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1.
Am Surg ; 86(2): 110-115, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32167045

RESUMO

Several randomized trials comparing self-gripping mesh with polypropylene (PL) mesh in Lichtenstein hernioplasty revealed that the self-gripping mesh significantly reduced the operation time. In these studies, some enrolled only male patients, and in others, the proportion of women was extremely low. The aim of this research was to compare outcomes after self-gripping mesh repair with PL mesh secured with sutures in female Lichtenstein hernioplasty. Female patients with primary unilateral inguinal hernia were assigned randomly to undergo Lichtenstein hernioplasty with a self-gripping ProGrip (PG) mesh or a sutured PL mesh, followed-up at one week, one month, three months, one year, and two years. Demographics, hernia characteristics, and operative outcomes data were analyzed. Pain was assessed with a visual analog scale (0-10), and quality of life (QOL) was estimated by a 36-item short-form general survey (0-26). Forty eight patients in the PG group and 51 participants in the PL group completed the follow-up. The operation time of the PG (54.1 ± 12 minutes) group was significantly shorter than that of the PL (60.9 ± 11.3 minutes) group (P = 0.045). At the one-month follow-up, the incidence of foreign body feeling in the PG group was significantly higher than that in the PL group (P = 0.031), whereas no significant difference was observed in visual analog scale ≥3 and QOL. In a follow-up of three months, one year, and two years, there was no significant difference in foreign body feeling, chronic pain, QOL, and recurrence between two groups. The surgical outcomes of self-gripping mesh are comparable to those of the ordinary PL mesh with a reduced operation time in female Lichtenstein hernioplasty. Registration number: ChiCTR1800017360 (http://www.chictr.org.cn).


Assuntos
Hérnia Inguinal/cirurgia , Herniorrafia/métodos , Telas Cirúrgicas , Adulto , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Seguimentos , Corpos Estranhos/diagnóstico , Herniorrafia/instrumentação , Humanos , Duração da Cirurgia , Medição da Dor/métodos , Dor Pós-Operatória/diagnóstico , Polipropilenos , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida , Recidiva , Telas Cirúrgicas/efeitos adversos , Suturas , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
2.
Int J Pharm Compd ; 24(1): 64-68, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32023217

RESUMO

In order to avoid fluid overload, more concentrated drug solutions in intensive care units are commonly used. This study evaluated the physicochemical stability of concentrated solution of isosorbide dinitrate in polypropylene syringes during 28 days at 5°C ± 3°C with protection from light. Five syringes of 50 mL, containing 0.60 mg/mL of isosorbide dinitrate in sodium chloride 0.9% were prepared and stored at 5°C ± 3°C with protection from light during 28 days. Immediately after preparation and periodically during the storage, isosorbide dinitrate concentration was measured by an ultra-performance liquid chromatography. Spectrophotometric absorbance at different wavelengths, pH measurements, and microscopic observations were also performed. All solutions were physicochemically stable during the whole period storage at 5°C ± 3°C. No color change, turbidity, precipitation or opacity, significant pH variations, or optic densities were observed in the solutions. Any crystals were seen by microscopic analysis. The concentration of isosorbide dinitrate remained above 90% of the initial concentration during the 28 days of storage. Solutions of isosorbide dinitrate 0.60 mg/mL in syringe of sodium chloride 0.9 % injection can be considered physically and chemically stable for 28 days when stored in syringes at 5°C ± 3°C with protection from light and may be prepared in advance by a centralized intravenous additive service.


Assuntos
Polipropilenos , Seringas , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Armazenamento de Medicamentos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Dinitrato de Isossorbida
3.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 151: 110868, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32056648

