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1.
Croat Med J ; 61(4): 338-345, 2020 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32881432

RESUMO

AIM: To evaluate the association between the FokI (rs2228570), ApaI (rs7975232), Bsml (rs1544410), TaqI (rs 731236), and Cdx2 (rs11568820) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene and spontaneous preterm birth (SPTB), as well as their effect on clinical characteristics of women with SPTB and their newborns. METHODS: This case-control study enrolled women who gave birth at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Medical Center Ljubljana between 2010 to 2019. Cases were 118 women with spontaneous initiation of PTB after natural conception and 119 controls with a term singleton delivery after an uncomplicated pregnancy. The molecular analysis of VDR SNPs employed polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism. RESULTS: Patients and controls did not significantly differ in the distribution of genotype or allele SNP frequencies. However, the FokI polymorphism had a significant effect on newborn birth weight in women with SPTB but not in controls (F=5.17, P=0.007, one-way ANOVA with post-hoc Scheffe test), with newborns of FokI TT carriers having the lowest birth weight (P=0.011). No other VDR SNP was associated with any other clinical characteristic of women with SPTB and their newborns. CONCLUSION: The TT genotype of the VDR FokI polymorphism is associated with newborn birth weight in women of European origin with SPTB.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Nascimento Prematuro/genética , Receptores de Calcitriol/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Idade Gestacional , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
2.
Anticancer Res ; 40(10): 5503-5508, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32988873

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Accumulating evidence shows that caspase-8 (Cas-8) rs3834129 genotypes determine susceptibility to various cancers, but their association with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) has not been examined. We aimed at investigating the association of Cas-8 rs3834129 with NPC risk. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cas-8 rs3834129 genotypes and their associations with NPC risk were investigated among 176 NPC patients and 352 non-cancer subjects by the PCR-RFLP method. Additionally, the interaction of Cas-8 rs3834129 genotypes with smoking was examined. RESULTS: The II, ID and DD frequencies were 56.8, 36.9 and 6.3% among NPC patients and 54.8, 38.1 and 7.1% among control subjects (ptrend=0.8830). Allelic frequency distribution analysis also indicated that the D allele is not a risk factor for NPC (p=0.6183). There was no interaction between Cas-8 rs3834129 and smoking and NPC risk (p=0.8305). CONCLUSION: Cas-8 rs3834129 genotypes play a minor role in the risk for NPC.


Assuntos
Caspase 8/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/genética , Alelos , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/epidemiologia , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/patologia , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Fatores de Risco , Fumar , Taiwan
3.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(8): e0008507, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32841279

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cutaneous leishmaniasis is one of the most neglected tropical diseases increasing in its public health importance. In Ethiopia over 28 million people are living at risk of infection. METHOD: Institution based cross-sectional study was conducted at Borumeda Hospital from February to May 2019. A total 205 leishmaniasis suspected patients were included by systematic random sampling technique. Socio demographic characteristics were collected using pre-tested questionnaires. Parasitological investigation was done from skin slit sample by using Geimsa staining method. Species identification was done by PCR-RFLP. Data were entered in to EpiData version 3.1 and analyzed using SPSS version 20 software. P-value of ≤ 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. RESULT: A total of 205 participants consisting 59% male and 41% female included in this study. The mean age (±SD) of the study participants was 31.9 (±14.29). The overall prevalence of cutaneous leishmaniasis was 22.4% (46/205). The prevalence in males (13.7%) was higher than in females (8.8%). It was more prevalent in the age group 16-45years old (15.6%). Clinically, 60% of patients' hade single lesion with 1.55 average number of lesions. About 30.7% of patients' had indurated plaque type of lesion. Most of the lesions were found on head and face (59%). House near to farmland, presence of hyrax in the village and presence of other cutaneous leishmaniasis cases in the neighborhood were independent predicator of cutaneous leishmaniasis prevalence. L.aethopica was found to be the etiologic agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the study participants. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of cutaneous leishmaniasis was 22.4%, this alerts the need of intervention. It is statistically associated with house near to farm land, presence of other cutaneous leishmaniasis cases in the neighborhood and presence of hyrax in village. Head and face were the most common sites of lesion.


