Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 3.574
Filtrar
1.
Microbiome ; 9(1): 184, 2021 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34493333

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alteration of the gut microbiota may contribute to the development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a major bioactive constituent of green tea, is known to be beneficial in IBD alleviation. However, it is unclear whether the gut microbiota exerts an effect when EGCG attenuates IBD. RESULTS: We first explored the effect of oral or rectal EGCG delivery on the DSS-induced murine colitis. Our results revealed that anti-inflammatory effect and colonic barrier integrity were enhanced by oral, but not rectal, EGCG. We observed a distinct EGCG-mediated alteration in the gut microbiome by increasing Akkermansia abundance and butyrate production. Next, we demonstrated that the EGCG pre-supplementation induced similar beneficial outcomes to oral EGCG administration. Prophylactic EGCG attenuated colitis and significantly enriched short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs)-producing bacteria such as Akkermansia and SCFAs production in DSS-induced mice. To validate these discoveries, we performed fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) and sterile fecal filtrate (SFF) to inoculate DSS-treated mice. Microbiota from EGCG-dosed mice alleviated the colitis over microbiota from control mice and SFF shown by superiorly anti-inflammatory effect and colonic barrier integrity, and also enriched bacteria such as Akkermansia and SCFAs. Collectively, the attenuation of colitis by oral EGCG suggests an intimate involvement of SCFAs-producing bacteria Akkermansia, and SCFAs, which was further demonstrated by prophylaxis and FMT. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides the first data indicating that oral EGCG ameliorated the colonic inflammation in a gut microbiota-dependent manner. Our findings provide novel insights into EGCG-mediated remission of IBD and EGCG as a potential modulator for gut microbiota to prevent and treat IBD. Video Abstract.


Assuntos
Colite , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Animais , Colite/induzido quimicamente , Colite/tratamento farmacológico , Sulfato de Dextrana , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Homeostase , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Chá
2.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361562

RESUMO

Fruit used in the common human diet in general, and kiwifruit and persimmon particularly, displays health properties in the prevention of heart disease. This study describes a combination of bioactivity, multivariate data analyses and fluorescence measurements for the differentiating of kiwifruit and persimmon, their quenching and antioxidant properties. The metabolic differences are shown, as well in the results of bioactivities and antioxidant capacities determined by ABTS, FRAP, CUPRAC and DPPH assays. To complement the bioactivity of these fruits, the quenching properties between extracted polyphenols and human serum proteins were determined by 3D-fluorescence spectroscopy studies. These properties of the extracted polyphenols in interaction with the main serum proteins in the human metabolism (human serum albumin (HSA), α-ß-globulin (α-ß G) and fibrinogen (Fgn)), showed that kiwifruit was more reactive than persimmon. There was a direct correlation between the quenching properties of the polyphenols of the investigated fruits with serum human proteins, their relative quantification and bioactivity. The results of metabolites and fluorescence quenching show that these fruits possess multiple properties that have a great potential to be used in industry with emphasis on the formulation of functional foods and in the pharmaceutical industry. Based on the quenching properties of human serum proteins with polyphenols and recent reports in vivo on human studies, we hypothesize that HSA, α-ß G and Fgn will be predictors of coronary artery disease (CAD).


Assuntos
Actinidia/química , Antioxidantes/química , Diospyros/química , Frutas/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Polifenóis/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Humanos , Polifenóis/farmacologia
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445416

RESUMO

The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potentials of polyphenols contained in Gynura procumbens (GP) extract were systematically analyzed. Polyphenols in GP were analyzed for nine peaks using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) combined with mass spectrometry (MS), and quantitatively determined through each standard. A total of nine polyphenolic compounds were identified in the samples and their MS data were tabulated. To determine the potential of bioactive ingredients targeting DPPH and COX-2, we analyzed them by ultrafiltration combined with LC. The results identified the major compounds exhibiting binding affinity for DPPH and COX-2. Caffeic acid, kynurenic acid, and chlorogenic acid showed excellent binding affinity to DPPH and COX-2, suggesting that they can be considered as major active compounds. Additionally, the anti-inflammatory effect of GP was confirmed in vitro. This study will not only be used to provide basic data for the application of GP to the food and pharmaceutical industries, but will also provide information on effective screening methods for other medicinal plants.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/análise , Antioxidantes/análise , Asteraceae/química , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Polifenóis/análise , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Compostos de Bifenilo/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Humanos , Ligantes , Lipopolissacarídeos/efeitos adversos , Espectrometria de Massas , Camundongos , Picratos/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/química , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Células RAW 264.7
4.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443390

