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1.
Int J Med Mushrooms ; 21(6): 583-593, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31679230

RESUMO

Tacrine is the first drug licensed for the treatment of Alzheimer disease. Unfortunately, reversible hepatotoxicity limits its clinical use. In our previous study, we found that tacrine induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells by reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and mitochondria dysfunction. Inonotus obliquus is a mushroom traditionally used as a folk medicine in Asia. In this study, the possible protective effect of polysaccharides from I. obliquus was investigated. The results showed that I. obliquus polysaccharides (IOP) reduced tacrine-induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells. Inhibition of tacrine-induced ROS generation, 8-OHdG formation in mitochondrial DNA, and loss of the mitochondrial transmembrane potential by IOP were also observed. Furthermore, IOP decreased the cytochrome c release and activation of caspase-3 induced by tacrine. These data suggest that IOP could inhibit tacrine-induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells. The protection is mediated by an antioxidant protective mechanism. Consumption of IOP may be a plausible way to prevent tacrine-induced hepatotoxicity.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Basidiomycota/química , Polissacarídeos Fúngicos/farmacologia , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Tacrina/farmacologia , Ásia , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/fisiologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/antagonistas & inibidores
2.
Int J Med Mushrooms ; 21(7): 703-711, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31679304

RESUMO

Ganoderma mushrooms are widely used in clinical therapies and functional foods. The antidiabetic effect of Ganoderma has become a research hot spot in recent decades. To search for a superior antidiabetic Ganoderma extract, five common Ganoderma species (G. lucidum, G. sinense, G. tsugae, G. applanatum, and G. leucocontextum) were investigated. A total of 10 fractions, including a total triterpenes fraction and a crude polysaccharides fraction for each, were prepared for further assays. Activities of α-glucosidase and α-amylase are inhibited dominantly by triterpenes from all five Ganoderma species rather than the polysaccharides. G. lucidum triterpenes inhibits α-glucosidase and α-amylase most significantly with IC50 values of 10.02 ± 0.95 µg/mL and 31.82 ± 4.30 µg/mL. Even more, triterpenes content was positively correlated with anti-α-glucosidase and anti-α-amylase activities. Therefore, triterpenes were considered to be the active compounds in inhibiting α-glucosidase and α-amylase activity. It is hoped that the results will provide more systematic information for the application of Ganoderma in the functional food and traditional medicine industries in the future.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/enzimologia , Ganoderma/química , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/farmacologia , alfa-Amilases/antagonistas & inibidores , Misturas Complexas/farmacologia , Polissacarídeos Fúngicos/farmacologia , Ganoderma/classificação , Fármacos Gastrointestinais , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Triterpenos/farmacologia , alfa-Glucosidases
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(19)2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31575049

RESUMO

A major fraction (MPT-W), eluted by deionized water, was extracted from mycelium polysaccharides of Termitomyces albuminosus (MPT), and its antioxidant, anti-fibrosis, and anti-inflammatory activities in CCl4-induced chronic liver injury mice, as well as preliminary characterizations, were evaluated. The results showed that MPT-W was a polysaccharide of α- and ß-configurations containing xylose (Xyl), fucose (Fuc), mannose (Man), galactose (Gal), and glucose (Glc) with a molar ratio of 0.29:8.67:37.89:35.98:16.60 by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Its molecular weight (Mw), obtained by high-performance gel permeation chromatography (HPGPC), was 1.30 × 105 Da. The antioxidant assays in vitro showed that MPT-W displayed scavenging free-radical abilities. Based on the data of in vivo experiments, MPT-W could inhibit TGFß1/Smad3 and NF-κB pathways; decrease the level and activity of cytochrome P4502E1 (CYP2E1), malonaldehyde (MDA) and serum enzyme; activate the HO-1/Nrf2 pathway; and increase antioxidant enzymes to protect the liver in CCl4-induced chronic liver injury mice. Therefore, MPT-W could be a potentially natural and functional resource contributing to antioxidant, hepatoprotective, and anti-inflammatory effects with potential health benefits.