Assuntos
Leishmania/genética , Leishmania/isolamento & purificação , Leishmaniose Cutânea/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Cutânea/parasitologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , DNA de Protozoário/análise , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Leishmaniose Cutânea/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
4.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237180, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32750094

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chagas disease, caused by the intracellular parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, is one of the most important parasitological infections in the Americas. It is estimated to infect approximately 6 million people from mostly low income countries in Latin America, although recent infections have been reported in southern US states. Several studies have described an extensive genetic diversity among T. cruzi isolates throughout its geographic distribution in the American continent. This diversity has been correlated with the pathology developed during an infection. However, due to a lack of a single reliable test, current diagnosis practices of the disease are not straightforward since several different tests are applied. The use of current genomic sequence data allows for the selection of molecular markers (MM) that have the ability to identify the Discrete Typing Unit (DTU) of T. cruzi in a given infection, without the need of any sequencing reaction. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Applying three criteria on the genomic sequencing data of four different phylogenetic lineages of T. cruzi, we designed several molecular tests that can be used for the molecular typing of the parasite. The criteria used were: (1) single-copy orthologs of T. cruzi, (2) T. cruzi unique loci, and (3) T. cruzi polymorphic loci. All criteria combined allowed for the selection of 15 MM, 12 of which were confirmed to be functional and replicable in the laboratory with sylvatic samples. Furthermore, one MM produced distinct polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplicon sizes among distinct T. cruzi DTUs, allowing the use of a AFLP-PCR test to distinguish DTUs I, II/IV, V and VI. Whereas two MM can differentiate DTUs I, II, IV and V/VI out of the six current DTUs with a PCR-RFLP test. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The designed molecular tests provide a practical and inexpensive molecular typing test for the majority of DTUs of T. cruzi, excluding the need to perform any sequencing reaction. This provides the scientific community with an additional specific, quick and inexpensive test that can enhance the understanding of the correlation between the DTU of T. cruzi and the pathology developed during the infection.


Assuntos
Análise do Polimorfismo de Comprimento de Fragmentos Amplificados/métodos , Doença de Chagas/diagnóstico , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição/genética , Trypanosoma cruzi/genética , Doença de Chagas/parasitologia , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Loci Gênicos , Variação Genética , Genoma de Protozoário/genética , Humanos , Tipagem Molecular/métodos , Filogenia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
5.
Ann Hematol ; 99(10): 2279-2288, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32772141

RESUMO

Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a monogenic disease characterized by multisystem morbidity and highly variable clinical course. Inter-individual variability in hemoglobin F (HbF) levels is one of the main modifiers that account for the clinical heterogeneity in SCD. HbF levels are affected by, among other factors, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at the BCL11A gene and the HBS1L-MYB intergenic region and Xmn1 gene. Our aim was to investigate HbF-enhancer haplotypes at these loci to obtain a first overview of the genetic situation of SCD patients in Egypt and its impact on the severity of the disease. The study included 100 SCD patients and 100 matched controls. Genotyping of BCL11A (rs1886868 C/T), HBS1L-MYB (rs9389268 A/G) and Xmn1 γG158 (rs7842144 C/T) SNPs showed no statistically significant difference between SCD patients and controls except for the hetero-mutant genotypes of BCL11A which was significantly higher in SCD patients compared with controls. Baseline HbF levels were significantly higher in those with co-inheritance of polymorphic genotypes of BCL11A + HSB1L-MYB and BCL11A + Xmn1. Steady-state HbF levels, used as an indicator of disease severity, were significantly higher in SCD-Sß patients having the polymorphic genotypes of HSB1L-MYB. Fold change of HbF in both patient groups did not differ between those harboring the wild and the polymorphic genotypes of the studied SNPs. In conclusion, BCL11A, HSB1L, and Xmn1 genetic polymorphisms had no positive impact on baseline HbF levels solely but had if coexisted. Discovery of the molecular mechanisms controlling HbF production could provide a more effective strategy for HbF induction.