RESUMO

This study aims to determine the degradation of plastic polypropylene (PP) and identify the presence of microplastic in sediments and seawater along the Tambak Lorok coastal area. The study was conducted by collecting samples from the sea surface area, at 50 cm and 170 cm depths, while seawater and sediments were collected from six stations. The results showed an early stage of degradation because of abiotic factors. The surface morphology of plastic changed, indicating the disorientation of the plastic. Furthermore, the results demonstrated that organic carbon decreased by 3.15%, 6.67%, and 16.76% for the PP applied on surface water, at 50 cm depth and at 170 cm depth, respectively. From six stations, PP microplastic was the dominant type, where microplastic in sediment was bio-fouled fiber ranging in size from 255.23 to 1245.71 µm; however, in seawater, it was 7-111 particles/10 mL and ranged from 270.27 to 1279.12 µm in size.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Plásticos , Polipropilenos/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Sedimentos Geológicos , Indonésia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
4.
J Surg Res ; 246: 560-567, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31668604

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to assess whether a zinc-impregnated polypropylene mesh (ZnMesh) has better antibacterial properties in a contaminated environment compared with a regular polypropylene mesh. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-eight Wistar Han rats underwent cecal ligation and puncture to induce peritonitis 24 h before implantation of an intraperitoneal ZnMesh or a regular polypropylene mesh. Primary outcome was the number of colony forming units (CFU) per sample (mesh and abdominal wall). Secondary outcomes were macroscopic (incorporation of mesh, abscesses, and adhesions on mesh surface) and histological (inflammatory cell reaction, mesh-specific parameters, and collagen deposition) parameters. All outcomes were evaluated after 30 and 90 d. RESULTS: After 30 d, no significant difference in CFU per sample was present between the ZnMesh and control groups. After 90 d, a lower number of CFU per sample was present in the ZnMesh group compared with the control group (trypticase soy agar with 5% sheep blood: 0 log10 CFU/sample IQR: 0-1.40 versus 1.58 log10 CFU/sample IQR: 0-4.30, P = 0.012; MacConkey: 0 log10 CFU/sample IQR: 0-2.65 versus 1.18 log10 CFU/sample IQR: 0-4.04, P = 0.438). After 90 d, the percentage of adhesions on mesh surface was significantly higher in the ZnMesh group (95% IQR: 60%-100% versus 50% IQR: 23%-75%, P = 0.029). No differences were seen in other macroscopic outcomes or histology. CONCLUSIONS: A significantly lower number of CFU per sample was found in the ZnMesh group after 90 d. After 30 d, no statistically significant differences in CFU per sample were seen. This result suggests that the ZnMesh group has better antibacterial properties in a contaminated environment. However, this is at the cost of a significantly higher percentage of adhesions.


Assuntos
Hérnia Ventral/prevenção & controle , Peritonite/cirurgia , Telas Cirúrgicas , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Aderências Teciduais/epidemiologia , Zinco/administração & dosagem , Parede Abdominal/cirurgia , Animais , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Masculino , Teste de Materiais , Peritonite/complicações , Peritonite/microbiologia , Polipropilenos , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/diagnóstico , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/microbiologia , Aderências Teciduais/etiologia , Cicatrização
6.
Waste Manag ; 101: 250-258, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31634811

RESUMO

Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) and polypropylene (PP) are two major polymeric materials that constitute many single-use plastic products. A common strategy to reduce polymeric waste is via mechanical recycling, a low cost and efficient process. However, from an industrial point of view, the reliability of this process is more easily achieved by a downgrade in the final properties of these materials, which limits the usage of recycled-based materials to less demanding applications. Furthermore, due to the intrinsic heterogeneity of the PP or PET waste, the use of these materials in industrial processing, tuned and developed for virgin neat materials, poses serious integrity problems. This aspect is particularly relevant in the case of plastics originating from the food packaging industry. This work explores the possibility of incorporating either PP or PET originated from plastic solid waste (PSW), in pipe manufacturing, with competitive mechanical properties compared to those prepared from virgin materials. To achieve this industrial solution, a process was developed using PP/PET 70/30 wt% formulations and the impact of replacing the virgin material by the different PSW in the microstructure, thermal and mechanical properties of the final material was analyzed. The impact of using a compatibilizer able to counteract the natural immiscibility between the PP and PET domains was also assessed. The developed formulation with recycled PET is a good example of the applicability of work developed at a laboratory scale into industrial-scale production.


