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1.
J Chromatogr A ; 1604: 460472, 2019 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31471136

RESUMO

Pomegranate flowers is an ancient medicine that has commonly been used to treat various diseases such as diabetes. However, no reports are available on the metabolic profile of pomegranate flowers in vivo. In the present study, with the aid of HPLC-Q-TOF-MS2, 67 compounds were identified in pomegranate flowers extract, including 18 ellagitannins, 14 gallic acid and galloyl derivatives, five anthocyanins and 18 flavonoids. Seven compounds were firstly identified. In vivo, 22 absorbed compounds and 35 metabolites were identified in rat biosamples (urine, feces, plasma and tissues) after orally administered with pomegranate flowers extract. This result showed that not all compounds abundant in pomegranate flowers extract could be absorbed well in plasma and tissues. This finding also suggested a potential correlation between study on metabolic profile of these compounds in vivo and study on strategy of screening bioactivity of the isolates with in vitro cell systems evaluation. Notably, mono-glucuronide conjugated metabolite of ellagitannin compound (corilagin) was firstly identified. In addition, this is first report to identify phase II conjugate metabolites of ellagitannins in vivo after oral administration of ellagitannins-rich extracts (or foods). Thus, characterizing its multiple constitution, absorption and metabolic fate of these compounds in vivo is helpful to better analyze the active components in pomegranate flowers.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Flores/química , Lythraceae/química , Espectrometria de Massas , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Polifenóis/análise , Animais , Masculino , Polifenóis/sangue , Polifenóis/urina , Ratos
2.
J Sep Sci ; 42(18): 2909-2921, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31293055

RESUMO

A diet rich in polyphenolic compounds has recognized health benefits, and as such is routinely monitored as part of dietary intervention studies. A method for the simultaneous determination of 36 phenolic compounds, including phenolic acids and flavonoids, using liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry is described here. The target analytes were quantified based on their specific mass spectral fragments using a selected reaction monitoring approach. A C18 column with embedded aromatic functionality ensured separation of all phenolic compounds studied which included several pairs of isomers. Sample preparation involved the use of ß-glucuronidase to release the phenolic compounds from their conjugated forms. The intra-day and inter-day precision and accuracy was less than 7% for all phenolic compounds studied. Recoveries, where plasma was spiked with three different concentrations of the analytes, ranged from 95-115%. The limits of detection and quantification were 0.23-3.89 and 1.15-7.79 nM, respectively. The method was successfully applied to real samples and the range reported for each phenolic compound, with the exception of hydroferulic acid, nordihydroguaiaretic acid, methylgallate, and m-coumaric acid, was at least an order of magnitude higher than the limit of quantification for the method.


Assuntos
Polifenóis/sangue , Calibragem , Cromatografia Líquida , Humanos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
3.
Biomed Chromatogr ; 33(7): e4534, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30874318

RESUMO

This study established a rapid and reliable approach using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the simultaneous determination of cinnamic acid, vanillic acid and protocatechuic acid in rat plasma. This is the first report on a comparative pharmacokinetic study of dispensing granules and standard decoction of Cinnamomum cassia twigs in rats. After liquid-liquid extraction by ethyl acetate, the plasma samples were subjected to LC-MS/MS for multiple reaction monitoring. The standard curves showed good linear regression (r2 > 0.9991) in the range of 10.0-16000 ng/mL. The intra- and inter-day accuracy and precision were found to be within 15% of the nominal concentration. The recoveries of the three phenolics ranged from 88.7 to 105.7%. Finally, this approach was successfully applied to pharmacokinetic analysis of the three phenolics after oral administration of standard decoction and dispensing granules of C. cassia twigs in rats. Although the values of AUC0-t of vanillic acid and protocatechuic acid in standard decoction group were larger than those of the dispensing granule group, no significant difference was observed for the two groups. Of note, the elimination rates of vanillic acid were slower in the standard decoction group than the dispensing granule group.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Cinnamomum aromaticum/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Polifenóis/sangue , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Animais , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Limite de Detecção , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Polifenóis/química , Polifenóis/farmacocinética , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
4.
Nutrients ; 11(1)2019 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30641865

