 16S rRNA high-throughput sequencing, variations in gut bacterial composition and enrichment of functional pathways were found upon PS and C3G administration. Meanwhile, the differential metabolites and metabolic pathways were identified by metabolomic analysis. Importantly, colonic and fecal PS levels were found to be strongly correlated with key microbiota-derived metabolites, which are associated with xenobiotic metabolism via regulation of xenobiotics-metabolizing enzymes and transporters. These results may offer new insights regarding the protective effects of C3G against xenobiotic PS exposure and the roles of gut bacterial metabolites.


Assuntos
Antocianinas , Microbiota , Microplásticos , Animais , Antocianinas/farmacologia , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/metabolismo , Glucosídeos/farmacologia , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Plásticos/metabolismo , Poliestirenos/metabolismo , Poliestirenos/toxicidade , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Xenobióticos/metabolismo
18.
Biomaterials ; 289: 121785, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36099714

RESUMO

Endothelial cells (ECs) sense and adapt to their environment, allowing them to display a range of functional phenotypes and promote vascular homeostasis across organ systems. However, many of these cues are lost when cells are cultured in vitro. This work explores how substratum interactions influence cellular phenotype. Culture conditions, specifically 2D culture on tissue culture polystyrene (TCP) versus 3D culture on collagen scaffolds, had a much greater effect on EC phenotype than did in vivo cell source. The 3D ECs responded to hypoxic gradients by inducing the expression of HIF1-a while 2D ECs underwent endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition. In comparing the effect of culture condition on EC phenotype and function to its effect on epithelial cells (EPs) and fibroblasts (FBs), it is evident that ECs are not simply vascular EPs but are unique in their response. For cell types like ECs, which are particularly responsive to their microenvironment, traditional culture on TCP is insufficient for revealing in vivo behavior. Further applying these findings, we found that culture-condition differentially affected the expression of immunomodulatory factors and in an in vivo model of allotransplantation, 3D culture reduced the cytotoxic response of host immune cells to all three cell types compared to 2D culture.


Assuntos
Células Endoteliais , Poliestirenos , Células Cultivadas , Colágeno/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Poliestirenos/metabolismo
19.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 244: 114031, 2022 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36087466

RESUMO

Human exposure to microplastics (MPs) continues to occur due to ingestion of contaminated food, water and air. Intake of MPs can pose potential health risks by interfering with the production and circulation of nutrients, leading to physiological stress (such as immune responses and metabolic abnormalities). Toxicity data of MPs based on healthy individuals may not be applicable to large populations of patients with chronic diseases represented by diabetes. Therefore, in this study, the response of diabetic mice was compared with that of healthy mice after exposure to polystyrene microplastics (PS-MPs), and interesting differences were observed. PS-MPs exposure significantly increased liver tissue damage, abnormal lipid metabolism, inflammatory effect, liver metabolic disorder and changes of intestinal microbial composition in diabetic mice. Moreover, PS-MPs overstated abnormal lipid metabolism in diabetic mice. The difference between the increased inflammation after exposure to PS-MPs in healthy and diabetic mice involves that the former is mainly modulated by gut microbes, while diabetic mice seem to be more susceptible to lipid metabolism disturbances. In addition, the size effect of MPs was also observed in diabetic mice. These results suggested that individuals with chronic diseases may be more sensitive to pollution due to altered homeostasis, and therefore disease status should be fully considered when assessing the health risk of pollutants.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental , Poluentes Ambientais , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Camundongos , Microplásticos/toxicidade , Plásticos/metabolismo , Poliestirenos/metabolismo , Poliestirenos/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
20.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 245: 114104, 2022 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36174316

RESUMO

Coexposure of nanoplastics (NPs) with other pollutants adsorbed from the surroundings has received extensive attention. Currently, the combined effects of NPs and plasticizers remain unclear. Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is a commonly used plasticizer that has raised much concern owing to its ubiquitous pollution and endocrine-disrupting potential. This study aimed to investigate the toxic effects on the male reproductive system upon coexposure to NPs and DEHP. The C57BL/6J mice were orally administrated with polystyrene nanoparticles (PSNPs), DEHP or both for 35 days to evaluate their effects on sperm quality, histology of testes and epididymides, testicular transcriptomic characteristics as well as expression of some important genes in the epididymides. The low-dose PSNPs used here did not induce significant changes in sperm quality, while DEHP alone or cotreatment with DEHP and PSNPs caused notable impairment, mainly manifesting as decreased sperm quality and aberrant structure of the testis and epididymis. Moreover, enhanced toxic effects were found in the cotreatment group when compared with the individual DEHP treatment group, as manifested by more obvious alterations in the sperm parameters as well as histological changes in the testis and epididymis. Testicular transcriptomic analysis revealed differential regulation of genes involved in immune response, cytoplasmic pattern recognition receptor signaling pathways, protein ubiquitination, oxidative stress, necrotic cell death, ATP synthesis and the cellular respiratory chain. RT-qPCR verified that the expression patterns of Cenpb, Crisp1 and Mars were changed in testes, and genes relevant to epididymal function including Aqp9 and Octn2 were downregulated in epididymides, particularly in the cotreatment group. Collectively, our results emphasize that DEHP at an environmentally relevant dose can induce male reproductive toxicity, and PSNPs may aggravate the toxic effects.


Assuntos
Dietilexilftalato , Poluentes Ambientais , Nanopartículas , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Animais , Dietilexilftalato/metabolismo , Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Genitália Masculina , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Microplásticos , Nanopartículas/toxicidade , Ácidos Ftálicos , Plastificantes/metabolismo , Plastificantes/toxicidade , Poliestirenos/metabolismo , Poliestirenos/toxicidade , Receptores de Reconhecimento de Padrão/metabolismo , Sêmen , Testículo
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