Assuntos
Polietileno , Fumar Cachimbo de Água , Etilenos , Ácidos Ftálicos , Plásticos , Polipropilenos , Reciclagem , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
7.
Arch Environ Contam Toxicol ; 78(1): 86-93, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31873758

RESUMO

The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed aquatic ecosystem in the world. The combinations of the toxic pollutants with microplastics endanger the Caspian Sea ecosystem. In this work, the distribution of microplastics was studied in surface waters and southern Caspian Sea coasts sediments. The samples were collected from eight stations, including the Tonakabon, Chalos, Nowshahr, Noor, Mahmood Abad, Babolsar, Sari, and Neka coasts. The average concentrations of microplastics in the coastal waters and sediments were 34,490 particles per km2 and 210 particles per kg, respectively. Isolated microplastics were characterized using ATR-FTIR and energy dispersive X-ray (EDS) techniques. The samples exhibited a strong carbon peak in the EDS spectra, which was screened as microplastic particles. The microplastics were mainly fragments and foams and identified as polyethylene, polypropylene, and polystyrene by means of ATR-FTIR spectra. This is the first study to determine the distribution of microplastics in southern Caspian coastal regions.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Água do Mar/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Mar Cáspio , Ecossistema , Polietileno/análise , Polipropilenos/análise
8.
Talanta ; 207: 120306, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31594606

RESUMO

Handheld Raman spectroscopy is actually booming. Recent devices improvements aim at addressing the usual Raman spectroscopy issues: fluorescence with shifted-excitation Raman difference spectroscopy (SERDS), poor sensitivity with surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and information only about the sample surface with spatially offset Raman spectroscopy (SORS). While qualitative performances of handheld devices are generally well established, the quantitative analysis of pharmaceutical samples remains challenging. The aim of this study was to compare the quantitative performances of three commercially available handheld Raman spectroscopy devices. Two of them (TruScan and IDRaman mini) are equipped with a 785 nm laser wavelength and operate in a conventional backscattering mode. The IDRaman has the Orbital Raster Scanning (ORS) option to increase the analyzed surface. The third device (Resolve) operates with an 830 nm laser wavelength both in backscattering and in SORS modes. The comparative study was carried out on ibuprofen-mannitol-microcrystalline cellulose ternary mixtures. The concentration of ibuprofen ranged from 24 to 52% (w/w) while the proportions of the two excipients were varied to avoid cross-correlation as much as possible. Analyses were performed either directly through a glass vial or with the glass vial in an opaque polypropylene flask, using a validated FT-NIR spectroscopy method as a reference method. Chemometric analyses were carried out with the Partial Least Squares Regression (PLS-R) algorithm. The quantitative models were validated using the total error approach and the ICH Q2 (R1) guidelines with ±â€¯15% as acceptance limits.


Assuntos
Preparações Farmacêuticas/análise , Embalagem de Produtos , Espectrofotometria/instrumentação , Análise Espectral Raman/instrumentação , Vidro , Ibuprofeno/análise , Polipropilenos
9.
Food Chem ; 309: 125792, 2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31711806

RESUMO

Seven commercial samples, consisted of plastic bags, tetrabrik and box, were evaluated by gas chromatography-olfactometry-mass spectrometry (GC-O-MS) to find the compounds responsible for off-odors in different PP, PE, multilayer cardboard and paper materials used for food contact. Migration assays were carried out with Tenax as food simulant to analyze the food safety as well as to evaluate the odor intensity after migration assay. Forty six compounds with characteristic odors were directly found in the materials studied. The strongest odors identified were acetic, propanoic and butyric with vinegar and rancid odors and octanal, nonanal and decanal with fat/soup odors, all of them found in PP and PE samples. Trimethylbenzenes with solvent and oily odors as well as terpenes with weakly woody odors were found in cardboard and paper materials. After migration, all compounds were below the European Legislation limits and maximum migration values recommended by Cramer. However propanoic, acetic and butyric acid as well as aldehydes compounds, phenol and 1-octanol were detected by sniffers, after migration assay, with high modified frequency (between 50 and 78%), what could change the organoleptic properties of packaged food.