RESUMO

Since severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is producing a large number of infections and deaths globally, the development of supportive and auxiliary treatments is attracting increasing attention. Here, we evaluated SARS-CoV-2-inactivation activity of the polyphenol-rich tea leaf extract TY-1 containing concentrated theaflavins and other virucidal catechins. The TY-1 was mixed with SARS-CoV-2 solution, and its virucidal activity was evaluated. To evaluate the inhibition activity of TY-1 in SARS-CoV-2 infection, TY-1 was co-added with SARS-CoV-2 into cell culture media. After 1 h of incubation, the cell culture medium was replaced, and the cells were further incubated in the absence of TY-1. The viral titers were then evaluated. To evaluate the impacts of TY-1 on viral proteins and genome, TY-1-treated SARS-CoV-2 structural proteins and viral RNA were analyzed using western blotting and real-time RT-PCR, respectively. TY-1 showed time- and concentration-dependent virucidal activity. TY-1 inhibited SARS-CoV-2 infection of cells. The results of western blotting and real-time RT-PCR suggested that TY-1 induced structural change in the S2 subunit of the S protein and viral genome destruction, respectively. Our findings provided basic insights in vitro into the possible value of TY-1 as a virucidal agent, which could enhance the current SARS-CoV-2 control measures.


Assuntos
COVID-19/virologia , Polifenóis/farmacologia , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Chá/química , Animais , Antivirais/metabolismo , Antivirais/farmacologia , Biflavonoides/química , Biflavonoides/farmacologia , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/metabolismo , Camellia sinensis/metabolismo , Catequina/química , Catequina/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular , Chlorocebus aethiops , Genoma Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Polifenóis/isolamento & purificação , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo , Células Vero , Carga Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445697

RESUMO

Polyphenols, such as flavonoids and phenolic acids, are a group of specialized metabolites in plants that largely aid in plant defense by deterring biotic stressors and alleviating abiotic stress. Polyphenols offer a wide range of medical applications, acting as preventative and active treatments for diseases such as cancers and diabetes. Recently, researchers have proposed that polyphenols may contribute to certain applications aimed at tackling challenges related to the COVID-19 pandemic. Understanding the beneficial impacts of phytochemicals, such as polyphenols, could potentially help prepare society for future pandemics. Thus far, most reviews have focused on polyphenols in cancer prevention and treatment. This review aims to provide a comprehensive discussion on the critical roles that polyphenols play in both plant chemical defense and human health based on the most recent studies while highlighting prospective avenues for future research, as well as the implications for phytochemical-based applications in both agricultural and medical fields.


Assuntos
Plantas/metabolismo , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Polifenóis/uso terapêutico , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antivirais/farmacologia , Disponibilidade Biológica , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Flavonoides/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Hidroxibenzoatos/farmacologia , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos Fitoquímicos , Plantas/química , Polifenóis/metabolismo , Estudos Prospectivos , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos
6.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371986

RESUMO

Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death and disability in the Western world. In order to safeguard the structure and the functionality of the myocardium, it is extremely important to adequately support the cardiomyocytes. Two cellular organelles of cardiomyocytes are essential for cell survival and to ensure proper functioning of the myocardium: mitochondria and the sarcoplasmic reticulum. Mitochondria are responsible for the energy metabolism of the myocardium, and regulate the processes that can lead to cell death. The sarcoplasmic reticulum preserves the physiological concentration of the calcium ion, and triggers processes to protect the structural and functional integrity of the proteins. The alterations of these organelles can damage myocardial functioning. A proper nutritional balance regarding the intake of macronutrients and micronutrients leads to a significant improvement in the symptoms and consequences of heart disease. In particular, the Mediterranean diet, characterized by a high consumption of plant-based foods, small quantities of red meat, and high quantities of olive oil, reduces and improves the pathological condition of patients with heart failure. In addition, nutritional support and nutraceutical supplementation in patients who develop heart failure can contribute to the protection of the failing myocardium. Since polyphenols have numerous beneficial properties, including anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, this review gathers what is known about the beneficial effects of polyphenol-rich bergamot fruit on the cardiovascular system. In particular, the role of bergamot polyphenols in mitochondrial and sarcoplasmic dysfunctions in diabetic cardiomyopathy is reported.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatias Diabéticas/fisiopatologia , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Retículo Sarcoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Suplementos Nutricionais , Humanos , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Azeite de Oliva/farmacologia
7.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444919