RESUMO

Resveratrol is one of the most widely studied polyphenols and it has been assigned a plethora of metabolic effects with potential health benefits. Given its low bioavailability and extensive metabolism, clinical studies using resveratrol have not always replicated in vitro observations. In this review, we discuss human metabolism and biotransformation of resveratrol, and reported molecular mechanisms of action, within the context of metabolic health and obesity. Resveratrol has been described as mimicking caloric restriction, leading to improved exercise performance and insulin sensitivity (increasing energy expenditure), as well as having a body fat-lowering effect by inhibiting adipogenesis, and increasing lipid mobilization in adipose tissue. These multi-organ effects place resveratrol as an anti-obesity bioactive of potential therapeutic use.


Assuntos
Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Resveratrol/metabolismo , Resveratrol/farmacocinética , Adiposidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Metabolismo Energético , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina , Modelos Animais , Polifenóis/sangue , Polifenóis/metabolismo , Polifenóis/farmacocinética , Resveratrol/sangue , Sesquiterpenos/sangue , Sesquiterpenos/metabolismo , Sesquiterpenos/farmacocinética
5.
Eur J Nutr ; 58(5): 1887-1898, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29948216

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess the effect of the intake of a single dose of high-polyphenols cocoa on gene expression in peripheral mononuclear cells (PBMCs), and analyze conjugated (-)-epicatechin metabolites in plasma, which may be related with an antioxidant response in healthy human. METHODS: A randomized, controlled, double-blind, cross-over, clinical trial in healthy young adults who consumed a single dose of high-polyphenols cocoa powder and maltodextrins as control, with a one-week washout period. Analysis of circulating metabolites, plasma antioxidant capacity and gene expression changes in PBMCs were performed under fasting conditions and 2-h after treatment using microarray in a subsample. Pathway analysis was conducted using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA). RESULTS: Twenty healthy participants (9 F) were included in the study. A significant increase in circulating (-)-epicatechin metabolites was found after cocoa intake in all participants without related changes in antioxidant capacity of plasma. The metabolites profile slightly varied across subjects. Treatments triggered different transcriptional changes in PBMC. A group of 98 genes showed changes in expression after cocoa treatment, while only 18 were modified by control. Differentially expressed genes included inflammatory cytokines and other molecules involved in redox balance. Gene and network analysis after cocoa intake converged in functions annotated as decreased production of reactive oxygen species (p = 9.58E-04), decreased leukocyte activation (p = 4E-03) and calcium mobilization (p = 2.51E-05). CONCLUSIONS: No association was found between conjugated metabolites in plasma and antioxidant capacity. Changes in PBMCs gene expression suggest anti-inflammatory effects.


Assuntos
Cacau , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Adulto , Antígenos Glicosídicos Associados a Tumores/sangue , Estudos Cross-Over , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Polifenóis/administração & dosagem , Polifenóis/sangue , Valores de Referência
6.
J Am Soc Mass Spectrom ; 30(3): 381-402, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30506347

RESUMO

In this work, liquid chromatography, coupled with an electrospray ionization hybrid linear ion trap quadrupole/Orbitrap mass spectrometry, has been used to accurately identify polyphenol metabolites in human serum and urine after acute ingestion of a V. myrtillus berry supplement. The supplement was obtained by cryo-milling of bilberries, which were freeze-dried within 1 week after their harvesting, to maintain the berry native composition. Thirty-six derivatives of benzoic acids, hydroxyhippuric acids, cinnamic acids, phenylpropionic acids, phenylvaleric acids, phenylpentenoic acids and abscisic acid, together with two berry-native anthocyanins, one flavonol metabolite and two catechol derivatives were putatively identified in the investigated biofluids. The annotated compounds included 13 metabolites, among glucuronides and sulphates of phenylvaleric and phenylpentenoic acids, which have been identified for the first time in human biofluids after ingestion of V. myrtillus berries. It should be emphasized that the presence of phenylvaleric and phenylpentenoic acid derivatives is in agreement with their origin from fruit native flavanol monomers and oligomers, which are widely distributed in Vaccinium berries, but usually overlooked in metabolomics studies regarding bilberry. The identification of these compounds confirmed the key-role of untargeted metabolomics approach in the discovery of new metabolites which could be biologically active. Graphical Abstract.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Polifenóis/sangue , Polifenóis/urina , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/métodos , Vaccinium myrtillus , Adulto , Suplementos Nutricionais , Frutas , Humanos , Metabolômica/métodos , Polifenóis/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
7.
Biomed Chromatogr ; 33(4): e4470, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30585656

