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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34073709

RESUMO

Polyphenols are natural organic compounds produced by plants, acting as antioxidants by reacting with ROS. These compounds are widely consumed in daily diet and many studies report several benefits to human health thanks to their bioavailability in humans. However, the digestion process of phenolic compounds is still not completely clear. Moreover, bioavailability is dependent on the metabolic phase of these compounds. The LogP value can be managed as a simplified measure of the lipophilicity of a substance ingested within the human body, which affects resultant absorption. The biopharmaceutical classification system (BCS), a method used to classify drugs intended for gastrointestinal absorption, correlates the solubility and permeability of the drug with both the rate and extent of oral absorption. BCS may be helpful to measure the bioactive constituents of foods, such as polyphenols, in order to understand their nutraceutical potential. There are many literature studies that focus on permeability, absorption, and bioavailability of polyphenols and their resultant metabolic byproducts, but there is still confusion about their respective LogP values and BCS classification. This review will provide an overview of the information regarding 10 dietarypolyphenols (ferulic acid, chlorogenic acid, rutin, quercetin, apigenin, cirsimaritin, daidzein, resveratrol, ellagic acid, and curcumin) and their association with the BCS classification.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos/metabolismo , Polifenóis/metabolismo , Animais , Disponibilidade Biológica , Produtos Biológicos/química , Produtos Biológicos/classificação , Produtos Biológicos/farmacocinética , Ácidos Cumáricos , Flavonas , Flavonóis , Humanos , Absorção Intestinal , Isoflavonas , Permeabilidade , Polifenóis/química , Polifenóis/classificação , Polifenóis/farmacocinética , Solubilidade , Estilbenos , Taninos
2.
Molecules ; 26(10)2021 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34065743

RESUMO

Dietary plant polyphenols are natural bioactive compounds that are increasingly attracting the attention of food scientists and nutritionists because of their nutraceutical properties. In fact, many studies have shown that polyphenol-rich diets have protective effects against most chronic diseases. However, these health benefits are strongly related to both polyphenol content and bioavailability, which in turn depend on their origin, food matrix, processing, digestion, and cellular metabolism. Although most fruits and vegetables are valuable sources of polyphenols, they are not usually consumed raw. Instead, they go through some processing steps, either industrially or domestically (e.g., cooling, heating, drying, fermentation, etc.), that affect their content, bioaccessibility, and bioavailability. This review summarizes the status of knowledge on the possible (positive or negative) effects of commonly used food-processing techniques on phenolic compound content and bioavailability in fruits and vegetables. These effects depend on the plant type and applied processing parameters (type, duration, media, and intensity). This review attempts to shed light on the importance of more comprehensive dietary guidelines that consider the recommendations of processing parameters to take full advantage of phenolic compounds toward healthier foods.


Assuntos
Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Polifenóis/análise , Polifenóis/farmacocinética , Disponibilidade Biológica , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Política Nutricional , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Extratos Vegetais/farmacocinética
3.
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao ; 41(5): 671-678, 2021 May 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34134953

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the protective effects of betelnut polyphenols on the vital organs against high-altitude hypoxia in rats. OBJECTIVE: We compared low-, medium-, and high- dose betelnut polyphenols (400, 800, and 1600 mg/kg, respectively) and rhodiola the effects of against high-altitude hypoxia in Wistar rats. The rats were kept in normal condition and given the drugs daily for 3 days before transfer to a facility at the altitude of 4010 m, where the rats were kept for 5 consecutive days for hypoxic exposure. The rats were then euthanized for measuring arterial blood gas and assessing liver, lung, brain and cardiac pathologies with HE staining. SOD activity, MDA content and GSH content in the organs were measured, and serum levels of inflammatory factors were detected using a protein microarray. OBJECTIVE: Acute exposure to hypoxia significantly reduced blood oxygen saturation of the rats (P < 0.05), caused damages in the liver, lung, brain and myocardium, lowered SOD activity and GSH content and increased MDA content in the vital organs, and increased serum levels of TIMP-1, MCP-1, ICAM-1, and L-selectin (P < 0.05). Treatment with betelnut polyphenols significantly improved blood oxygen saturation, alleviated organ damages, decreased MDA content and increased SOD activity and GSH content in the tissues, and significantly lowered serum levels of inflammatory cytokines in rats with acute exposure to high-altitude hypoxia (P < 0.05). OBJECTIVE: Betelnut polyphenols provides protection of the vital organs against acute high-altitude hypoxia in rats by enhancing the antioxidant capacity and reducing inflammatory response.