RESUMO

Flaxseed is an oilseed (45-50% oil on a dry-weight basis) crop. Its oil has demonstrated multiple health benefits and industrial applications. The goal of this research was to evaluate the antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory potential of the free polyphenol fraction of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) seeds (PLU), based on their use in traditional medicine. Mice with alloxan-induced diabetes were used to study the antidiabetic activity of PLU in vivo, with an oral administration of 25 and 50 mg/kg over 28 days. Measurements of body weight and fasting blood glucose (FBG) were carried out weekly, and biochemical parameters were evaluated. An oral glucose tolerance test was also performed. Inhibitory activities of PLU on α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities were evaluated in vitro. The anti-inflammatory was evaluated in vivo in Wistar rats using the paw edema induction Test by carrageenan, and in vitro using the hemolysis ratio test. PLU administration to diabetic mice during the study period improved their body weight and FBG levels remarkably. In vitro inhibitory activity of digestive enzymes indicated that they may be involved in the proposed mode of action of PLU extract. Qualitative results of PLU revealed the presence of 18 polyphenols. These findings support daily consumption of flaxseed for people with diabetes, and suggest that polyphenols in flaxseed may serve as dietary supplements or novel phytomedicines to treat diabetes and its complications.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/terapia , Linho/química , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Sementes/química , Animais , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/induzido quimicamente , Suplementos Nutricionais , Humanos , Camundongos , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
8.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443561

RESUMO

Currently, radiotherapy is one of the most effective strategies to treat cancer. However, deleterious toxicity against normal cells indicate for the need to selectively protect them. Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species reinforce ionizing radiation cytotoxicity, and compounds able to scavenge these species or enhance antioxidant enzymes (e.g., superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase) should be properly investigated. Antioxidant plant-derived compounds, such as phenols and polyphenols, could represent a valuable alternative to synthetic compounds to be used as radio-protective agents. In fact, their dose-dependent antioxidant/pro-oxidant efficacy could provide a high degree of protection to normal tissues, with little or no protection to tumor cells. The present review provides an update of the current scientific knowledge of polyphenols in pure forms or in plant extracts with good evidence concerning their possible radiomodulating action. Indeed, with few exceptions, to date, the fragmentary data available mostly derive from in vitro studies, which do not find comfort in preclinical and/or clinical studies. On the contrary, when preclinical studies are reported, especially regarding the bioactivity of a plant extract, its chemical composition is not taken into account, avoiding any standardization and compromising data reproducibility.


Assuntos
Polifenóis/farmacologia , Protetores contra Radiação/farmacologia , Animais , Humanos , Polifenóis/química , Protetores contra Radiação/química
9.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371836

RESUMO

Cardiometabolic disorders are among the leading causes of mortality in the human population. Dietary polyphenols exert beneficial effects on cardiometabolic health in humans. Molecular mechanisms, however, are not completely understood. Aiming to conduct in-depth integrative bioinformatic analyses to elucidate molecular mechanisms underlying the protective effects of polyphenols on cardiometabolic health, we first conducted a systematic literature search to identify human intervention studies with polyphenols that demonstrate improvement of cardiometabolic risk factors in parallel with significant nutrigenomic effects. Applying the predefined inclusion criteria, we identified 58 differentially expressed genes at mRNA level and 5 miRNAs, analyzed in peripheral blood cells with RT-PCR methods. Subsequent integrative bioinformatic analyses demonstrated that polyphenols modulate genes that are mainly involved in the processes such as inflammation, lipid metabolism, and endothelial function. We also identified 37 transcription factors that are involved in the regulation of polyphenol modulated genes, including RELA/NFKB1, STAT1, JUN, or SIRT1. Integrative bioinformatic analysis of mRNA and miRNA-target pathways demonstrated several common enriched pathways that include MAPK signaling pathway, TNF signaling pathway, PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, focal adhesion, or PPAR signaling pathway. These bioinformatic analyses represent a valuable source of information for the identification of molecular mechanisms underlying the beneficial health effects of polyphenols and potential target genes for future nutrigenetic studies.