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme/genética , DNA Intergênico/genética , Hemoglobina Fetal/análise , Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/genética , Genes myb , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , gama-Globinas/genética , Adolescente , Alelos , Anemia Falciforme/sangue , Anemia Falciforme/etnologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Desoxirribonucleases de Sítio Específico do Tipo II , Egito , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição , Adulto Jovem
6.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(7): e0008448, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32658930

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cryptosporidium is a protozoan parasite that causes mild to severe diarrhoeal disease in humans. To date, several commercial companies have developed rapid immunoassays for the detection of Cryptosporidium infection. However, the challenge is to identify an accurate, simple and rapid diagnostic tool for the estimation of cryptosporidiosis burden. This study aims at evaluating the accuracy of CerTest Crypto, a commercialized rapid diagnostic test (RDT) for the detection of Cryptosporidium antigens in the stool of children presenting with diarrhoea. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in four study sites in Sub-Saharan Africa (Gabon, Ghana, Madagascar, and Tanzania), from May 2017 to April 2018. Stool samples were collected from children under 5 years with diarrhoea or a history of diarrhoea within the last 24 hours. All specimens were processed and analyzed using CerTest Crypto RDT against a composite diagnostic panel involving two polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests (qPCR and RFLP-PCR,) as the gold standard. RESULTS: A total of 596 stool samples were collected. Evaluation of the RDT yielded a very low overall sensitivity of 49.6% (confidence interval (CI) 40.1-59.0), a specificity of 92.5% (CI 89.8-94.7), positive predictive value of 61.3% (CI 50.6-71.2), and negative predictive value of 88.5% (85.3-91.1) when compared to the composite reference standard of qPCR and RFLP-PCR for the detection of Cryptosporidium species. Moreover, the performance of this test varied across different sites. CONCLUSION: The weak performance of the studied RDT suggests the need to carefully evaluate available commercial RDTs before their use as standard tools in clinical trials and community survey of Cryptosporidium infections in pediatric cohorts.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose/diagnóstico , Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , Diarreia/parasitologia , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
7.
Anticancer Res ; 40(7): 3707-3712, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620609

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Oral cancer incidence is highest worldwide in Taiwan, and practical markers for personalized therapeutic strategies such as immunotherapies, is lacking. Interleukin-12 (IL12) is a cytokine that is reported to exhibit potent tumoricidal effects, however, its genotypic contribution to oral cancer is still largely unknown. We aimed to examine whether IL12A rs568408 and rs2243115 genotypes are associated with oral cancer risk in Taiwan. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Genotypic characteristics of IL12A were determined among 958 oral cancer cases and age- and gender-matched individuals via typical polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism methodology. RESULTS: The variant genotypes of IL12A rs568408 and rs2243115 were not found to be significantly associated with elevated oral cancer risk (all p>0.05). Moreover, there was no interaction between IL12A genotypes and personal smoking, alcohol drinking and betel quid chewing behaviors (all p>0.05). CONCLUSION: IL12A rs568408 and rs2243115 genotypes may not serve as good predictors for oral cancer risk.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Subunidade p35 da Interleucina-12/genética , Neoplasias Bucais/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Frequência do Gene/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética/métodos , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição/genética , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/genética , Taiwan
8.
Parasitol Res ; 119(9): 2863-2875, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32666190

RESUMO

Taenia species of domestic dogs can cause cysticercosis and coenurosis in a wide range of intermediate hosts including humans. Most taeniids of dogs are globally distributed, but some wildlife-transmitted species can be specific for certain regions. Generally, little information exists on the species composition and frequency in most regions of the world, which impairs risk assessment and control strategies. This study determined the range of taeniid species in dogs in four widely spaced areas of Kenya by genetic identification of eggs in faeces collected from the environment. Individual taeniid eggs were characterised by nested polymerase chain reaction of NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 and cytochrome C oxidase 1 genes, restriction fragment length polymorphism and partial sequencing. Overall 79/1621 (4.9%) faecal samples contained eggs of Taenia or Hydatigera (8.0% in Turkana, 4.8% in Isiolo, 3.8% in Maasai Mara and 1.3% in Meru). Taenia hydatigena and T. multiceps were the most frequent, found in 36 and 15 samples, respectively. Other eggs found in the faeces belonged to T. serialis (sensu lato), T. madoquae (the first record in domestic dogs), T. ovis, T. saginata and Hydatigera taeniaeformis. Polymorphism of nad1 sequences revealed 22 and 8 haplotypes of T. hydatigena and T. multiceps, respectively. The results show the involvement of dogs in both domestic and sylvatic transmission cycles. In addition to the species range, this study provides data on the intraspecific diversity of T. hydatigena and T. multiceps in Kenya, which will serve as baseline information for further studies into cysticercosis and coenurosis in livestock and humans in the region.