RESUMO

A method based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry has been developed for the rapid and simultaneous determination of five catechins and four theaflavins in rat plasma using ethyl gallate as internal standard. The pharmacokinetic profiles of these compounds were compared after oral administration of five kinds of Da Hong Pao tea to rats. Biosamples processed with a mixture of ß-glucuronidase and sulfatase were extracted with ethyl acetate-isopropanol. Chromatographic separation was achieved by gradient elution using 10 mm HCOONH4 solution and methanol as the mobile phase. Analytes were detected using negative ion electrospray ionization in multiple reaction monitoring mode. The lower limits of quantification were 1.0, 0.74 and 0.5 ng/mL for theaflavins, two catechins and three catechins, respectively. The validation parameters were well within acceptable limits. The average half-lives (t1/2 ) in blood of the reference solution group was much shorter than those of tea samples. The values of AUC0-t and Cmax of the polyphenols and theaflavins exhibited linear pharmacokinetic characteristics which were related to the dose concentration.


Assuntos
Biflavonoides/sangue , Catequina/sangue , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacocinética , Polifenóis/sangue , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Animais , Biflavonoides/química , Biflavonoides/farmacocinética , Catequina/química , Catequina/farmacocinética , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/análise , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Limite de Detecção , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Polifenóis/química , Polifenóis/farmacocinética , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Chá
8.
Nutrients ; 10(11)2018 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30423955

RESUMO

Using a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, parallel group design, this investigation determined if the combination of two weeks of flavonoid supplementation (329 mg/day, quercetin, anthocyanins, flavan-3-ols mixture) and a 45-minute walking bout (62.2 ± 0.9% VO2max (maximal oxygen consumption rate)) enhanced the translocation of gut-derived phenolics into circulation in a group of walkers (n = 77). The walkers (flavonoid, placebo groups) were randomized to either sit or walk briskly on treadmills for 45 min (thus, four groups: placebo⁻sit, placebo⁻walk, flavonoid⁻sit, flavonoid⁻walk). A comparator group of runners (n = 19) ingested a double flavonoid dose for two weeks (658 mg/day) and ran for 2.5 h (69.2 ± 1.2% VO2max). Four blood samples were collected (pre- and post-supplementation, immediately post- and 24 h post-exercise/rest). Of the 76 metabolites detected in this targeted analysis, 15 increased after the 2.5 h run, and when grouped were also elevated post-exercise (versus placebo⁻sit) for the placebo⁻ and flavonoid⁻walking groups (p < 0.05). A secondary analysis showed that pre-study plasma concentrations of gut-derived phenolics in the runners were 40% higher compared to walkers (p = 0.031). These data indicate that acute exercise bouts (brisk walking, intensive running) are linked to an increased translocation of gut-derived phenolics into circulation, an effect that is amplified when combined with a two-week period of increased flavonoid intake or chronic training as a runner.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Polifenóis/sangue , Corrida/fisiologia , Caminhada/fisiologia , Adulto , Método Duplo-Cego , Teste de Esforço , Feminino , Flavonoides/sangue , Flavonoides/farmacocinética , Humanos , Masculino , Consumo de Oxigênio , Fenóis/sangue , Esforço Físico , Plasma
9.
Food Res Int ; 112: 108-128, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30131118