Assuntos
Embalagem de Alimentos , Odorantes/análise , Olfatometria/métodos , Polietileno/química , Polipropilenos/química , Aldeídos/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Papel , Fenóis/análise
10.
Chemosphere ; 245: 125628, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31864060

RESUMO

Microplastics and Nitropolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs) are two types of emerging pollutants that are strong potential threats to aquatic ecosystems and organisms. The adsorption of NPAHs on microplastics may explain the fate and effects of NPAHs in natural environments. In this study, the adsorption behavior of 9-Nitroanthrene (9-NAnt) on polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP) and polystyrene (PS) was investigated. Kinetic experiments revealed that 9-NAnt was inclined to be adsorbed onto microplastics, especially PE, which had a large adsorption amount of 734 µg g-1. A linear isothermal model better described the isothermal adsorption process for 9-NAnt, which indicated that a hydrophobic distribution may be the main adsorption mechanism in an aqueous solution. Water environment factors, such as the pH and ionic strength, had negligible effects on the adsorption for PE. In contrast, alkaline and high ionic strength conditions resulted in the inhibition of adsorption of PP and PS. In addition, the particle size of microplastics was negatively correlated with the log Kd of 9-NAnt, and the performance of transient aging treatments on microplastics reduced their affinity for 9-NAnt, due to the addition of oxygen-containing functional groups. Above all, hydrophobic and electrostatic processes were the main adsorption mechanisms between microplastics and 9-NAnt.


Assuntos
Antracenos/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Adsorção , Ecossistema , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Cinética , Plásticos/química , Polietileno/química , Polipropilenos/química , Poliestirenos/química , Eletricidade Estática , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
11.
Georgian Med News ; (295): 25-30, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31804194

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the TOTRP (tension-free vaginal tape-obturator retropublic) methodology, as well as the frequency of de novo urgency symptoms. A retrospective study included 32 women with stressful and mixed urinary incontinence with a predominance of the stress component without concomitant genital prolapse, as well as without surgical intervention for a history of urinary incontinence and pelvic prolapse. Patients underwent surgical intervention according to the TOTRP method using Lintex UroSling® polypropylene tape from February to October 2018. According to the results of the ICIQ-SF and OAB awareness Tool questionnaires, 14 (43.7%) patients were registered prior to surgical treatment. with an average degree of stress urinary incontinence, 18 (56.3%) - severe; 19 (59%) patients with mild bladder hyperactivity, 4 (12.5%) - moderate. Through surgical intervention, stress urinary incontinence was completely stopped in 26 (81.25%) and transferred to mild degree in 2 (6.25%), in 5 (15.6%) - moderate degree. So, the effectiveness of the TOTRP technique was 87.5%. Postoperative urgency was 8 (25%), of which de novo - 5 (15.63%). The treatment was characterized by the complete absence of intraoperative complications.


Assuntos
Slings Suburetrais , Incontinência Urinária por Estresse , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Polipropilenos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Incontinência Urinária por Estresse/terapia
12.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 143: 125-133, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31789147

RESUMO

Current study aimed to evaluate the microplastics abundance in the surface waters of Chabahar Bay for the first time. 21 neuston net water samples were collected from 7 stations. Microplastics were visually counted by stereomicroscope, sorted into 4 size categories, 4 shape categories, and identified by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy. Density of microplastics varied from 0.07 ±â€¯0.03 to 1.14 ±â€¯0.27 with an average density of 0.49 ±â€¯0.43 particle·m-3. Microplastics were mostly found in the shape of fibers. 69% of analyzed particles were polyethylene and polypropylene. Main colors of the collected microplastics were white, blue and red. The results showed that the largest number of microplastics was found at station near populated area. Therefore, it can be concluded that, there is a pressing-need to investigate the distribution of microplastics in sediments and biota of this Bay as well as their effects on marine life and human health.