Assuntos
Cisticercose/epidemiologia , Cisticercose/veterinária , Equinococose/epidemiologia , Equinococose/veterinária , Taenia/genética , Animais , Cestoides/genética , Cisticercose/parasitologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães/parasitologia , Equinococose/parasitologia , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Fezes/parasitologia , Haplótipos , Humanos , Quênia/epidemiologia , NADH Desidrogenase/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição , Ovinos/genética
9.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 53: e20190404, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32578701

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We aimed to estimate the prevalence and transmission of drug-resistant tuberculosis in a high-burden Brazilian setting under directly observed therapy short-course strategy. METHODS: Isolates of culture-confirmed pulmonary tuberculosis patients from Guarulhos, Brazil, diagnosed in October 2007-2011 were subjected to drug susceptibility and IS6110-restriction fragment length polymorphism testing. RESULTS: The overall resistance prevalence was 11.5% and the multi-drug resistance rate was 4.2%. Twenty-six (43.3%) of 60 drug-resistant isolates were clustered. Epidemiological relationships were identified in 11 (42.3%) patients; 30.8% of the cases were transmitted in households. CONCLUSIONS: Drug-resistant tuberculosis was relatively low and transmitted in households and the community.


Assuntos
Terapia Diretamente Observada/métodos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/efeitos dos fármacos , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição , Prevalência , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/transmissão , Adulto Jovem
10.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 22(6): 614-619, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32571461

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the association of the polymorphisms of the serum amyloid A1 (SAA1) gene at rs4638289 and rs7131332 loci with Kawasaki disease (KD) and its complication coronary artery lesion (CAL) in children. METHODS: A total of 105 Han children with KD who were hospitalized and treated from 2013 to 2017 were enrolled as the KD group. A total of 100 Han children who underwent physical examination were enrolled as the control group. According to the presence or absence of CAL, the KD group was further divided into a CAL group with 23 children and a non-CAL (NCAL) group with 82 children. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism was used to investigate the polymorphisms of the SAA1 gene at rs4638289 and rs7131332 loci. RESUKTS: For the locus rs4638289 of the SAA1 gene, there were no significant differences between the KD and control groups in the genotype frequencies of AA, AT, and TT and the allele frequencies of A and T (P>0.05). But there were significant differences between the CAL and NCAL groups in the genotype frequencies of AA, AT, and TT (P=0.016), while there were no significant differences in the allele frequencies of A and T (P>0.05). AT genotype was a protective factor against CAL (OR=0.276, 95%CI: 0.099-0.772, P=0.011). For the locus rs7131332 of the SAA1 gene, there were no significant differences between the KD and control groups in the genotype frequencies of AA, AG, and GG and the allele frequencies of A and G (P>0.05). There were also no significant differences between the CAL and NCAL groups in the genotype frequencies of AA, AG, and GG and the allele frequencies of A and G (P>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Polymorphisms of the SAA1 gene at loci rs4638289 and rs7131332 are not associated with the onset of KD, while the polymorphism at the locus rs4638289 is associated with CAL in KD patients. KD patients with genotype AT may have a reduced risk of CAL.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Linfonodos Mucocutâneos , Proteína Amiloide A Sérica/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Frequência do Gene , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Humanos , Síndrome de Linfonodos Mucocutâneos/genética , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
11.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(6): e0008392, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32542036

RESUMO

The canine hookworms Ancylostoma braziliense, Ancylostoma ceylanicum, Ancylostoma caninum and Uncinaria stenocephala are not only capable of producing morbidity and mortality in dogs but are also neglected tropical zoonoses. Each hookworm species differs considerably in its geographical distribution, life cycle, biology, pathogenic impacts on both canine and human hosts, zoonotic potential, and response to treatment with anthelminthics. Here we describe the development and validation of two Taq-Man based multiplex PCR assays capable of detecting and differentiating all four canine hookworm species in faeces of naturally infected dogs. The analytical sensitivity of both assays was assessed using 10-fold serial dilutions of synthetic gene block fragments containing individual sequence targets of each hookworm species. The sensitivity of the assays and ability to detect mixed species infections were compared to a conventional PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism based-approach when applied to laboratory and field samples from endemic areas. The qPCRs detected at least one species of hookworms in 82.4% of PCR-RFLP-negative but microscopy-positive samples. The qPCRs detected an additional 68% mixed infections with different species of canine hookworms, and additional single species infection with A. caninum (47%), U. stenocephala (33%) and A. ceylanicum (0.02%) that were missed by PCR-RFLP. These multiplex qPCR assays will assist field based epidemiological surveillance studies towards an accurate and sensitive monitoring of canine hookworm infections in dogs, to inform their species-specific zoonotic risks to populations living in endemic areas, globally.