Assuntos
Síndrome Metabólica/prevenção & controle , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição/genética , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Adulto , Fatores de Risco Cardiometabólico , Biologia Computacional , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/genética , MicroRNAs/sangue , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nutrigenômica , RNA Mensageiro/sangue , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Transdução de Sinais/genética
10.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443483

RESUMO

Skeletal muscle atrophy is the decrease in muscle mass and strength caused by reduced protein synthesis/accelerated protein degradation. Various conditions, such as denervation, disuse, aging, chronic diseases, heart disease, obstructive lung disease, diabetes, renal failure, AIDS, sepsis, cancer, and steroidal medications, can cause muscle atrophy. Mechanistically, inflammation, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial dysfunction are among the major contributors to muscle atrophy, by modulating signaling pathways that regulate muscle homeostasis. To prevent muscle catabolism and enhance muscle anabolism, several natural and synthetic compounds have been investigated. Recently, polyphenols (i.e., natural phytochemicals) have received extensive attention regarding their effect on muscle atrophy because of their potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Numerous in vitro and in vivo studies have reported polyphenols as strongly effective bioactive molecules that attenuate muscle atrophy and enhance muscle health. This review describes polyphenols as promising bioactive molecules that impede muscle atrophy induced by various proatrophic factors. The effects of each class/subclass of polyphenolic compounds regarding protection against the muscle disorders induced by various pathological/physiological factors are summarized in tabular form and discussed. Although considerable variations in antiatrophic potencies and mechanisms were observed among structurally diverse polyphenolic compounds, they are vital factors to be considered in muscle atrophy prevention strategies.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Atrofia Muscular/tratamento farmacológico , Atrofia Muscular/metabolismo , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/efeitos adversos , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/efeitos adversos , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/efeitos adversos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Polifenóis/efeitos adversos , Polifenóis/química , Polifenóis/uso terapêutico , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360703

RESUMO

5-Lipoxygenase (5-LOX) plays a key role in inflammation through the biosynthesis of leukotrienes and other lipid mediators. Current evidence suggests that dietary (poly)phenols exert a beneficial impact on human health through anti-inflammatory activities. Their mechanisms of action have mostly been associated with the modulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1ß), prostaglandins (PGE2), and the interaction with NF-κB and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) pathways. Much less is known about the 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) pathway as a target of dietary (poly)phenols. This systematic review aimed to summarize how dietary (poly)phenols target the 5-LOX pathway in preclinical and human studies. The number of studies identified is low (5, 24, and 127 human, animal, and cellular studies, respectively) compared to the thousands of studies focusing on the COX-2 pathway. Some (poly)phenolics such as caffeic acid, hydroxytyrosol, resveratrol, curcumin, nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA), and quercetin have been reported to reduce the formation of 5-LOX eicosanoids in vitro. However, the in vivo evidence is inconclusive because of the low number of studies and the difficulty of attributing effects to (poly)phenols. Therefore, increasing the number of studies targeting the 5-LOX pathway would largely expand our knowledge on the anti-inflammatory mechanisms of (poly)phenols.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Inflamação , Inibidores de Lipoxigenase/farmacologia , Lipoxigenase/efeitos dos fármacos , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Animais , Humanos , Fenóis/farmacologia
12.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361741