Assuntos
/análise , Água do Mar/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Baías , Cor , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Irã (Geográfico) , Polietileno/análise , Polipropilenos/análise , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química
13.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 143: 92-100, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31789171

RESUMO

Types of plastic waste in different aquatic environments were assessed to obtain a global framework of plastic waste transport and accumulation, relevant for plastic pollution mitigation strategies in aquatic environments. Packaging and consumer products were the most encountered product categories in rivers, while fishery items dominated in the oceanic environment. Plastics from electronics, building and construction, and transport were barely observed. For polymers, polyethylene and polypropylene contributed most to pollution in all environments. The highest diversity in polymer composition was found in oceanic and freshwater sediments. It is therefore argued that a large fraction of plastic waste accumulates here. This confirms that plastic waste transport and accumulation patterns were most affected by the density, surface area, and size of plastics. Only thick-walled, larger plastic debris from low-density polymers are transported through currents from rivers to ocean, while the larger fraction of plastic litter is likely retained in sediments or beaches.


Assuntos
Plásticos/análise , Resíduos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Pesqueiros , Embalagem de Alimentos/instrumentação , Sedimentos Geológicos/análise , Oceanos e Mares , Plásticos/química , Polietileno/análise , Polímeros/análise , Polipropilenos/análise , Rios , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química
14.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 40(10): 4585-4593, 2019 Oct 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31854827

RESUMO

Under transient conditions, a biotrickling filter was developed to treat gaseous H2S produced from the fine-grid reservoir of a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) with AAO excess sludge as the inoculum and polypropylene rings as the packing material. The start-up process and steady-state operation of the biotrickling filter were studied. With an empty bed retention time of 14 s, an ambient temperature of 7.8-32.5℃, and an inlet concentration of 2.02-319.19 mg·m-3, an average removal efficiency of 91.8% was achieved with a maximum H2S elimination capacity of 78.37 g·(m3·h)-1. Over a 247-day period, the pressure drop across the biotrickling filter was maintained at 96 Pa·m-1. Microbial analysis using high-throughput sequencing technology showed a variation in the microbial community during the experiment; the Shannon index dropped from 4.99 to 3.75, and the functional genera Pseudomonas and Thiobacillus were identified as good performers in the biotrickling filter system. These results indicate that the application of AAO excess sludge as an inoculum for biotrickling filters is feasible for effective H2S removal. A steady pressure drop was achieved using polypropylene rings as the packing material. The diversity of the microbial community showed a downward trend when exposed to H2S, but the elimination capacity could be increased.


Assuntos
Biodegradação Ambiental , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio , Microbiota , Águas Residuárias , Reatores Biológicos , Filtração , Polipropilenos
15.
Environ Pollut ; 255(Pt 1): 113107, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31671310

RESUMO

Ingestion of microplastics (MPs) has been documented in several marine organisms, but their occurrence in deep-sea species remains almost unknown. In this study, MPs were investigated in two economically and ecologically key crustaceans of the Mediterranean Sea, the Norwegian lobster Nephrops norvegicus and the shrimp Aristeus antennatus. Both the species were collected from 14 sites around Sardinia Island, at depths comprised between 270 and 660 m. A total of 89 and 63 stomachs were analysed for N. norvegicus and A. antennatus respectively, and more than 2000 MPs-like particles were extracted and sorted for identification and characterization by µFT-IR. In N. norvegicus, 83% of the specimens contained MPs, with an average abundance of 5.5 ±â€¯0.8 MPs individual-1, while A. antennatus showed a lower frequency of ingestion (67%) and a lower mean number of MPs (1.66 ±â€¯0.1 MPs individual-1). Composition and size of particles differed significantly between the two species. The non-selective feeding strategy of N. norvegicus could explain the 3-5 folds higher numbers of MPs in its stomach, which were mostly composed of films and fragments derived by polyethylene and polypropylene single-use plastic items. Contrarily, most MPs in the stomachs of A. antennatus were polyester filaments. The MPs abundance observed in N. norvegicus is among the highest detected in Mediterranean species considering both fish and invertebrates species, and provides novel insights on MPs bioavailability in deep-sea habitats. The overall results suggest that both N. norvegicus and A. antennatus, easily available in common fishery markets, could be valuable bioindicators and flagship species for plastic contamination in the deep-sea.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Nephropidae/química , Penaeidae/química , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Ecossistema , Pesqueiros , Peixes , Itália , Mar Mediterrâneo , Noruega , Polietileno/análise , Polipropilenos/análise , Estômago/química
16.
BMC Surg ; 19(1): 156, 2019 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31660930