Assuntos
Extratos Celulares/farmacologia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/etiologia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos Fúngicos/farmacologia , Micélio/química , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Termitomyces/química , Animais , Extratos Celulares/química , Extratos Celulares/isolamento & purificação , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Polissacarídeos Fúngicos/química , Polissacarídeos Fúngicos/isolamento & purificação , Camundongos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Substâncias Protetoras/química , Proteína Smad3 , Análise Espectral , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo
4.
Molecules ; 24(19)2019 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31569331

RESUMO

As an irreversible and complex degenerative physiological process, the treatment for aging seems strategically necessary, and polysaccharides play important roles against aging owing to their abundant bioactivities. In this paper, the antioxidant and anti-aging activities of Flammulina velutipes polysaccharides (FPS) and its sulfated FPS (SFPS) on d-galactose-induced aging mice were investigated. The in vitro antioxidant activities demonstrated that SFPS had strong reducing power and superior scavenging effects on 2, 2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hydroxyl radicals and the chelating activities of Fe2+. The in vivo animal experiments manifested that the SFPS showed superior antioxidant and protective abilities against the d-galactose-induced aging by increasing the antioxidant enzyme activities, decreasing lipid peroxidation, improving the inflammatory response and ameliorating the anile condition of mice. Furthermore, the structural analysis of SFPS was investigated through FT-IR, NMR, and HPLC analysis, and the results indicated that SFPS was a homogeneous heteropolysaccharide with a weight-average molecular weight of 2.81 × 103 Da. Furthermore, SFPS has also changed in characteristic functional groups and monosaccharide composition compared to FPS. These results suggested that sulfated modification could enhance the anti-oxidation, anti-aging and protective activities of F. velutipes polysaccharides, which may provide references for the development of functional foods and natural medicines.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Flammulina/química , Polissacarídeos Fúngicos/farmacologia , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Polissacarídeos Fúngicos/química , Monossacarídeos/análise , Substâncias Protetoras/química , Análise Espectral
5.
Molecules ; 24(16)2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31434196

RESUMO

In the previous work, we found PRG, a polysaccharide from Phellinus ribis, exhibited neurotrophic activity. To obtain an active structural unit with lower molecular weight, PRG was degraded to prepare the degraded PRG (DPRG) using ascorbic acid and H2O2. The aim of the paper was to obtain DPRG by optimizing the degradation conditions using response surface methodology (RSM) and to study its protective effects of PC12 cells induced by Aß25-35. The optimum conditions were as follows; the concentration of H2O2-Vc was 17 mM and degradation temperature was 50 °C; when degradation time was 1.6 h, the experimental response value of PC12 cell viability was 83.4 ± 0.15%, which was in accordance with the predicted value (83.5%). We also studied the protective effects of DPRG against the Aß25-35-induced neurotoxicity and explored the underlying mechanism. The results showed that treatment with DPRG could attenuate PC12 cells death. The mechanism was relative to the inhibition of cell apoptosis by increasing the MMP level and decreasing the protein expression of cytochrome C (Cytc) in PC12 cells. In conclusion, DPRG with lower molecular weight was obtained successfully. It possessed neuroprotective properties and might be a candidate for neurodegenerative disease treatment.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota/química , Polissacarídeos Fúngicos/química , Polissacarídeos Fúngicos/farmacologia , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/química , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/toxicidade , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/química , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/patologia , Peso Molecular , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/patologia , Células PC12 , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/toxicidade , Proteínas/metabolismo , Ratos , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Temperatura
6.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 19(1): 230, 2019 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31443712

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia are classic features of patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). Cordyceps taii, a folk medicinal fungus native to southern China, possesses various pharmacological activities. This study aimed to assess the glucose-lowering and hypolipidemic effects of polysaccharides from C. taii (CTP) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. METHODS: Kunming mice were intraperitoneally injected with STZ at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight. After induction of diabetes, diabetic mice were randomly divided into five groups: diabetic mellitus group (DM), metformin-treated group, low, medium, and high-dose CTP-treated group (CTP-L, CTP-M, and CTP-H). Normal mice served as the control group. After treatment for 28 days, body weight, fasting serum insulin (FSI), fasting blood glucose (FBG), homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were measured. Histological analysis of pancreatic tissue and immune organ indices was also performed to evaluate the anti-diabetes effect of CTP. SPSS (version 21.0) software was used for statistical analysis, and statistical differences were considered significant at p < 0.05. RESULTS: Compared with the DM group, the body weight and FSI level of CTP-H group increased by 36.13 and 32.47%, whereas the FBG and HOMA-IR decreased by 56.79 and 42.78%, respectively (p < 0.05). Histopathological examination of the pancreas revealed that CTP improved and repaired the impaired islet ß-cells in pancreatic tissue. Compared with the DM group, the levels of TC, TG, and LDL-C decreased by 13.84, 31.87, and 36.61%, whereas that of HDL-C increased by 28.60% in CTP-H (p < 0.05). Further study showed that the thymus index in CTP-H was elevated by approximately 54.96%, and the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-6, and CRP was inhibited by approximately 19.97, 34.46, and 35.41%, respectively (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The anti-diabetes effect of CTP is closely associated with immunoregulation and anti-inflammation, and CTP may be considered as a therapeutic drug or functional food for DM intervention.