Assuntos
Doença da Altitude , Altitude , Doença da Altitude/tratamento farmacológico , Doença da Altitude/prevenção & controle , Animais , Areca , Hipóxia , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Polifenóis/uso terapêutico , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
4.
Food Chem ; 358: 129903, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33933971

RESUMO

Historically, asparagus is a vegetable with abundant phytochemicals (polyphenols, saponins, asparagusic acid, and alkaloids) and crucial bioactivities (neuroprotective, antianxiety, antityrosinase, antioxidant, antibacterial, and antiasthma effects). Numerous investigations indicated that processing technologies have a significant influence on the physicochemical, functional, and microstructural characteristics of asparagus. This review presents an updated overview of novel applications of processing technologies, including ultrasound treatments (in terms of extraction, purification, and preservation), heating treatments (hydrothermal treatments, thermal treatments, and combination heating treatments), high-pressure processing, representative shelf-life extension technologies, and green extraction technologies. These physical technologies enhance the yields of bioactive substances, bioactivities and product quality. In addition, utilizing the novel technologies (ohmic heating, cold plasma, pulsed electric fields, membrane processing) and conventional technologies with novel effects to fully develop the potential of asparagus should also be taken into consideration in the future.


Assuntos
Asparagus (Planta)/química , Armazenamento de Alimentos/métodos , Indústria de Processamento de Alimentos/métodos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Alcaloides/química , Alcaloides/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Embalagem de Alimentos/instrumentação , Embalagem de Alimentos/métodos , Calefação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Gases em Plasma , Polifenóis/química , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Saponinas/química , Saponinas/farmacologia , Ultrassom/métodos
5.
Food Chem ; 359: 129871, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34023728

RESUMO

There has been keen interest in developing biodegradable food packaging materials using polysaccharides. Plant polyphenols are natural antioxidants with many health effects. Different types of plant extracts rich in polyphenols have been formulated into polysaccharide based films and coatings for food packaging. The packaging increases the shelf life of food products by decreasing the quality loss due to oxidation and microbiological growth. The release of polyphenols from the films is modulated. Polysaccharide films incorporated with certain types of polyphenols can be used to indicate the freshness of animal based products. To formulate films with desirable mechanical and barrier properties, addition levels and types of plant extracts, plasticisers and composite polysaccharide materials used should be optimized. The potential of polysaccharide based films with added polyphenols to stop the SARS-CoV-2 transmission through food supply chain is discussed. Polysaccharide based films fortified with polyphenol extracts are multifunctional with potential for active and intelligent packaging.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Embalagem de Alimentos , Polifenóis/química , Polissacarídeos/química , Oxirredução , Extratos Vegetais/química
6.
Food Funct ; 12(9): 4117-4131, 2021 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33977940

RESUMO

The hypoglycemic effects and potential mechanism of sweet potato leaf polyphenols (SPLP) on type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) were investigated. Results showed that oral administration of SPLP to mice could alleviate body weight loss, decrease fasting blood glucose levels (by 64.78%) and improve oral glucose tolerance compared with those of untreated diabetic mice. Furthermore, increased fasting serum insulin levels (by 100.11%), ameliorated insulin resistance and improved hepatic glycogen (by 126.78%) and muscle glycogen (increased by 135.85%) were observed in the SPLP treatment group. SPLP also could reverse dyslipidemia, as indicated by decreased total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol and promoted high density lipoprotein-cholesterol. Histopathological analysis revealed that SPLP could relieve liver inflammation and maintain the islet structure to inhibit ß-cell apoptosis. A quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction confirmed that SPLP could up-regulate the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B/glycogen synthase kinase-3ß signaling pathway to improve glucose metabolism and up-regulate the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B/glucose transporter 4 signaling pathway in the skeletal muscle to enhance glucose transport. This study provides useful information to support the application of SPLP as a natural product for the treatment of T2DM.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Hiperglicemia/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Ipomoea batatas/química , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Animais , Glicemia/análise , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/patologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Transportador de Glucose Tipo 4/metabolismo , Glicogênio/metabolismo , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/metabolismo , Insulina/sangue , Ilhotas Pancreáticas/patologia , Lipídeos/sangue , Fígado/patologia , Glicogênio Hepático/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Pâncreas/patologia , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinase/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/química , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
7.
Food Funct ; 12(9): 4152-4164, 2021 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33977942