RESUMO

Due to their richness of bioactive substances, rose hips are a valuable raw material for obtaining extracts with potential antimicrobial activity. The aim of the study was to determine the antagonistic potential of whole pseudo-fruit and flesh extracts of three Rosa sp. varieties against Staphylococcus spp. bacteria isolated as food contaminants. The biological material in this study consisted of seven strains of bacteria from the genus Staphylococcus. Two strains-Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Staphylococcus epidermidis DSMZ 3270-were used as reference strains. The other five strains were food-derived isolates-S. epidermidis A5, S. xylosus M5, S. haemolyticus M6, S. capitis KR6, and S. warneri KR2A. The material was the pseudo-fruits of Rosa canina, Rosa pomifera Karpatia, and Rosa rugosa. The polyphenols were extracted from the fleshy part and the whole pseudo-fruit for all rose varieties. The tested preparations differed significantly in their polyphenol composition. The sum of polyphenols ranged from 28 862 to 35 358 mg/100 g of lyophilisate. The main groups of polyphenols found in the preparations were flavanols and ellagitannins. All of the tested extracts inhibited the growth of staphylococci at a concentration of 500 mg/mL. Rosa rugosa fruit extract showed the strongest antimicrobial properties among the studied extracts. For all the strains, the growth inhibition had a diameter of 20.3-29.0 mm. Moreover, six out of the seven tested strains showed the highest inhibition with the use of this extract. The MIC of rose extracts was in the range of 3.125-500 mg/mL and was strictly dependent on the bacterial species, the species of the rose, and the part of the fruit from which the extract was obtained. Correlations were assessed between the main groups of polyphenols in the extracts and their inhibition of bacterial growth. In the case of pseudo-fruit extracts, the inhibitory effect on bacterial growth positively correlated with the content of ellagitannins, and this effect was observed for almost all the tested strains. The results presented herein follow the current trend of minimising the use of chemical preservatives in food; from this point of view, rose extracts are very promising.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/química , Flavonoides/química , Taninos Hidrolisáveis/química , Polifenóis/química , Rosa/química , Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Contaminação de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Microbiologia de Alimentos/métodos , Frutas/química , Humanos , Taninos Hidrolisáveis/isolamento & purificação , Taninos Hidrolisáveis/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Extratos Vegetais/química , Polifenóis/isolamento & purificação , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Staphylococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Staphylococcus capitis/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus capitis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Staphylococcus epidermidis/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus epidermidis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Staphylococcus haemolyticus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus haemolyticus/crescimento & desenvolvimento
13.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361744

RESUMO

Korean red pine (Pinus densiflora) belongs to the Genus Pinus, and its bark contains a great amount of naturally occurring phenolic compounds. Until now, few studies have been conducted to assess the neuroprotective effects of Pinus densiflora bark extract against brain ischemic injury. The aim of this study was to investigate the neuroprotective effects of pre-treatment with the extract in the hippocampus following 5-min transient forebrain ischemia in gerbils. Furthermore, this study examined the anti-inflammatory effect as a neuroprotective mechanism of the extract. Pinus densiflora bark was extracted by pure water (100 °C), and this extract was quantitatively analyzed and contained abundant polyphenols, flavonoids, and proanthocyanidins. The extract (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg) was orally administered once a day for seven days before the ischemia. In the gerbil hippocampus, death of the pyramidal neurons was found in the subfield cornu ammonis 1 (CA1) five days after the ischemia. This death was significantly attenuated by pre-treatment with 100 mg/kg, not 25 or 50 mg/kg, of the extract. The treatment with 100 mg/kg of the extract markedly inhibited the activation of microglia (microgliosis) and significantly decreased the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin 1ß and tumor necrosis factor α). In addition, the treatment significantly increased anti-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin 4 and interleukin 13). Taken together, this study clearly indicates that pre-treatment with 100 mg/kg of Pinus densiflora bark extract in gerbils can exert neuroprotection against brain ischemic injury by the attenuation of neuroinflammatory responses.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Isquemia Encefálica/tratamento farmacológico , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Pinus/química , Prosencéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Isquemia Encefálica/genética , Isquemia Encefálica/metabolismo , Isquemia Encefálica/patologia , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Gerbillinae , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Hipocampo/patologia , Inflamação , Interleucina-13/agonistas , Interleucina-13/genética , Interleucina-13/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/antagonistas & inibidores , Interleucina-1beta/genética , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Interleucina-4/agonistas , Interleucina-4/genética , Interleucina-4/metabolismo , Masculino , Microglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Microglia/metabolismo , Microglia/patologia , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/química , Casca de Planta/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Polifenóis/química , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Proantocianidinas/química , Proantocianidinas/farmacologia , Prosencéfalo/metabolismo , Prosencéfalo/patologia , Células Piramidais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Piramidais/metabolismo , Células Piramidais/patologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/antagonistas & inibidores , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445465