RESUMO

Apples are one of the most commonly consumed fruits and their high polyphenol content is considered one of the most important determinants of their health-promoting activities. Here we studied the nutrikinetics of apple polyphenols by UHPLC-HRMS metabolite fingerprinting, comparing bioavailability when consumed in a natural or a polyphenol-enriched cloudy apple juice. Twelve men and women participated in an acute single blind controlled crossover study in which they consumed 250 mL of cloudy apple juice (CAJ), Crispy Pink apple variety, or 250 mL of the same juice enriched with 750 mg of an apple polyphenol extract (PAJ). Plasma and whole blood were collected at time 0, 1, 2, 3 and 5 h. Urine was collected at time 0 and 0-2, 2-5, 5-8, and 8-24 h after juice consumption. Faecal samples were collected from each individual during the study for 16S rRNA gene profiling. As many as 110 metabolites were significantly elevated following intake of polyphenol enriched cloudy apple juice, with large inter-individual variations. The comparison of the average area under the curve of circulating metabolites in plasma and in urine of volunteers consuming either the CAJ or the PAJ demonstrated a stable metabotype, suggesting that an increase in polyphenol concentration in fruit does not limit their bioavailability upon ingestion. Faecal bacteria were correlated with specific microbial catabolites derived from apple polyphenols. Human metabolism of apple polyphenols is a co-metabolic process between human encoded activities and those of our resident microbiota. Here we have identified specific blood and urine metabolic biomarkers of apple polyphenol intake and identified putative associations with specific genera of faecal bacteria, associations which now need confirmation in specifically designed mechanistic studies.


Assuntos
Bactérias/metabolismo , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais , Frutas , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Malus , Polifenóis/metabolismo , Adulto , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Disponibilidade Biológica , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/urina , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Estudos Cross-Over , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Metabolômica/métodos , Polifenóis/administração & dosagem , Polifenóis/sangue , Polifenóis/urina , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Ribotipagem , Método Simples-Cego , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Adulto Jovem
10.
Nutrients ; 10(7)2018 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30037045

RESUMO

Spices that are rich in polyphenols are metabolized to a convergent group of phenolic/aromatic acids. We conducted a dose-exposure nutrikinetic study to investigate associations between mixed spices intake and plasma concentrations of selected, unconjugated phenolic/aromatic acids. In a randomized crossover study, 17 Chinese males consumed a curry meal containing 0 g, 6 g, and 12 g of mixed spices. Postprandial blood was drawn up to 7 h at regular intervals and plasma phenolic/aromatic acids were quantified via liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Cinnamic acid (CNA, p < 0.0001) and phenylacetic acid (PAA, p < 0.0005) concentrations were significantly increased with mixed spices consumption, although none of the other measured phenolic/aromatic acids differ significantly between treatments. CNA displayed a high dose-exposure association (R² > 0.8, p < 0.0001). The adjusted mean area under the plasma concentration-time curve until 7 h (AUC0⁻7 h) for CNA during the 3 increasing doses were 8.4 ± 3.4, 376.1 ± 104.7 and 875.7 ± 291.9 nM.h respectively. Plasma CNA concentration may be used as a biomarker of spice intake.


Assuntos
Cinamatos/sangue , Dieta , Polifenóis/sangue , Período Pós-Prandial , Especiarias , Adulto , Área Sob a Curva , Biomarcadores/sangue , Capsicum/química , Cromatografia Líquida , Cinnamomum zeylanicum/química , Coriandrum/química , Estudos Cross-Over , Cuminum/química , Curcuma/química , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ingestão de Alimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Fenilacetatos/sangue , Extratos Vegetais/sangue , Plasma/metabolismo , Especiarias/análise , Especiarias/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
11.
Br J Nutr ; 120(3): 353-360, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29860950