RESUMO

The human gut is a highly diverse microbial ecosystem. Although showing a well-defined core of dominant taxa, an interindividual variability exists in microbiome arrangement patterns, and the presence and proportion of specific species, determining individual metabolic features-metabotypes-which govern the health effects of dietary interventions (i.e. polyphenol consumption). Starting with a 19-volunteer human intervention study, divided into low, medium, and high wine-polyphenol-metabolizers, we detected interindividual discrepancies on the effect of wine consumption in gut bacterial alpha-diversity, but a significant homogenization of beta-diversity among moderate wine consumers, independently of their metabotype. In addition, the abundance of key health-related taxa such as Akkermansia sp. increased after moderate wine intake in the group of high polyphenol-metabolizers. Regarding the metabolic activity, significant (p < 0.05) positive correlations in the production of SCFAs were observed after wine intake. Finally, we were able to correlate the microbiome and the metabolome of the three metabotypes, and to identify some metabolites-biomarker species, highlighting the genera Phascolarctobacterium, Pelotomaculum and Prevotella, as positively correlated with polyphenol concentration, and Prevotella, Zymophilus and Eubacterium as positively correlated with SCFAs concentration in faeces. Our results contribute to the evidence of the need of including the microbiome variable in personalized nutrition programs, as different metabotyes respond differently to dietary interventions.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Intestinos/fisiologia , Metaboloma , Polifenóis/metabolismo , Vinho , Adulto , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bactérias/metabolismo , Variação Biológica da População , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Intestinos/microbiologia , Masculino , Metabolômica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
8.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(22): 6291-6302, 2021 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34033464

RESUMO

The impact of covalent attachment of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) to lactoferrin (LF) on the structure, morphology, functionality, and allergenicity of the protein was studied. These polyphenol-protein conjugates were formed using various enzymatic (laccase- and tyrosinase-catalyzed oxidation) and nonenzymatic (free radical grafting and alkali treatment) methods. The preparation conditions for forming the enzymatic conjugates were optimized by exploring the influence of order-of-addition effects: protein, polyphenols, and enzymes. The total phenol content of the LF-EGCG conjugates was quantified using the Folin-Ciocalteu method. The nature of the conjugates formed was determined using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy analyses. These studies showed that enzymatic cross-linking was a highly effective means of forming LF-EGCG conjugates. Analysis of these conjugates using various spectroscopic methods showed that conjugation to EGCG changed the molecular structure of LF. Atomic force microscopy showed that the four covalent cross-linking methods affected the size and morphology of these LF-EGCG conjugates formed. The antioxidant activity and emulsifying stability of LF were significantly improved by conjugation to EGCG. Finally, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and a western blot assay indicated that conjugation of EGCG reduced the binding capacity of LF to immunoglobulin E (IgE) and immunoglobulin G (IgG), which is consistent with a decrease in allergenicity. Overall, this study suggests that LF-EGCG conjugates formed using enzymatic or nonenzymatic methods have potential applications as functional ingredients in foods.