RESUMO

Cordyline terminalis leaf extract (aqCT) possesses abundant polyphenols and other bioactive compounds, which are encapsulated in gelatin-polyethylene glycol-tyramine (GPT)/alpha-cyclodextrin (α-CD) gels to form the additional functional materials for biomedical applications. In this study, the gel compositions are optimized, and the GPT/α-CD ratios equal to or less than one half for solidification are found. The gelation time varies from 40.7 min to 5.0 h depending on the increase in GPT/α-CD ratios and aqCT amount. The aqCT extract disturbs the hydrogen bonding and host-guest inclusion of GPT/α-CD gel networks, postponing the gelation. Scanning electron microscope observation shows that all gels with or without aqCT possess a microarchitecture and porosity. GPT/α-CD/aqCT gels could release polyphenols from 110 to 350 nmol/mL at the first hour and sustainably from 5.5 to 20.2 nmol/mL for the following hours, which is controlled by feeding the aqCT amount and gel properties. GPT/α-CD/aqCT gels achieved significant antioxidant activity through a 100% scavenging DPPH radical. In addition, all gels are non-cytotoxic with a cell viability more than 85%. Especially, the GPT3.75α-CD10.5aqCT gels with aqCT amount of 3.1-12.5 mg/mL immensely enhanced the cell proliferation of GPT3.75α-CD10.5 gel without extract. These results suggest that the inherent bioactivities of aqCT endowed the resulting GPT/α-CD/aqCT gels with effective antioxidant and high biocompatibility, and natural polyphenols sustainably release a unique platform for a drug delivery system or other biomedical applications.


Assuntos
Cordyline/química , Derme/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Géis/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Células Cultivadas , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Géis/administração & dosagem , Humanos
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445518

RESUMO

From all types of cancer, cervical cancer manages to be in top four most frequent types, with a 6.5% rate of occurrence. The infectious vector that induces the disease, the high-risk Human papillomavirus (HPV), which is a sexually transmitted virus, is capable of transforming the host cell by modulating some of the principal signaling pathways responsible for cell cycle arrest, proliferation, and survival. Fortunately, like other cancer types, cervical cancer can be treated by chirurgical interventions or chemoradiotherapy, but these methods are not exactly the lucky clover of modern medicine because of the adverse effects they have. That is the reason why in the last years the emphasis has been on alternative medicine, more specifically on phytochemicals, as a substantial number of studies showed that diet contributes to cancer prevention and treatment. All these studies are trying to find new chemopreventive agents with less toxicity but high effectiveness both in vitro and in vivo. The aim of this review is to evaluate the literature in order to underline the advantages and disadvantages of polyphenols, a class of dietary compounds, as chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic agents. This review also aims to present polyphenols from different perspectives, starting with mechanisms of action and ending with their toxicity. The bigger picture illustrates that polyphenols have great potential in cervical cancer prevention, with strong effects on gene modulation.


Assuntos
Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Polifenóis/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle , Terapias Complementares , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/genética
16.
Animal ; 15(9): 100333, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371471

RESUMO

The beneficial effects of polyphenol intake such as improved nitrogen retention make them interesting feed supplements for ruminants. In contrast, dietary polyphenols may have adverse effects on the bioavailability of nutrients and palatability of the feed which might impair growth performance. The beneficial and adverse effects might differ between different ruminant species as well as between direct intake and intake of polyphenol metabolites via suckling when supplemented to lactating dams. This study investigated the effects of maternal and direct polyphenol supplementation via grape seed extract in sheep and goats on growth, slaughter performance, meat quality and fatty acid profile. The diet of lactating East Friesian Dairy sheep (n = 11) and Saanen goats (n = 9) and of their lambs (n = 16) and kids (n = 13), respectively, was supplemented either with grape seed extract (dams: 7.4% and offspring: 5.6%, P) or without (C). This resulted in four groups per species, namely maternalC/offspringC, maternalC/offspringP, maternalP/offspringC, and maternalP/offspringP. In lambs but not in goats, maternalP increased average daily gain and improved slaughter performance whereas offspringP had no effect. Maternal and offspring diet did not affect physicochemical meat quality in lambs, but direct intake of grape seed extract increased rancid aroma of burger patties. In goat kids, both maternal and offspring diets slightly affected meat colour. While groups of meat fatty acids (FAs) were not affected by diet in both species, maternalP in lambs as well as maternalP and offspringP in goat kids increased the meat n-6 to n-3 FA ratio compared to the respective control groups. In goat kid but not in lamb meat, direct intake of polyphenols affected the proportions of several rumen biohydrogenation intermediates. In conclusion, grape seed extract can be applied in both the maternal and offspring diets in sheep and goats while maintaining or even improving offspring growth performance and carcass quality. Only few species-specific effects of grape seed extract supplementation were observed, and additive effects were scarce. Larger studies are required to confirm the observed species-specific growth response to maternalP during lactation. The underlying reasons for this differential response need to be further evaluated.