Assuntos
Ancylostomatoidea/genética , Ancylostomatoidea/isolamento & purificação , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Infecções por Uncinaria/diagnóstico , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex/métodos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex/veterinária , Ancylostoma/genética , Ancylostoma/isolamento & purificação , Ancylostomatoidea/classificação , Ancilostomíase/diagnóstico , Ancilostomíase/epidemiologia , Ancilostomíase/fisiopatologia , Animais , DNA de Helmintos/análise , DNA de Helmintos/genética , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/fisiopatologia , Cães , Fezes/parasitologia , Infecções por Uncinaria/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Zoonoses/diagnóstico , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/fisiopatologia
12.
J Parasitol ; 106(3): 395-399, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32556163

RESUMO

The objective of the present study was to determine the characterization of Toxoplasma gondii in cats, rats, and chickens in the border areas of Yunnan Province. A total of 259 samples was collected from 10 border areas in Yunnan Province including 94 cats, 58 rats, and 107 chickens. Samples were screened by a nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay and the positive products were analyzed by multilocus PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) to determine the genotypes. Toxoplasma gondii deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was detected from 15.96% of 94 cats, 15.52% of 58 rats, and 6.54% of 107 chickens, respectively, and the average infection rate is 11.97%. Using the multilocus PCR-RFLP, we found that the genotype of T. gondii in cats and rats was ToxoDB#9. Because of low DNA concentration, no genotype was determined from chickens. These results fill the gaps of knowledge in the prevalence and genotype of T. gondii in the border areas of Yunnan Province and have implications for the better control of T. gondii infection in humans and animals.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Galinhas/parasitologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Ratos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Roedores/epidemiologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Animais , Encéfalo/parasitologia , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Gatos , China/epidemiologia , DNA de Protozoário/química , DNA de Protozoário/isolamento & purificação , Marcadores Genéticos , Técnicas de Genotipagem/veterinária , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus/veterinária , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , Prevalência , Doenças dos Roedores/parasitologia , Toxoplasma/classificação , Toxoplasma/genética , Toxoplasmose Animal/parasitologia
13.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 344, 2020 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32404119

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The burden of drug resistant tuberculosis in Africa is largely driven by the emergence and spread of multidrug resistant (MDR) and extensively drug resistant (XDR) Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains. MDR-TB is defined as resistance to isoniazid and rifampicin, while XDR-TB is defined as MDR-TB with added resistance to any of the second line injectable drugs and any fluoroquinolone. The highest burden of drug resistant TB is seen in countries further experiencing an HIV epidemic. The molecular mechanisms of drug resistance as well as the evolution of drug resistant TB strains have been widely studied using various genotyping tools. The study aimed to analyse the drug resistant lineages in circulation and transmission dynamics of these lineages in Africa by describing outbreaks, nosocomial transmission and migration. Viewed as a whole, this can give a better insight into the transmission dynamics of drug resistant TB in Africa. METHODS: A systematic review was performed on peer reviewed original research extracted from PubMed reporting on the lineages associated with drug resistant TB from African countries, and their association with outbreaks, nosocomial transmission and migration. The search terms "Tuberculosis AND drug resistance AND Africa AND (spoligotyping OR molecular epidemiology OR IS6110 OR MIRU OR DNA fingerprinting OR RFLP OR VNTR OR WGS)" were used to identify relevant articles reporting the molecular epidemiology of drug resistant TB in Africa. RESULTS: Diverse genotypes are associated with drug resistant TB in Africa, with variations in strain predominance within the continent. Lineage 4 predominates across Africa demonstrating the ability of "modern strains" to adapt and spread easily. Most studies under review reported primary drug resistance as the predominant type of transmission. Drug resistant TB strains are associated with community and nosocomial outbreaks involving MDR- and XDR-TB strains. The under-use of molecular epidemiological tools is of concern, resulting in gaps in knowledge of the transmission dynamics of drug resistant TB on the continent. CONCLUSIONS: Genetic diversity of M. tuberculosis strains has been demonstrated across Africa implying that diverse genotypes are driving the epidemiology of drug resistant TB across the continent.