Assuntos
Alérgenos , Catequina , Catequina/análogos & derivados , Lactoferrina , Polifenóis
9.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(22): 6119-6144, 2021 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34038102

RESUMO

Today, neurodegenerative diseases have become a remarkable public health challenge due to their direct relation with aging. Accordingly, understanding the molecular and cellular mechanisms occurring in the pathogenesis of them is essential. Both protein aggregations as a result of the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) inefficiency and gut microbiota alternation are the main pathogenic hallmarks. Polyphenols upregulating this system may decrease the developing rate of neurodegenerative diseases. Most of the dietary intake of polyphenols is converted into other microbial metabolites, which have completely different biological properties from the original polyphenols and should be thoroughly investigated. Herein, several prevalent neurodegenerative diseases are pinpointed to explain the role of gut microbiota alternations and the role of molecular changes, especially UPS down-regulation in their pathogenesis. Some of the most important polyphenols found in our diet are explained along with their microbial metabolites in the body.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Doenças Neurodegenerativas , Humanos , Polifenóis , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma , Ubiquitina
10.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl ; 124: 112040, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33947540

RESUMO

To avoid catastrophic bacterial infection in prosthesis failure, ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE), a common bearing material of artificial joints, has been formulated with antibiotics to eliminate bacteria locally at the implant site. However, the pressing issues regarding cytotoxic effects and evolution of drug resistant bacteria necessitates the development of bio-friendly bacteriostat with long bacteriostatic efficacy. Herein, tea polyphenol extracted from nature source was introduced in UHMWPE as a biogenic antimicrobial. Controlled antimicrobial activity was achieved by chemical crosslinking to regulate the release of the tea polyphenol. In addition, the crosslinking efficiency of UHMWPE blends with high loaded tea polyphenol was significantly improved in comparison to radiation crosslinking. The immobilized tea polyphenols also enhanced the oxidation stability of the UHMWPE, which is essential to prolong the service life in vivo and the storage time in vitro. The blends presented good biocompatibility, despite cell repellent on the highly crosslinked surface. Chemically crosslinked tea polyphenol/UHMWPE exhibited feasible properties for total joint implants, which is promising for clinical application.


Assuntos
Artroplastia de Substituição , Polifenóis , Teste de Materiais , Peso Molecular , Polietilenos , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Chá , Tiram
11.
Molecules ; 26(9)2021 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33946249

RESUMO

Food processing generates a large amount of bio-residues, which have become the focus of different studies aimed at valorizing this low-cost source of bioactive compounds. High fruit consumption is associated with beneficial health effects and, therefore, bio-waste and its constituents arouse therapeutic interest. The present work focuses on the main Portuguese fruit crops and revises (i) the chemical constituents of apple, orange, and pear pomace as potential sources of functional/bioactive compounds; (ii) the bioactive evidence and potential therapeutic use of bio-waste generated in the processing of the main Portuguese fruit crops; and (iii) potential applications in the food, nutraceutical, pharmaceutical, and cosmetics industries. The current evidence of the effect of these bio-residues as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial agents is also summarized. Conclusions of the revised data are that these bio-wastes hold great potential to be employed in specific nutritional and pharmaceutical applications.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos/química , Manipulação de Alimentos , Frutas/química , Resíduos , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Cosméticos , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos , Alimento Funcional , Humanos , Hidrólise , Malus , Estrutura Molecular , Pectinas/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Polifenóis/química , Portugal , Pyrus
12.
Molecules ; 26(9)2021 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33946573

RESUMO

The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of Jerusalem artichoke processing methods and drying methods (freeze drying, sublimation drying, vacuum drying) on the basic physicochemical parameters, profiles and contents of sugars and polyphenolic compounds, and health-promoting properties (antioxidant activity, inhibition of the activities of α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and pancreatic lipase) of the produced purée. A total of 25 polyphenolic compounds belonging to hydroxycinnamic phenolic acids (LC-PDA-MS-QTof) were detected in Jerusalem artichoke purée. Their average content in the raw material was at 820 mg/100 g dm (UPLC-PDA-FL) and was 2.7 times higher than in the cooked material. The chemical composition and the health-promoting value of the purées were affected by the drying method, with the most beneficial values of the evaluated parameters obtained upon freeze drying. Vacuum drying could offer an alternative to freeze drying, as both methods ensured relatively comparable values of the assessed parameters.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Químicos , Alimento Funcional/análise , Helianthus/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Produtos Biológicos/química , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Polifenóis/química , Açúcares/química
13.
Molecules ; 26(9)2021 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33946582