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic large para-oesophageal hiatal hernia (LPHH) repair using mesh reinforcement significantly reduces postoperative recurrence rates compared to conventional suture repair, especially within short follow-up times. However, the ideal strategy for repairing LPHH remains disputable because no clear guidelines are given regarding indications, mesh type, shape or position. The aim of this study was to survey our short-term results of LPHH management with a biosynthetic monofilament polypropylene mesh coated with titanium dioxide to enhance biocompatibility (TiO2Mesh™). METHODS: A retrospective study was performed at Ramon y Cajal University Hospital, Spain from December 2014 to October 2018. Data were collected on 27 consecutive patients with extensive hiatal hernia defects greater than 5 cm for which a laparoscopic repair was performed by primary suture and additional reinforcement with a TiO2Mesh™. Study outcomes were investigated, including clinical and radiological recurrences, dysphagia and mesh-related drawbacks. RESULTS: Twenty-seven patients were included in our analysis; 10 patients were male, and 17 were female. The mean age was 73 years (range, 63-79 years). All operations were performed laparoscopically. The median postoperative hospital stay was 3 days. After a mean follow-up of 18 months (range, 8-29 months), only 3 patients developed clinical recurrence of reflux symptoms (11%), and 2 had radiological recurrences (7%). No mesh-related complications occurred. CONCLUSIONS: TiO2Mesh™ was found to be safe for laparoscopic repair of LPHH with a fairly low recurrence rate in this short-term study. Long-term studies conducted over a period of years with large sample sizes will be essential for confirming whether this mesh is suitable as a standard method of care with few drawbacks.


Assuntos
Hérnia Hiatal/cirurgia , Laparoscopia/métodos , Telas Cirúrgicas , Titânio , Idoso , Transtornos de Deglutição/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polipropilenos , Período Pós-Operatório , Radiografia , Recidiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Environ Pollut ; 255(Pt 3): 113348, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31610388

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to determine the amount, composition and origin of plastic debris in one of the world largest river, the Paraná River in Argentina (South America), focusing on the impact of urban rivers, relationships among macro, meso and microplastic, socio-political issues and microplastic ingestion by fish. We recorded a huge concentration of macroplastic debris of domestic origin (up to 5.05 macroplastic items per m2) dominated largely by bags (mainly high- and low-density polyethylene), foodwrapper (polypropylene and polystyrene), foam plastics (expanded polystyrene) and beverage bottles (polyethylene terephthalate), particularly downstream from the confluence with an urban stream. This suggests inadequate waste collection, processing and final disposal in the region, which is regrettably recurrent in many cities of the Global South and Argentina in particular. We found an average of 4654 microplastic fragments m-2 in shoreline sediments of the river, ranging from 131 to 12687 microplastics m-2. In contrast to other studies from industrialized countries from Europe and North America, secondary microplastics (resulting from comminution of larger particles) were more abundant than primary ones (microbeads to cosmetics or pellets to the industry). This could be explained by differences in consumer habits and industrialization level between societies and economies. Microplastic particles (mostly fibres) were recorded in the digestive tract of 100% of the studied Prochilodus lineatus (commercial species). Contrary to recently published statements by other researchers, our results suggest neither macroplastic nor mesoplastics would serve as surrogate for microplastic items in pollution surveys, suggesting the need to consider all three size categories. The massive plastic pollution found in the Paraná River is caused by an inadequate waste management. New actions are required to properly manage waste from its inception to its final disposal.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Plásticos/análise , Rios/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Argentina , Cidades , Países em Desenvolvimento , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Polietileno , Polipropilenos/análise , Poliestirenos/análise , Alimentos Marinhos , Resíduos/análise
18.
J Food Sci ; 84(11): 3194-3203, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31589346