Assuntos
Cordyceps/química , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos Fúngicos/farmacologia , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Hipolipemiantes/farmacologia , Animais , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Colesterol/sangue , Polissacarídeos Fúngicos/química , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Hipolipemiantes/química , Masculino , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Camundongos , Estreptozocina
7.
Pak J Pharm Sci ; 32(3): 1011-1018, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31278714

RESUMO

Irpex lacteus is a white rot basidiomycete proposed for a wide spectrum of biotechnological applications. However, few studies examined its effects on exercise performance and physical fatigue. The present study evaluated the potential beneficial effects of I. lacteus extract (ILE) on physical fatigue in mice. Anti-fatigue activities of ILE were evaluated in Kunming mice using the forced swim test, rotating rod and forced running test. Serum and liver biochemical parameters were determined by an autoanalyzer and commercially available kits. Seven-day ILE administration at doses of 0.04, 0.2 and 1.0g/kg failed to influence mouse horizontal and vertical movement indicating its safety on the central nervous system. Compared with normal mice, ILE significantly increased persistent period during rotating rod and swimming tests, and reduced shock times in forced running test. Additionally, ILE resulted in 23.4% and 64.5% increments on adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisol levels in serum. Compared with normal mice, and 209.0% increment on adenosine triphosphate level in liver (up to 2.5 mmol/gHb) were noted in ILE-treated mice. Moreover, ILE increased the level of super oxide dismutase and reduced the level of malondialdehyde in the liver suggesting its antioxidant activity. Data obtained from western bolt suggests that ILE-improved endurance capacity is mainly acquired through activating 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). ILE enhanced the endurance capacity of mouse by an elevation of antioxidant at least partially associated with AMPK pathway. Our data highlight the potential of I. lacteus as an antioxidant in the treatment of fatigue-related diseases.


Assuntos
Fadiga/tratamento farmacológico , Polissacarídeos Fúngicos/farmacologia , Polyporales/química , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Hormônio Adrenocorticotrópico/metabolismo , Animais , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Corticosterona/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Fadiga/metabolismo , Feminino , Polissacarídeos Fúngicos/química , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Camundongos , Resistência Física/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Teste de Desempenho do Rota-Rod , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Natação
8.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 137: 568-575, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31279885

RESUMO

Two polysaccharides, DGS1 and DGS2, were obtained by solid-state fermentation (SSF) of Fusarium solani DO7, an endophytic fungus isolated from the orchid Dendrobium officinale. Structural characterizations revealed that DGS1 consisted of arabinose, glucose, mannose and galactose with a molar ratio of 2.9:13.4:3.0:1, respectively, and contained (1 → 5)-Araf, (1 → 4)-Glcp, (1 → 6)-Glcp, (1 → 3)-Manp, (1 → 2,6)-Manp and (1 → 6)-Galp glycosidic linkages, while DGS2 was composed of arabinose, glucose, mannose and galactose in a molar ratio of 3.5:8.1:2.1:1, respectively, and contained (1 → 5)-Araf, (1 → 4)-Glcp, (1 → 6)-Glcp, (1 → 3)-Manp and (1 → 6)-Galp glycosidic linkages. Neither polysaccharide was toxic to human embryonic kidney cells or mouse RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. An immunomodulatory activity assay indicated that both polysaccharides could significantly enhance the levels of TNF-α, IL-6 and NO by activating TNF-α, IL-6 and iNOs gene expression, respectively, especially DGS2. Interestingly, DGS2 also possessed relatively high antioxidant activity. These results illustrate that, due to its cost-effectiveness and environmentally friendly features, SSF has significant potential as a commercially competitive source of natural products, including fungal polysaccharides, with immunomodulatory activity.