RESUMO

Notable parts of the population in Europe suffer from allergies towards apples. To address this health problem, the analysis of the interactions of relevant allergens with other substances such as phenolic compounds is of particular importance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlations between the total phenolic content (TPC), polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity, antioxidant activity (AOA), and the phenolic compound profile and the content of the allergenic protein Mal d 1 in six apple cultivars. It was found that the PPO activity and the content of individual phenolic compounds had an influence on the Mal d 1 content. With regard to the important constituents, flavan-3-ols and phenolic acids, it was found that apples with a higher content of chlorogenic acid and a low content of procyanidin trimers and/or epicatechin had a lower allergenic potential. This is probably based on the reaction of phenolic compounds (when oxidized by the endogenous PPO) with proteins, thus being able to change the conformation of the (allergenic) proteins, which further corresponds to a loss of antibody recognition. When apples were additionally biofortified with selenium, the composition of the apples, with regard to TPC, phenolic profile, AOA, and PPO, was significantly affected. Consequently, this innovative agronomic practice seems to be promising for reducing the allergenic potential of apples.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Plantas/química , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Malus/efeitos adversos , Malus/química , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/farmacologia , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Selênio/química , Antígenos de Plantas/imunologia , Catecol Oxidase/química , Estrutura Molecular , Proteínas de Plantas/imunologia , Polifenóis/análise , Selênio/análise
14.
Bioresour Technol ; 335: 125292, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34029868

RESUMO

A novel genetic algorithm-based feature selection approach is incorporated and based on these features, four different ML methods were investigated. According to the findings, ML models could reliably predict bio-oil yield. The results showed that Random forest (RF) is preferred for bio-oil yield prediction (R2 ~ 0.98) and highly recommended when dealing with the complex correlation between variables and target. Multi-Linear regression model showed relatively poor generalization performance (R2 ~ 0.75). The partial dependence analysis was done for ML models to show the influence of each input variable on the target variable. Lastly, an easy-to-use software package was developed based on the RF model for the prediction of bio-oil yield. The current study offered new insights into the pyrolysis process of biomass and to improve bio-oil yield. It is an attempt to reduce the time-consuming and expensive experimental work for estimating the bio-oil yield of biomass during pyrolysis.


Assuntos
Óleos Vegetais , Pirólise , Biocombustíveis , Biomassa , Temperatura Alta , Aprendizado de Máquina , Polifenóis
15.
Food Chem ; 358: 129812, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33940289

RESUMO

Prunus fruits are recognized to be rich sources of polyphenols with health promoting effect. In this work we evaluated the phenolic profile and bioactivity, namely antioxidant capacity, antiproliferative effect in HT29, and inhibition capacity of α-glucosidase (α-Gls), α-amylase (α-Amy) and human dipeptidyl peptidase III (hDPP III) activities, of traditional Prunus fruits grown in Serbia. Fifteen Prunus samples were investigated and compared: common European plum and three old plum subspecies ('vlaskaca', damson plum and white damson), purple-leaf cherry plum, red and white cherry plum, sweet cherry, sweet cherry-wild type, sour cherry, steppe cherry, mahaleb cherry, blackthorn, peach, and apricot. Principal Component Analysis highlighted steppe cherry and blackthorn as Prunus species with the highest bioactive potential. In silico analysis pointed out rutinoside derivatives of cyanidin and quercetin as the most potent inhibitors of α-Gls, α-Amy and hDPP III enzymes. Quercetin 3-O-rutinoside showed the highest binding energy to α-Gls (-10.6 kcal/mol).