RESUMO

Several descriptive studies on the intake of polyphenols, mostly flavonoids, have been published, especially in Europe and the USA, but insufficient data are still available in Latin-American countries, where different types of foods are consumed and different dietary habits are observed. The goal of this cross-sectional study was to estimate dietary intakes of polyphenols, including grand total, total per classes and subclasses and individual compounds, and to identify their main food sources in Mexican women. The Mexican Teachers' Cohort includes 115 315 female teachers, 25 years and older, from twelve states of Mexico, including urban and rural areas. Dietary data were collected in the period 2008-2011 using a validated FFQ, and individual polyphenol intake was estimated using food composition data from the Phenol-Explorer database. Median total polyphenol intake was the highest in Baja California (750 mg/d) and the lowest in Yucatan (536 mg/d). The main polyphenols consumed were phenolic acids (56·3-68·5 % total polyphenols), followed by flavonoids (28·8-40·9 %). Intake of other polyphenol subclasses (stilbenes, lignans and others) was insignificant. Coffee and fruits were the most important food sources of phenolic acids and flavonoids, respectively. Intake of a total of 287 different individual polyphenols could be estimated, of which forty-two were consumed in an amount ≥1 mg/d. The most largely consumed polyphenols were several caffeoylquinic acids (ranging from 20 and 460 mg/d), ferulic acid, hesperidin and proanthocyanidins. This study shows a large heterogeneity in intakes of individual polyphenols among Mexican women, but a moderate heterogeneity across Mexican states. Main food sources were also similar in the different states.


Assuntos
Dieta , Flavonoides/sangue , Alimentos , Polifenóis/sangue , Instituições Acadêmicas , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Flavonoides/química , Humanos , Hidroxibenzoatos/química , Estilo de Vida , México/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação Nutricional , Fenóis/análise , População Rural , Ensino , População Urbana , Adulto Jovem
12.
J Chromatogr A ; 1558: 50-58, 2018 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29759646

RESUMO

Polyphenols constitute one of the most complex classes of phytochemicals in the human diet and have been suggested to play a role in the prevention of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and cancers. However, evidence from epidemiological studies is still needed to better understand their role in disease prevention. To do so, robust methods for the accurate measurement of these molecules in large series of samples are needed. We report here the development of a highly-sensitive method based on differential isotope labelling with 13C- and 12C-dansyl chloride for the analysis of 38 structurally diverse polyphenols in 50 µL plasma by tandem mass spectrometry with limits of quantification varying between 0.11 to 44 nmol/L. Full validation of the method was achieved for 37 compounds out of the 38 tested. The method showed intra- and inter-batch coefficients of variations of 2.3-9.0% and 2.8-20.3% respectively depending on polyphenols when applied to 1163 plasma samples from the European Prospective Investigation on Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. For the first time this method allowed to quantify with high accuracy and reproducibility a large selection of compounds representative of the main classes of dietary polyphenols in low volumes of plasma.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Dieta , Marcação por Isótopo , Polifenóis/sangue , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Compostos de Dansil/química , Humanos , Hidrólise , Cinética , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
13.
Arch Biochem Biophys ; 651: 43-51, 2018 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29802820

RESUMO

Raspberries are a rich source of ellagitannins and anthocyanins. The aim of this work was to investigate whether raspberry consumption can improve vascular function and to understand which phenolic metabolites may be responsible for the effects. A 3 arm double-blind randomized controlled crossover human intervention trial was conducted in 10 healthy males. Flow-mediated dilation (FMD) was measured at baseline, 2 h, and 24 h post-consumption of 200 g and 400 g of red raspberries containing 201 or 403 mg of total (poly)phenols, or a matched control drink. Raspberry (poly)phenol metabolites were analyzed in plasma and urine by UPLC-QTOF mass spectrometry using authentic standards. Significant improvements in FMD were observed at 2 h (1.6% (95%CI 1.2, 1.9) and 1.2% (95% CI 0.8, 1.5)) and 24 h (1.0% (95% CI 0.6, 1.2) and 0.7% (95%CI 0.2, 0.9)) post-consumption of the 200 and 400 g raspberry drinks as compared to control, respectively. Plasma ellagic acid, urolithin A-3-glucuronide and urolithin A-sulfate correlated with the improvements in FMD at 2 and 24 h post consumption, respectively. Consumption of dietary achievable amounts of red raspberries acutely improves endothelial function up to 24 h and ellagitannins may be responsible for the observed effect.