Assuntos
Fermentação , Polissacarídeos Fúngicos/química , Polissacarídeos Fúngicos/farmacologia , Fusarium/química , Fusarium/metabolismo , Fatores Imunológicos/química , Fatores Imunológicos/farmacologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Polissacarídeos Fúngicos/biossíntese , Glicosilação , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos/biossíntese , Metilação , Camundongos , Peso Molecular , Monossacarídeos/análise , Fagocitose/efeitos dos fármacos , Células RAW 264.7
9.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(31): 27536-27547, 2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31294958

RESUMO

Radiotherapy is a traditional method for cancer therapy but may become ineffective likely due to the radiation-induced immunosuppression. Instead of simply increasing the radiation dose, reactivation of immunosuppression in the tumor microenvironment is an alternative strategy for successful cancer treatment. In this work, we synthesized bismuth sulfide nanoparticles (BiNP) and conjugated with immunoactive Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide (GLP). GLP-BiNP were able to increase the sensitivity of radiotherapy, attributing to the efficient X-ray absorption of bismuth element. BiNP alone can mildly activate dendritic cells (DC) in vitro, while GLP-BiNP further enhanced the level of DC maturation, shown as the increase in phenotypic maturation markers, cytokine release, acid phosphatase activity, and T cell proliferation in DC/T cell co-culture. Compared to BiNP, GLP-BiNP altered the tissue distribution with faster accumulation in the tumor. Meanwhile, mature DC greatly increased in both tumor and spleen by GLP-BiNP within 24 h. GLP-BiNP combination with radiation achieved remarkable inhibition of tumor growth through apoptosis. Alternatively, lung metastasis was largely prohibited by GLP-BiNP, shown as a reduced amount of tumor nodules and cancer cell invasion by pathological findings. Mechanistically, GLP-BiNP altered the tumor immunosuppression microenvironment by preferably increasing the number of intratumor CD8+ T cell proliferation, as well as the improved immunobalance shown as the increased serum interferon-γ/interleukin-4 ratio. Specifically, GLP conjugation seemed to protect the kidney from injury occasionally introduced by bare BiNP. As a result, GLP-BiNP play a dual role in tumor treatment through radiosensitization and immunoactivities.


Assuntos
Bismuto , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Polissacarídeos Fúngicos , Nanopartículas , Neoplasias Experimentais/imunologia , Neoplasias Experimentais/radioterapia , Radiossensibilizantes , Reishi/química , Sulfetos , Animais , Bismuto/química , Bismuto/farmacologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/patologia , Células Dendríticas/patologia , Feminino , Polissacarídeos Fúngicos/química , Polissacarídeos Fúngicos/farmacologia , Imunidade Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunidade Celular/efeitos da radiação , Interferon gama/imunologia , Interleucina-4/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Células NIH 3T3 , Nanopartículas/química , Nanopartículas/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Experimentais/patologia , Radiossensibilizantes/química , Radiossensibilizantes/farmacologia , Sulfetos/química , Sulfetos/farmacologia
10.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 137: 1130-1140, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31295484

RESUMO

This work investigated the protective effects of Ganoderma applanatum residue polysaccharides (GRP) on the CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity. The results indicated that GRP showed significantly effects on preventing the increase of AST, ALT and ALP levels in serum, elevating the activities of SOD, GSH-Px and CAT, decreasing the contents of MDA and LPO, and reducing the CYP2E1 and TGF-ß concentrations in CCl4-induced mice, respectively. Meanwhile, the levels of TNF-α and IL-6 were significantly decreased, while the value of IL-10 was increased by GRP treatment. Besides, the western blot assay showed the IκBα expressions were significantly increased and the p-p65 was decreased by the treatment with GRP. The characterizations indicated that the GRP was heteropolysaccharide with lower molecular weights and α-furanoside residues. These results demonstrated that GRP might be a potential material for drug and functional food development against chemical hepatic injury.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Tetracloreto de Carbono/toxicidade , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Polissacarídeos Fúngicos/farmacologia , Ganoderma/química , Animais , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/complicações , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos Fúngicos/química , Polissacarídeos Fúngicos/uso terapêutico , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/enzimologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Masculino , Metilação , Camundongos , Monossacarídeos/análise , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(13)2019 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31261851

RESUMO

In recent decades, various polysaccharides isolated from algae, mushrooms, yeast, and higher plants have attracted serious attention in the area of nutrition and medicine. The reasons include their low toxicity, rare negative side effects, relatively low price, and broad spectrum of therapeutic actions. The two most and best-studied polysaccharides are mannan and glucan. This review focused on their biological properties.