RESUMO

A multilayer film containing star anise essential oil and thymol coating layers (SAEO and TH, respectively), with insect repellent and antimicrobial properties, has been developed using bar coating and adhesive lamination processes. Our previous study reported the in vitro activities of this polypropylene film (PP)/SAEO/polyethylene terephthalate film (PET)/TH/low-density polyethylene film (LDPE) multilayer film. The current study focused on demonstrating the morphological, optical, and mechanical properties of the film, and evaluating its in vivo activities when used as a bread packaging material. The developed film was 15.03% thicker and 1.86% less transparent than the control film (without active agent coating layers: PP/PET/LDPE). While the color values of the developed film were slightly different from the control film, both films appeared similar to the naked eye. The tensile strength in the developed film was somewhat lower than that of the control film, while both films had statistically comparable values for elongation at break. During storage of sliced bread packaged in the developed film, the film both deterred insects from approaching toward and impeded the growth of microorganisms in the bread. These results suggest the potential applicability of the developed film as an active food packaging material with insect repellent and antimicrobial activities. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: A multilayer film incorporated with insect repellent and antimicrobial coating layers was applied in sliced wheat bread packaging. The developed film effectively inhibited approaches of stored-product insects to packaged bread and growth of microorganisms on the bread surface. It can be used as an active food packaging material that improves the safety and shelf-life of foods.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/química , Pão/análise , Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Illicium/química , Repelentes de Insetos/química , Óleos Voláteis/química , Timol/química , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pão/microbiologia , Embalagem de Alimentos/instrumentação , Conservação de Alimentos/instrumentação , Repelentes de Insetos/farmacologia , Insetos/efeitos dos fármacos , Insetos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Óleos Vegetais/química , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Polietileno/química , Polipropilenos/química , Timol/farmacologia , Triticum/química , Triticum/microbiologia
19.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 145: 278-286, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31590788

RESUMO

Microplastics have emerged as new pollutants in oceans. Nevertheless, information of the long-term variations in the composition of plastic-associated microbial communities in coastal waters remains limited. This study applied high-throughput sequencing to investigate the successional stages of microbial communities attached to polypropylene and polyvinyl chloride microplastics exposed for one year in the coastal seawater of China. The composition of plastisphere microbial communities varied remarkably across geographical locations and exposure times. The dominant bacteria in the plastisphere were affiliated with the Alphaproteobacteria class, particularly Rhodobacteraceae, followed by the Gammaproteobacteria class. Scanning electron microscopy analysis revealed that the microplastics showed signs of degradation. Microbial communities showed adaptations to plastisphere including more diverse microbial community and greater "xenobiotics biodegradation and metabolism" in metabolic pathway analysis. The findings elucidate the long-term changes in the community composition of microorganisms that colonize microplastics and expand the understanding of plastisphere microbial communities present in the marine environment.


Assuntos
Microbiota/fisiologia , Plásticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Adaptação Biológica , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Biodegradação Ambiental , China , Polipropilenos , Cloreto de Polivinila , Água do Mar/microbiologia , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Microbiologia da Água
20.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 145: 536-546, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31590821

RESUMO

Microplastic particles (<5 mm), which are an emerging threat, are commonly found in marine ecosystems worldwide. This study investigated the effect of different types of coastal land use on microplastic frequency and distribution on the coastline of Bandar Abbas city; this study used a large sample compared to that used in other studies conducted in this region. The average number of microplastics was determined as 3252 ±â€¯2766 microplastics/m2 (±SD). ATR FT-IR spectroscopy showed that the dominant microplastic particles are expanded polystyrene, polyethylene terephthalate, polypropylene, and polyethylene. Statistical analysis showed a significant difference in microplastic contamination levels between the urban and nonuse beaches. This shows that heavily urbanized areas and human activities have significant effects on the dispersion and frequency of microplastics in the coastal areas of Bandar Abbas. Periodical coast-based cleanup and studies on microplastic pollution and their fluxes by comprehensive sampling are mostly recommended for the Persian Gulf coastline.


Assuntos
/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Oceano Índico , Irã (Geográfico) , Polietileno/análise , Polietileno/química , Polipropilenos/análise , Polipropilenos/química , Poliestirenos/análise , Poliestirenos/química , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Urbanização , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química
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