Assuntos
Artérias/fisiologia , Cumarínicos/sangue , Endotélio Vascular/fisiologia , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais , Polifenóis/sangue , Rubus/metabolismo , Adulto , Cumarínicos/análise , Cumarínicos/metabolismo , Método Duplo-Cego , Ácido Elágico/análise , Ácido Elágico/sangue , Ácido Elágico/metabolismo , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Humanos , Masculino , Polifenóis/análise , Polifenóis/metabolismo , Análise de Onda de Pulso , Adulto Jovem
14.
Int J Cancer ; 143(7): 1620-1631, 2018 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29696648

RESUMO

Polyphenols have been shown to exert biological activity in experimental models of colon cancer; however, human data linking specific polyphenols to colon cancer is limited. We assessed the relationship between pre-diagnostic plasma polyphenols and colon cancer risk in a case-control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study. Using high pressure liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry, we measured concentrations of 35 polyphenols in plasma from 809 incident colon cancer cases and 809 matched controls. We used multivariable adjusted conditional logistic regression models that included established colon cancer risk factors. The false discovery rate (qvalues ) was computed to control for multiple comparisons. All statistical tests were two-sided. After false discovery rate correction and in continuous log2 -transformed multivariable models, equol (odds ratio [OR] per log2 -value, 0.86, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 0.79-0.93; qvalue = 0.01) and homovanillic acid (OR per log2 -value, 1.46, 95% CI = 1.16-1.84; qvalue = 0.02) were associated with colon cancer risk. Comparing extreme fifths, equol concentrations were inversely associated with colon cancer risk (OR = 0.61, 95% CI = 0.41-0.91, ptrend = 0.003), while homovanillic acid concentrations were positively associated with colon cancer development (OR = 1.72, 95% CI = 1.17-2.53, ptrend < 0.0001). No heterogeneity for these associations was observed by sex and across other colon cancer risk factors. The remaining polyphenols were not associated with colon cancer risk. Higher equol concentrations were associated with lower risk, and higher homovanillic acid concentrations were associated with greater risk of colon cancer. These findings support a potential role for specific polyphenols in colon tumorigenesis.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Neoplasias do Colo/diagnóstico , Polifenóis/sangue , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias do Colo/sangue , Neoplasias do Colo/etiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
15.
Mol Nutr Food Res ; 62(10): e1701003, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29529352

RESUMO

SCOPE: After intrinsic labeling of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L., Chenopodiaceae) with 13 CO2 , we investigated if labeled polyphenol metabolites were detectable in human plasma. METHODS AND RESULT: In a pilot intervention trial, five healthy men consumed 5 g freeze-dried 13 C labeled spinach, including a total amount of 160 µmol methoxyflavonols, including 70 µmol 5,3',4'-trihydroxy-3-methoxy-6,7-methylendioxyflavone-4'-glucuronide. Plasma samples of all subjects were analyzed with regard to their 13 C/12 C ratio. Additionally, 13 C labeled metabolites of patuletin, spinacetin, and 5,3',4'-trihydroxy-3-methoxy-6,7-methylendioxyflavone (TMM) were analyzed in plasma samples in a subgroup of three subjects. TMM-glucuronide, TMM-sulfate, and spinacetin-glucuronide-sulfate, the latter as 12 C113 C16 and 13 C17 isotopologs, were tentatively identified. Plasma concentration of TMM-glucuronide and TMM-sulfate reached cmax from 19.1-54.3  and 22.5-125.5 nmol L-1 , respectively, 7-9 h post-ingestion. CONCLUSION: It seems likely that 13 C labeled TMM-glucuronide and TMM-sulfate are phase-II metabolites which were converted after colonic transformation. Variations in plasma kinetics were observed for these two metabolites and may be attributed to the individual composition of the microbiota. We conclude that 13 C labeled polyphenol metabolites are detectable and quantifiable in human plasma.