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/análise , Frutas/química , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/farmacologia , Polifenóis/análise , Prunus/química , Antocianinas/análise , Antocianinas/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Simulação por Computador , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos/métodos , Glucosídeos/metabolismo , Glucosídeos/farmacologia , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/química , Células HT29 , Humanos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Fenóis/análise , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Quercetina/análogos & derivados , Quercetina/metabolismo , Quercetina/farmacologia , alfa-Amilases/antagonistas & inibidores
16.
Food Chem ; 358: 129877, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33984656

RESUMO

Rising temperature and solar radiation drive the mobilization and depletion of crown-deposited metabolites harnessed for asparagus spear regeneration during the spring harvest season. We presently examined how successive same-season harvests impact the sensory, nutritive and bioactive composition of select green asparagus genotypes. Soluble carbohydrates were analyzed by HPLC-RI, organic acids and polyphenols by HPLC-DAD and metals by ion chromatography. Higher sugars and lower acids accentuated sweetness and lower polyphenols contributed to reduced astringency at the beginning of the harvest season. This trend was reversed as the season advanced and spear sensory quality was compromised by declining sugars and rising acids; however, functional quality improved as antioxidant capacity increased along with the concentrations of quercetin-3-O-rutinoside (rutin) and ascorbic acid. The compositional changes presently described were uniform across all genotypes examined and thus contribute toward our understanding of seasonal variation in the sensory and functional quality of this acclaimed health-promoting product.


Assuntos
Asparagus (Planta)/metabolismo , Metaboloma , Agricultura/métodos , Antioxidantes/análise , Ácido Ascórbico/análise , Asparagus (Planta)/química , Asparagus (Planta)/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Carboidratos/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Chipre , Glucosídeos/análise , Minerais/análise , Proteínas de Plantas/análise , Polifenóis/análise , Quercetina/análogos & derivados , Quercetina/análise , Metabolismo Secundário , Paladar
17.
Waste Manag ; 128: 200-210, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34000690

RESUMO

This paper proposed to use ferric oxide (Fe2O3) and ferroferric oxide (Fe3O4) as catalysts with both microwave absorption and catalytic properties. Carbon dioxide (CO2) was introduced as the reaction atmosphere to further improve the quality of biofuel produced by microwave pyrolysis of food waste (FW). The results showed the bio-gas yield and the syngas concentration (H2 + CO) increased to 70.34 wt% and 61.50 mol%, respectively, using Fe3O4 as the catalyst. The content of aliphatic hydrocarbons in bio-oil produced with the catalyst Fe2O3 increased to 67.48% and the heating value reached 30.45 MJ/kg. Compared with Fe2O3 catalyst, Fe3O4 exhibited better microwave absorption properties and catalytic properties. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) characterizations confirmed that the crystal surface of Fe3O4 formed more oxygen vacancy defects and unpaired electrons. Additionally, according to the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis, the content of lattice oxygen in Fe3O4 was 14.11%, a value that was much lower than Fe2O3 (38.54%). The oxygen vacancy defects not only improved the efficient utilization of microwave energy but also provided the reactive sites for the reaction between the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and CO2 to generate CO. This paper provides a new perspective for selecting catalysts that have both microwave absorption and catalytic properties during the microwave pyrolysis of biomass.


Assuntos
Pirólise , Eliminação de Resíduos , Biocombustíveis , Biomassa , Catálise , Alimentos , Temperatura Alta , Micro-Ondas , Oxigênio , Óleos Vegetais , Polifenóis
18.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(20): 5628-5637, 2021 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33983017

RESUMO

Fruits of nonastringent persimmon cultivars, as compared to astringent ones, were more resistant to Alternaria infection despite having lower polyphenol content. Metabolic analysis from the pulp of nonastringent "Shinshu", as compared to the astringent "Triumph", revealed a higher concentration of salicylic, coumaric, quinic, 5-o-feruloyl quinic, ferulic acids, ß-glucogallin, gallocatechin, catechin, and procyanidins. Selected compounds like salicylic, ferulic, and ρ-coumaric acids inhibited in vitro Alternaria growth, and higher activity was demonstrated for methyl ferulic and methyl ρ-coumaric acids. These compounds also reduced in vivo Alternaria growth and the black spot disease in stored fruits. On the other hand, methyl gallic acid was a predominant compound in the "Triumph" pulp, as compared to the "Shinshu" pulp, and it augmented Alternaria growth in vitro and in vivo. Our results might explain the high sensitivity of the cultivar "Triumph" to Alternaria. It also emphasizes that specific phenolic compounds, and not the total phenol, affect susceptibility to fungal infection.