Assuntos
Cabras , Polifenóis , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Ácidos Graxos , Feminino , Lactação , Carne/análise , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Ovinos , Carneiro Doméstico
17.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443417

RESUMO

Sambucus nigra flowers (elderflower) have been widely used in traditional medicine for the relief of early symptoms of common cold. Its chemical composition mainly consists of polyphenolic compounds such as flavonoids, hydroxycinnamic acids, and triterpenes. Although the antioxidant properties of polyphenols are well known, the aim of this study is to assess the antioxidant and protective potentials of Sambucus nigra flowers in the human neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) cell line using different in vitro approaches. The antioxidant capacity is first evaluated by the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and the free radical scavenging activity (DPPH) methods. Cell viability is assessed by the crystal violet method; furthermore, the intracellular ROS formation (DCFH-DA method) is determined, together with the effect on the cell antioxidant defenses: reduced glutathione (GSH) and antioxidant enzyme activities (GPx, GR). On the other hand, mTORC1 hyperactivation and autophagy blockage have been associated with an increase in the formation of protein aggregates, this promoting the transference and expansion of neurodegenerative diseases. Then, the ability of Sambucus nigra flowers in the regulation of mTORC1 signaling activity and the reduction in oxidative stress through the activation of autophagy/mitophagy flux is also examined. In this regard, search for different molecules with a potential inhibitory effect on mTORC1 activation could have multiple positive effects either in the molecular pathogenic events and/or in the progression of several diseases including neurodegenerative ones.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Degeneração Neural/tratamento farmacológico , Sambucus nigra/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos de Bifenilo/química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Flores/química , Glutationa/metabolismo , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Glutationa Redutase/metabolismo , Humanos , Alvo Mecanístico do Complexo 1 de Rapamicina/metabolismo , Degeneração Neural/patologia , Picratos/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
18.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443462

RESUMO

Ajuga bracteosa Wall. ex Benth. is an endangered medicinal herb traditionally used against different ailments. The present study aimed to create new insight into the fundamental mechanisms of genetic transformation and the biological activities of this plant. We transformed the A. bracteosa plant with rol genes of Agrobacterium rhizogenes and raised the regenerants from the hairy roots. These transgenic regenerants were screened for in vitro antioxidant activities, a range of in vivo assays, elemental analysis, polyphenol content, and different phytochemicals found through HPLC. Among 18 polyphenolic standards, kaempferol was most abundant in all transgenic lines. Furthermore, transgenic line 3 (ABRL3) showed maximum phenolics and flavonoids content among all tested plant extracts. ABRL3 also demonstrated the highest total antioxidant capacity (8.16 ± 1 µg AAE/mg), total reducing power, (6.60 ± 1.17 µg AAE/mg), DPPH activity (IC50 = 59.5 ± 0.8 µg/mL), hydroxyl ion scavenging (IC50 = 122.5 ± 0.90 µg/mL), and iron-chelating power (IC50 = 154.8 ± 2 µg/mL). Moreover, transformed plant extracts produced significant analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anticoagulant, and antidepressant activities in BALB/c mice models. In conclusion, transgenic regenerants of A. bracteosa pose better antioxidant and pharmacological properties under the effect of rol genes as compared to wild-type plants.