Assuntos
Flavonas/sangue , Glucuronídeos/sangue , Polifenóis/sangue , Spinacia oleracea , Adulto , Isótopos de Carbono/sangue , Humanos , Marcação por Isótopo , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Polifenóis/metabolismo , Polifenóis/farmacocinética , Spinacia oleracea/metabolismo
16.
Arch Biochem Biophys ; 646: 1-9, 2018 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29580945

RESUMO

Grape pomace, the major byproduct of the wine and juice industry, is a relevant source of bioactive phenolic compounds. However, polyphenol bioavailability in humans is not well understood, and the inter-individual variability in the production of phenolic metabolites has not been comprehensively assessed to date. The pharmacokinetic and excretive profiles of phenolic metabolites after the acute administration of a drink made from red grape pomace was here investigated in ten volunteers. A total of 35 and 28 phenolic metabolites were quantified in urine and plasma, respectively. The main circulating metabolites included phenyl-γ-valerolactones, hydroxybenzoic acids, simple phenols, hydroxyphenylpropionic acids, hydroxycinnamates, and (epi)catechin phase II conjugates. A high inter-individual variability was shown both in urine and plasma samples, and different patterns of circulating metabolites were unravelled by applying unsupervised multivariate analysis. Besides the huge variability in the production of microbial metabolites of colonic origin, an important variability was observed due to phase II conjugates. These results are of interest to further understand the potential health benefits of phenolic metabolites on individual basis.


Assuntos
Extratos Vegetais/análise , Extratos Vegetais/farmacocinética , Polifenóis/análise , Polifenóis/farmacocinética , Vitis/química , Adulto , Disponibilidade Biológica , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Humanos , Masculino , Extratos Vegetais/sangue , Extratos Vegetais/urina , Polifenóis/sangue , Polifenóis/urina , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Adulto Jovem
17.
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr ; 27(2): 460-465, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29384336

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Despite the demonstrated protective effects of green tea and coffee intake against several chronic diseases, finding between studies have not been consistent. One potential reason of this discrepancy is the imprecision in the measurement of tea or coffee consumption using food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and food record (FR) in epidemiological studies. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: In a sample of 57 healthy Japanese women, intake of green tea and coffee was estimated by a validated FFQ and a 3-day FR, while their plasma and urine concentrations of polyphenol biomarkers were measured by HPLC. The polyphenols assessed included (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), (-)-epicatechin gallate (ECG), (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC) and (-)- epicatechin (EC), caffeic acid (CA) and chlorogenic acid (CGA). RESULTS: Green tea consumption estimated by FFQ and FR showed moderate association, while strong association was detected for coffee consumption. Urinary green tea polyphenol concentrations were moderately-strongly associated with FR-estimated intake, while the associations were weak with FFQ. Similarly, coffee polyphenols in urine were moderately associated with FR-estimated coffee intake, whereas FFQ showed poor correlation. The associations between urinary and plasma polyphenols ranged from moderate to high. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicated that firstly, the FFQ tends to overestimate green tea intake. Secondly, the urinary polyphenols are preferred over plasma polyphenols as a potential surrogate marker of the short-term green tea and coffee intake, while their use as an indicator of long-term consumption is not reliable.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Café , Polifenóis/sangue , Polifenóis/urina , Autorrelato , Chá , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/urina , Estudos Transversais , Dieta , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
18.
Food Funct ; 9(1): 96-106, 2018 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29318244

RESUMO

Strawberries contain a wide array of nutrients and phytochemicals including polyphenols such as anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins and ellagitannins. These polyphenols are absorbed and metabolized to various phenolic metabolites/conjugates in the body, which may play a role in disease risk reduction. In the present study, we investigated the metabolic fate of strawberry polyphenols after chronic (90 days) supplementation of freeze-dried strawberry (24 g d-1, equivalent to 2 cups of fresh strawberries) vs. control powder in 19 healthy older adults. Blood samples were collected at two time-points i.e., fasting (t = 0 h) and 2 h after the breakfast meal. On days 45 and 90 breakfast also included a control or strawberry drink consistent with their treatment randomization. A total of 21 polyphenolic metabolites were quantified in plasma consisting of 3 anthocyanins/metabolites, 3 urolithin metabolites and 15 phenolic acid metabolites. Among anthocyanins/metabolite, pelargonidin glucuronide (85.7 ± 9.0 nmol L-1, t = 2 h, day 90) was present in the highest concentration. Persistent concentrations of anthocyanins/metabolites, urolithins and some phenolic acids were observed in fasting (t = 0 h) plasma samples on day 45 and 90 after strawberry drink consumption suggesting a role of enteric, enterohepatic recycling or upregulation of gut microbial and/or human metabolism of these compounds. Our results suggest that strawberry polyphenols are absorbed and extensively metabolized, and can persist in the circulation.