Assuntos
Epidemias , Tuberculose Extensivamente Resistente a Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Tuberculose Extensivamente Resistente a Medicamentos/transmissão , Epidemiologia Molecular/métodos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , África/epidemiologia , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/efeitos dos fármacos , Tuberculose Extensivamente Resistente a Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Extensivamente Resistente a Medicamentos/microbiologia , Genótipo , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição
14.
Biol Res ; 53(1): 24, 2020 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32471519

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: BMPR-1B is part of the transforming growth factor ß super family and plays a pivotal role in ewe litter size. Functional loss of exon-8 mutations in the BMPR-1B gene (namely the FecB gene) can increase both the ewe ovulation rate and litter size. RESULTS: This study constructed a eukaryotic expression system, prepared a monoclonal antibody, and characterized BMPR-1B/FecB protein-protein interactions (PPIs). Using Co-immunoprecipitation coupled to mass spectrometry (Co-IP/MS), 23 proteins were identified that specifically interact with FecB in ovary extracts of ewes. Bioinformatics analysis of selected PPIs demonstrated that FecB associated with several other BMPs, primarily via signal transduction in the ovary. FecB and its associated interaction proteins enriched the reproduction process via BMP2 and BMP4 pathways. Signal transduction was identified via Smads proteins and TGF-beta signaling pathway by analyzing the biological processes and pathways. Moreover, other target proteins (GDF5, GDF9, RhoD, and HSP 10) that interact with FecB and that are related to ovulation and litter size in ewes were identified. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, this research identified a novel pathway and insight to explore the PPi network of BMPR-1B.


Assuntos
Receptores de Proteínas Morfogenéticas Ósseas Tipo I/genética , Eucariotos/genética , Ovário/metabolismo , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas/genética , Animais , Receptores de Proteínas Morfogenéticas Ósseas Tipo I/metabolismo , Biologia Computacional , Eucariotos/metabolismo , Feminino , Genótipo , Espectrometria de Massas , Mutação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição , Ovinos , Transdução de Sinais
15.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 325: 108642, 2020 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32361053

RESUMO

The consumption of raw fish parasitized with larval ascaridoid nematodes of the family Anisakidae can cause anisakiasis, provoking gastrointestinal and/or allergic symptomatology. The main causative agents in the Anisakis genus are the sibling species Anisakis simplex sensu stricto (s.s.) and A. pegreffii of the A. simplex sensu lato (s.l.) complex. Larvae of A. simplex (s.l.) are frequently detected in fish commonly consumed in Spain, as are larvae of the genus Hysterothylacium of the family Raphidascarididae, associated with allergic reactions but not considered pathogenic. Reported here are the results of an epidemiological survey of ascaridoid larvae in three commonly consumed fish species in Spain, horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus) (n = 52), blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou) (n = 93) and anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) (n = 69), caught in the North-Eastern Atlantic, West Mediterranean and Adriatic Sea. The larvae found in the dissected fish were identified in the following order of abundance: A. simplex (s.l.) (n = 2003), Hysterothylacium aduncum (n = 422), H. fabri (n = 180) and A. physeteris (n = 15). Binomial regression analysis showed a correlation between A. simplex (s.l.) and Hysterothylacium larvae abundance and the host geographical location, the North-Eastern Atlantic being the area with the highest parasitation. Fish length and weight and Fulton's condition factor were correlated with A. simplex (s.l.) abundance only in horse mackerel. There was a significant presence of A. simplex (s.l.) and H. aduncum larvae in the musculature of North-Eastern Atlantic blue whiting, the most parasitized part being the anteroventral region, followed equally by the anterodorsal and central sections. The ITS rDNA of larvae of the sibling species A. simplex (s.s.) and A. pegreffii was identified by PCR-RFLP, and a binary logistic regression model was developed to study their morphometric differentiation. Anisakis simplex (s.s.) was detected in the North-Eastern Atlantic and A. pegreffii in all the areas studied. The morphometric analysis discriminated between the two species at the third and fourth larval stages (L3 and L4), the latter obtained by in vitro culture in RPMI-1640 medium. Two discriminant functions were obtained for the L3 and L4 larvae, the ventricle being a key parameter for specific differentiation in both stages, providing taxonomical criteria that could be used besides molecular identification. The present study reveals differences in the parasitation of the studied fish, including the distribution of larvae in the musculature, related to the host species and its geographical origin.