Assuntos
Polissacarídeos Fúngicos/farmacologia , Glucanos/farmacologia , Mananas/farmacologia , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Polissacarídeos Fúngicos/metabolismo , Glucanos/metabolismo , Humanos , Hipolipemiantes/farmacologia , Fatores Imunológicos/farmacologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/ultraestrutura , Mananas/metabolismo
12.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 137: 1102-1111, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31276724

RESUMO

Polysaccharopeptide (PSP) from the medicinal mushroom Coriolus versicolor has been widely used in Asia as an adjunctive immunotherapy for treating cancers and liver diseases. However, the composition and structure of bioactive components in PSP remain elusive. Herein, we purified a hepatoprotective polysaccharide (PSP-1b1) with a molecular weight of 21.7 kDa from C. versicolor mycelia in submerged culture. PSP-1b1 consists of fucose, galactose, xylose, mannose, glucuronic acid and glucose at a relative molar ratio of 0.16:0.60:0.02:0.55:0.04:1.00. Structural features were investigated by methylation and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The PSP-1b1 backbone consists of →4)-α-Galp-(1 → 4)-α-Galp-(1 → 2)-α-Manp-(1 → 4)-α-Galp-(1 → 2)-α-Manp-(1 → 4)-α-Galp-(1 → 4)-α-Galp-(1 → 2)-α-Manp-(1 → 4)-α-Galp-(1 → 2)-α-Manp-(1 → 4)→, with branches of α-1,6-Manp, ß-1,6-Glcp, ß-1,3,6-Glcp, α-1,3-Manp, α-1,6-Galp, α-1,3-Fucp, T-α-Glcp and T-α-Galp on the O-6 position of α-Manp of the main chain, and secondary branches linked to the O-6 position of ß-Glcp of the major branch. Treatment with PSK-1b1 (80 and 160 mg/kg/day) resulted in hepatoprotective effects against alcohol-induced liver injury in mice by reducing oxidative stress and modulating immunity.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Etanol/efeitos adversos , Polissacarídeos Fúngicos/química , Polissacarídeos Fúngicos/farmacologia , Micélio/química , Trametes/química , Animais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Sequência de Carboidratos , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/sangue , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/imunologia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/metabolismo , Citoproteção/efeitos dos fármacos , Polissacarídeos Fúngicos/uso terapêutico , Imunomodulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Metilação , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Monossacarídeos/análise , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos
13.
Molecules ; 24(15)2019 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31344969

RESUMO

The present work mainly describes the preparation of acetylated mycelia polysaccharides (AMPS) from Pleurotus djamor and investigates the antioxidant and anti-aging effects in d-galactose-induced aging mice. The optimized procedure indicates the acetyl substitution degree of AMPS is 0.54 ± 0.04 under the conditions of a reaction time of 56 h, a reaction temperature of 37 °C, and 4 mL of added acetic anhydride. The in vitro analysis and in vivo animal experiments indicate that the AMPS could alleviate the aging properties by scavenging the radicals, elevating the enzyme activities, and reducing the lipid contents. As for serum levels, the AMPS can improve the serum biochemical indices and enhance immunological activity. The histopathological observations indicate that the injuries to the liver, kidney, and brain can be remitted by AMPS intervention. The characterization showed that AMPS was one kind of ß-pyranose with the weight-average molecular weights of 3.61 × 105 Da and the major monosaccharides of mannose and glucose. The results suggest that AMPS can be used as a dietary supplement and functional food for the prevention of aging and age-related diseases.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Polissacarídeos Fúngicos/química , Polissacarídeos Fúngicos/farmacologia , Micélio/química , Pleurotus/química , Acetilação , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Biomarcadores , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Camundongos , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , Análise Espectral
14.
Molecules ; 24(11)2019 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31146421

RESUMO

Camellia oleifera is an important Chinese commercial crop. Camellia oleifera can display abnormal leaves due to infection by the parasitic fungus Exobasidium gracile. Exobasidium gracile was isolated from infected leaves and used in fermentation, and exopolysaccharides EP0-1 and EP0.5-1 were purified from the fermentation broth. EP0-1 was an alkaline polysaccharide consisting mainly of the linkages α-d-Manp(1→, →2)-α-d-Manp(1→ and →6)-α-d-Manp(1→, →3)-α-d-Glcp(1→ and→4)-α-d-Glcp(1→, terminal ß-d-Galf, (1→5)-ß-d-Galf, and terminal ß-D-GlcN(1→. EP0.5-1 was an acidic galactofuranose-containing polysaccharide. It contained the linkages of α-d-Manp(1→, →2)-α-d-Manp(1→, →6)-α-d-Manp(1→,→2, 6)-α-d-Manp(1→, →4)-α-d-Glcp(1→, and →4)-α-d-GlcUA(1→. Galactofuranose linkages were composed of terminal ß-d-Galf, (1→6)-ß-d-Galf and (1→2)-ß-d-Galf. Exobasidium gracile exopolysaccharides displayed significant immunoregulatory activity by activating macrophages. This research indicates that infected leaves from Camellia oleifera including the exopolysaccharides produced by the parasitic fungus Exobasidium gracile by are worth further investigation as a functional product.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota , Camellia/química , Camellia/microbiologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Polissacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Basidiomycota/química , Basidiomycota/fisiologia , Fenômenos Químicos , Fermentação , Polissacarídeos Fúngicos/química , Polissacarídeos Fúngicos/isolamento & purificação , Polissacarídeos Fúngicos/farmacologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Metilação , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Ácidos Urônicos/metabolismo
15.
Int J Mol Med ; 44(2): 713-724, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31173162