Assuntos
Fragaria/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Polifenóis/metabolismo , Idoso , Jejum/sangue , Feminino , Fragaria/química , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Extratos Vegetais/sangue , Polifenóis/sangue
19.
Food Funct ; 9(2): 806-818, 2018 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29344587

RESUMO

Red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) contains a variety of polyphenols including anthocyanins and ellagitannins. Red raspberry polyphenols absorbed in different forms (parent compounds, degradants or microbial metabolites) are subject to xenobiotic metabolism in the intestine, liver, and/or kidney, forming methylate, glucuronide, and sulfate conjugated metabolites. Upon acute exposure, (poly)phenol/metabolite presence in the blood depends mainly on intestinal absorption, enterohepatic circulation, and metabolism by resident microbiota. However, chronic exposure to red raspberry polyphenols may alter metabolite patterns depending on adaptions in the xenobiotic machinery and/or microbiota composition. Understanding the metabolic fate of these compounds and their composition in different biological specimens relative to the exposure time/dose will aid in designing future health benefit studies, including the mechanism of action studies. The present exploratory study applied ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight (QTOF) and triple quadrupole (QQQ) mass spectrometries to characterize red raspberry polyphenols in fruit and then their appearance, including metabolites in human biological samples (plasma, urine and breast milk) after the chronic intake of red raspberries. The results suggested that the most abundant polyphenols in red raspberries included cyanidin 3-O-sophoroside, cyanidin 3-O-glucoside, sanguiin H6 and lambertianin C. Sixty-two (poly)phenolic compounds were tentatively identified in the plasma, urine and breast milk samples after the intake of red raspberries. In general, urine contained the highest content of phenolic metabolites; phase II metabolites, particularly sulfated conjugates, were mainly present in urine and breast milk, and breast milk contained fewer parent anthocyanins compared to urine and plasma.


Assuntos
Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Polifenóis/química , Polifenóis/metabolismo , Rubus/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Humanos , Espectrometria de Massas , Leite Humano/química , Estrutura Molecular , Projetos Piloto , Extratos Vegetais/sangue , Extratos Vegetais/urina , Plasma/química , Polifenóis/sangue , Polifenóis/urina , Rubus/metabolismo
20.
Mol Nutr Food Res ; 61(12)2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28887907

RESUMO

SCOPE: Understanding the metabolic fate of polyphenols from plant foods can aid in developing dietary recommendations that maximize their health benefits. Wild blueberries (WBB) provide a distinctive composition of dietary anthocyanins and chlorogenic acid (CGA). METHODS AND RESULTS: This is a single blind, randomized, two-arm crossover controlled study. Human subjects ingested a WBB beverage (25 g freeze dried WBB powder) or placebo beverage with a meal and plasma was collected over 24 h. Anthocyanins, CGA and their metabolites were characterized and quantified in beverages and in plasma using targeted and non-targeted mass analyses. Bioavailability of WBB anthocyanins and 3-CGA was 1.1 and 0.2%, respectively. Parent anthocyanins and 3-CGA peaked ≈2 h post ingestion, while phase II metabolites, including glucuronide conjugates of peonidin, delphinidin, cyanidin and petunidin peaked ≈ 2.6, 6.3, 7 and 8.8 h, respectively. Phenolic acids (metabolites) peaked between 0.5 and 24 h. Biphasic responses were evident suggesting preferential enterohepatic recycling for some compounds. CONCLUSION: The data indicate bioavailability of early and late phase WBB metabolites peaking at different times during the 24 h period, which may be important for maximizing their biological activity.


Assuntos
Mirtilos Azuis (Planta)/química , Polifenóis/sangue , Polifenóis/farmacocinética , Adulto , Antocianinas/análise , Disponibilidade Biológica , Ácido Clorogênico/análise , Feminino , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Humanos , Hidroxibenzoatos/sangue , Hidroxibenzoatos/farmacocinética , Masculino , Período Pós-Prandial
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