Assuntos
Anisakis/isolamento & purificação , Ascaridoidea/isolamento & purificação , Gadiformes/parasitologia , Perciformes/parasitologia , Alimentos Marinhos/parasitologia , Animais , Anisaquíase/veterinária , Anisakis/classificação , Anisakis/genética , Ascaridoidea/classificação , Ascaridoidea/genética , DNA Ribossômico , Análise Discriminante , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Peixes , Larva/genética , Epidemiologia Molecular , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição , Alimentos Crus/parasitologia , Espanha
16.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 327: 108657, 2020 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32422589

RESUMO

Anisakidae and Raphidascaridae are marine nematodes present in a wide range of fish hosts, which may cause gastro-intestinal complaints and/or allergy in human, in addition to economic losses for the industry. Data regarding the presence of these parasites in fish for the Belgian market is currently missing; therefore, our aim was to investigate the presence and intensity of ascaridoids in a wide range of commercially fish species. A total of 415 fish samples, belonging to 36 different fish species, were collected from a Belgian whole-sale company. Ascaridoid larvae from the viscera (if present) and the muscles were collected by enzymatic digestion and the prevalence, median intensity, mean number of larvae per 100 g infected muscle, and localisation were determined. An overall prevalence of 53% [95%-CI: 42-63%] in the viscera and 27% [95%-CI: 23-32%] in the muscles was observed. Infection in the muscles varied between the fish species; no larvae were detected in 13 fish species, while a high prevalence (>78%) was observed in pollack, halibut, and gurnard. Most samples originated from the Northeast Atlantic Ocean, with the highest prevalence in the muscles observed in the Barents & Norwegian Sea (65% [95%-CI: 38-86]). Muscle samples were, if possible, divided in an anterior region, belly flap, medial region, and posterior region, with the most infections and larvae found in the belly flaps. In all samples, a total of 2569 larvae were recovered, with 1594 larvae originating from the viscera and 975 from the muscles; with an average of two larvae per 100 g infected fillet detected. Larvae were morphologically identified, and a subgroup was further confirmed using PCR/RFLP, resulting ultimately in the identification of Anisakis simplex s.s. (1853 larvae), A. pegreffii (137), A. simplex/pegreffii hybrid genotype (38), Pseudoterranova decipiens (160) and Hysterothylacium aduncum (380). This study demonstrates that ascaridoid larvae are highly prevalent in different fish species on the Belgian market.


Assuntos
Infecções por Ascaridida/veterinária , Ascaridoidea , Doenças dos Peixes/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Parasitologia de Alimentos , Animais , Anisaquíase/parasitologia , Anisakis/genética , Anisakis/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Ascaridida/epidemiologia , Infecções por Ascaridida/parasitologia , Ascaridoidea/genética , Ascaridoidea/isolamento & purificação , Oceano Atlântico/epidemiologia , Bélgica , Peixes/parasitologia , Parasitologia de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Larva/genética , Músculos/parasitologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição , Alimentos Marinhos/parasitologia
17.
Tunis Med ; 98(1): 60-69, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32395779

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Insuline-like growth factor I (IGF1) is a peptide growth factor that promotes cell proliferation and inhibits apoptosis. AIM: To examine the association of genetic variants in IGF1 (rs12423791, rs1019731, rs5742632, rs2033178 and rs2373722) with risk of colon cancer in Tunisia. METHODS: The study included 76 formalin-fixed paraffin embedded primary colorectal carcinomas and paired normal colon. The five IGF1 polymorphisms were determined by polymerase chain-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). RESULT: A significant differences in genotypes and alleles frequency of the five examined IGF1 polymorphisms was determined between tumor and healthy tissues of colon cancer patients (P<0,01). While, no significant association was found between genetic variation in IGF1 variants and clinic-pathological parameters in tumors tissues. Expect for rs2373722, a statistically significant correlation was detected between tumor localization and the presence of the (A) mutated allele (OR=0,49; 95% CI 0,25-0,99; P=0,03). CONCLUSION: This analysis shows that IGF1gene polymorphisms rs12423791, rs1019731, rs5742632, rs2033178 and rs2373722 are associated with the risk of colon cancer in Tunisian population.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo/genética , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias do Colo/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Frequência do Gene , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Humanos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição , Fatores de Risco , Tunísia/epidemiologia
18.
Int J Infect Dis ; 96: 440-444, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32413604