Assuntos
Diospyros , Alternaria , Adstringentes , Frutas/química , Polifenóis/análise
19.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 258: 119847, 2021 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33940571

RESUMO

Nondestructive instrumental identification of the green tea quality instead of professional human panel tests is highly desired for industrial application recently. The special flavor is a key quality-trait that influence consumer preference. However, flavonoids, as well as sensory-associated compounds, which play a critical role in the quality-traits profile of green tea samples have been poorly investigated. In this study, we were proposing an objective and accurate near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) profile to support quality control within the entire green tea sensory evaluation chain, the complexity of green tea samples' sensory analysis was performed by two complementary methods: the standard calculation and the novel NIRS roadmap coupled with chemometrics. The green tea samples' physical quality, gustatory index, and nutritional index were measured respectively, which taking into consideration the gustatory evaluation of green tea for five commercially representative overall quality ("very bad", "bad", "regular", "good" and "excellent"). Our findings highlight the underexplored role of NIRS in chemical-to-sensory relationships and its widespread importance and utility in green tea quality improvement. Collectively, the comprehensive characterization of sensory-associated attribution allowed the identification of a wide array of spectrometric features, mostly related to moisture, soluble solids (SS), tea polyphenol (TPP), epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), epicatechin (EC) and tea polysaccharide (TPS), which can be used as putative biomarkers to rapidly evaluate the green tea flavor variations related to rank differences. Otherwise, the NIRS' data were split into the calibration (n = 80) and prediction (n = 40) set independently, which showed high correlation coefficient with Rp-values of 0.9024, 0.9020 in physical and total cup quality, respectively. In this research, we demonstrated that NIRS was an easily-generated strategy and able to close the loop to feedback into the process for advanced process control. However, the established models should be improved by more green tea samples from different regions.


Assuntos
Catequina , Chá , Calibragem , Catequina/análise , Flavonoides , Humanos , Polifenóis , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho
20.
Food Funct ; 12(9): 4176-4198, 2021 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33861291

RESUMO

Herein, polyphenols were extracted from Pinus koraiensis bark and characterized. Besides, the in vitro antioxidant activity, inhibition effect on cancer cells and the activity of the immune system were investigated. The results showed that the main component of Pinus koraiensis bark was 3,5,7,3',5'-pentahydroxydihydroflavone. PKB polyphenols demonstrated a high antioxidant activity during in vitro investigation. In vivo immunological function studies on oxidatively injured mice revealed that Pinus koraiensis bark polyphenols effectively improved the survival status of irradiated mice. PKBP also increased the spleen and thymus index of mouse immunoregulatory organs. The results indicated that the phagocytic ability of mononuclear macrophages was increased. Comparing the cell distribution of the PKBP administered group and the model group, the PKBP-administered group reduced the cells arrested in the G1 phase, while the number of cells increased in the S and G2 phases. PKBP effectively protected the mouse immune system and reduced the immune suppression caused by radiation. These findings also confirmed that oxidative damaged cells induced by radiation could be repaired. PKBP had the highest inhibitory activity on colon cancer cells HT29, breast cancer cells MFC-7, gastric cancer cells BGC-823 and cervical cancer HeLa and HT29 cancer cells. PKB polyphenols could effectively induce the production of DNA-Ladder fragments and cause DNA damage in cancer cells. PKBP also blocked the cycle of cancer cells in the G2 phase, stopped cell division and induced cancer cell apoptosis. Analysis of cell apoptosis by Annexin V-FTIC/PI double staining indicated that PKBP inhibited HT29 cancer cell proliferation.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Neoplasias/patologia , Pinus/química , Polifenóis/química , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Contagem de Células Sanguíneas , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclo Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Forma Celular , Sobrevivência Celular , Feminino , Sequestradores de Radicais Livres/farmacologia , Radicais Livres , Humanos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Estrutura Molecular , Oxirredução , Estresse Oxidativo/imunologia , Fagocitose , Casca de Planta/química , Polifenóis/isolamento & purificação , Baço/citologia
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