Assuntos
Ajuga/química , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Regeneração , Analgésicos/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Anticoagulantes/farmacologia , Antidepressivos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/análise , Bioensaio , Compostos de Bifenilo/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Elementos Químicos , Flavonoides/análise , Sequestradores de Radicais Livres/química , Hidróxidos/química , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Quelantes de Ferro/farmacologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Fenóis/análise , Picratos/química , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Regeneração/efeitos dos fármacos
19.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361774

RESUMO

Polyphenols play a therapeutic role in vascular diseases, acting in inherent illness-associate conditions such as inflammation, diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and oxidative stress, as demonstrated by clinical trials and epidemiological surveys. The main polyphenol cardioprotective mechanisms rely on increased nitric oxide, decreased asymmetric dimethylarginine levels, upregulation of genes encoding antioxidant enzymes via the Nrf2-ARE pathway and anti-inflammatory action through the redox-sensitive transcription factor NF-κB and PPAR-γ receptor. However, poor polyphenol bioavailability and extensive metabolization restrict their applicability. Polyphenols carried by nanoparticles circumvent these limitations providing controlled release and better solubility, chemical protection, and target achievement. Nano-encapsulate polyphenols loaded in food grade polymers and lipids appear to be safe, gaining resistance in the enteric route for intestinal absorption, in which the mucoadhesiveness ensures their increased uptake, achieving high systemic levels in non-metabolized forms. Nano-capsules confer a gradual release to these compounds, as well as longer half-lives and cell and whole organism permanence, reinforcing their effectiveness, as demonstrated in pre-clinical trials, enabling their application as an adjuvant therapy against cardiovascular diseases. Polyphenol entrapment in nanoparticles should be encouraged in nutraceutical manufacturing for the fortification of foods and beverages. This study discusses pre-clinical trials evaluating how nano-encapsulate polyphenols following oral administration can aid in cardiovascular performance.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Cardiotônicos/farmacologia , Composição de Medicamentos/métodos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Isquemia Miocárdica/tratamento farmacológico , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Elementos de Resposta Antioxidante , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacocinética , Arginina/análogos & derivados , Arginina/antagonistas & inibidores , Arginina/metabolismo , Cardiotônicos/química , Cardiotônicos/farmacocinética , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus/genética , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus/fisiopatologia , Portadores de Fármacos , Dislipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , Dislipidemias/genética , Dislipidemias/metabolismo , Dislipidemias/fisiopatologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Hipertensão/genética , Hipertensão/metabolismo , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Isquemia Miocárdica/genética , Isquemia Miocárdica/metabolismo , Isquemia Miocárdica/fisiopatologia , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Nanocápsulas/administração & dosagem , Nanocápsulas/química , Óxido Nítrico/antagonistas & inibidores , Óxido Nítrico/biossíntese , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Polifenóis/química , Polifenóis/farmacocinética , Transdução de Sinais
20.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444715

RESUMO

The traditional Mediterranean Diet constitutes a food model that refers to the dietary patterns of the population living in countries bordering the Mediterranean Sea in the early 1960s. A huge volume of literature data suggests that the Mediterranean-style diet provides several dietary compounds that have been reported to exert beneficial biological effects against a wide spectrum of chronic illnesses, such as cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases and cancer including breast carcinoma. Among bioactive nutrients identified as protective factors for breast cancer, natural polyphenols, retinoids, and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been reported to possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory and antitumoral properties. The multiple anticancer mechanisms involved include the modulation of molecular events and signaling pathways associated with cell survival, proliferation, differentiation, migration, angiogenesis, antioxidant enzymes and immune responses. This review summarizes the anticancer action of some polyphenols, like resveratrol and epigallocatechin 3-gallate, retinoids and omega-3 PUFAs by highlighting the important hallmarks of cancer in terms of (i) cell cycle growth arrest, (ii) apoptosis, (iii) inflammation and (iv) angiogenesis. The data collected from in vitro and in vivo studies strongly indicate that these natural compounds could be the prospective candidates for the future anticancer therapeutics in breast cancer disease.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Neoplasias da Mama/dietoterapia , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Dieta Mediterrânea , Suplementos Nutricionais , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Catequina/análogos & derivados , Catequina/farmacologia , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Resveratrol/farmacologia , Retinoides/farmacologia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...