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to perform genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii strain or variant causing atypical toxoplasmic uveitis in Indonesian patients. METHODS: Ocular fluid samples originating from 46 uveitis patients with non-specific ocular manifestations were analysed for Toxoplasma infection by PCR of the B1 locus. The clonal type was determined by amplification, sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of SAG2 and GRA6 loci in B1-positive samples. Clinical data were obtained from the medical records. RESULTS: Pan uveitis was the most frequent manifestation (65.2%) and mostly unilateral (76.1%). PCR of the B1 locus identified eight positive subjects (12.5%); six had panuveitis and two of these had diabetes mellitus. Phylogenetic analysis with maximum likelihood of the SAG2 locus in the B1-positive samples resulted in Toxoplasma gondii SAG2 type III allele. No positive result was obtained from the PCR of GRA6 locus. CONCLUSION: Toxoplasma gondii SAG2-type III allele was identified in an atypical presentation of toxoplasmic uveitis in Indonesia.


Assuntos
Toxoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Toxoplasmose Ocular/parasitologia , Adulto , Idoso , Alelos , Animais , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição , Toxoplasma/classificação , Toxoplasma/genética , Toxoplasmose Ocular/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
Pol J Pathol ; 71(1): 55-61, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32429655

RESUMO

We tested the association between PON1 L55M, Q192R and I102V polymorphic variants and PC risk in Polish men. DNA from 110 consecutive, newly diagnosed patients hospitalized because of PC and DNA from 110 men - volunteers, healthy at the time of the study. PCR-RFLP method. In our study the average age at PC diagnosis of 55MM genotype carriers from families fulfilling Hereditary Prostate Criteria (HPC) was statistically significantly lower (by 7 years) than the average age at the disease diagnosis of 55MM carriers from families without HPC (54.6 ±6.7 vs. 61.9 ±5.4, respectively, p = 0.03). The probability of 5-year survival for the 55MM carriers was 81.3%, compared to 95.7% for non-carriers (p = 0.08, tendency). This is the first study in Polish men evaluating the impact of PON1 genetic polymorphisms on prostate cancer development and its clinical course. PON1 55MM variant may be probably associated with younger age at PC onset in men from families with HPC and with a shorter survival. However, more extensive studies on a larger number of PC patients, possibly from various populations, are necessary to confirm, and extend our findings.


Assuntos
Arildialquilfosfatase/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Idoso , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polônia , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição , Fatores de Risco
20.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 53: e20190433, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32348430

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: As highly specific molecular biology-based techniques may not be sensitive enough for the diagnosis of American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL), clinicians frequently rely on immunological tests before treatment initiation. Hence, the correct combination of diagnostic tests is imperative for ATL diagnosis. We aimed to evaluate the accuracy of the Montenegro (Leishmanin) skin test (MST) in polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-negative patients to accurately detect ATL. METHODS: Patients with a clinical picture compatible with ATL were divided into ATL (confirmed by lesion smear, culture indirect immunofluorescence, and/or histopathology) and no-ATL (diseases that can mimic leishmaniasis) groups. Conventional PCR for the minicircle kDNA of Leishmania was performed, and the MST was carried out for PCR-negative patients. RESULTS: Ninety-nine patients were included in this study, including 79 diagnosed with ATL (6 with mucocutaneous leishmaniasis) and 20 without ATL (no-ATL group). The MST showed a high sensitivity of 90.0% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 69.90-97.21) in PCR-negative patients that was 10% higher than the sensitivity reported in PCR-positive population (79.66%; 95% CI = 67.73-87.96). CONCLUSIONS: One of the most important reasons for PCR negativity among patients with active ATL is the presence of a strong cellular immunological response, especially in chronic and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. This reinforces the considerable utility of the tests that detect cellular responses against Leishmania antigens such as the MST in PCR-negative patients when the performance in screening situations is questionable.


Assuntos
Testes Intradérmicos/métodos , Leishmania braziliensis/imunologia , Leishmaniose Cutânea/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Doença Crônica , Estudos Transversais , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Feminino , Técnica Indireta de Fluorescência para Anticorpo , Humanos , Leishmania braziliensis/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
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