RESUMO

The present study investigated the structural characterization and immune regulation of a novel polysaccharide from Maerkang Lactarius deliciosus Gray. Chemical methods, high performance gel permeation chromatography, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum and gas chromatography­mass spectrometry were used to characterize the polysaccharide structure. The immunomodulatory abilities of the Maerkang L. deliciosus Gray polysaccharide (LDG­M) were also investigated. LDG­M was primarily composed of ß­D­glucose and α­D­lyxose with the ratio of 2:1. The possible structure of LDG­M had a backbone of 1,6­linked­ß­D­glucose and 1,4,6­linked­ß­D­glucose, with branches primarily composed of one (1→4)­linked­α­D­lyxose residue. The immunoregulatory activity results demonstrated that LDG­M promoted the proliferation and phagocytosis of macrophages, and induced cytokine release. LDG­M also promoted the proliferation of B cells by affecting the G0/G1, S and G2/M phases. The present study introduced LDG­M as a valuable source with unique immunoregulatory properties.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota/química , Polissacarídeos Fúngicos/química , Polissacarídeos Fúngicos/farmacologia , Fatores Imunológicos/química , Fatores Imunológicos/farmacologia , Animais , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/citologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Camundongos , Fagocitose/efeitos dos fármacos , Células RAW 264.7
16.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 137: 8-19, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31247233

RESUMO

A new polysaccharide (MIPW50-1) with a molecular weight of 28.5 kDa was isolated from Morchella importuna fruiting bodies. Structural analysis indicated that MIPW50-1 was composed of N-acetylglucosamine, galactose, glucose, and mannose with molar ratios of 1.00:14.95:1.53:10.51, and its structure was characterized as a repeating unit consisting of →2,3,6)-α-D-Manp-(1→, →3,6)-α-D-Manp-(1→, →2)-α-D-Galp-(1→, →6)-α-D-Manp-(1→, →4)-ß-D-Glcp-(1→, →4)-α-D-GlcpNAc-(1→, →6)-α-D-Glcp-(1→, α-D-Galp-(1→, α-D-GlcpNAc-(1→ and ß-D-Glcp-(1→. The immunoregulatory effect of MIPW50-1 was also evaluated. MIPW50-1 was capable of stimulating macrophage function, rising phagocytosis of RAW264.7 cells as well as promoting secretion of NO, TNF-α and IL-6. Moreover, the immunoblot and ELISA assays demonstrated that MIPW50-1 exerted immune-potentiating effect through the TLR4/JNK and Akt/NF-κB signalling pathways in RAW264.7 cells. This is the first polysaccharide containing N-acetylglucosamine isolated from Morchella mushrooms, and MIPW50-1 might be used as one of potential immunoenhancing components in functional foods.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos/química , Carpóforos/química , Polissacarídeos Fúngicos/isolamento & purificação , Polissacarídeos Fúngicos/farmacologia , Fatores Imunológicos/isolamento & purificação , Fatores Imunológicos/farmacologia , Animais , Sequência de Carboidratos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Citocinas/biossíntese , Polissacarídeos Fúngicos/química , Fatores Imunológicos/química , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Metilação , Camundongos , Peso Molecular , Monossacarídeos/análise , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/biossíntese , Fagocitose/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Células RAW 264.7 , Receptor 2 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
17.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 135: 887-897, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31132438

RESUMO

Radiation is known to be associated with pathology of various human diseases. This study has focused on the effect of radiation on glucose homeostasis with regard to metabolic function of liver and pancreas and the effect of polysaccharide from the fruiting bodies of Auricularia auricular (SNAAP) on glucose metabolism. The 60Co-γ-radiated mice displayed destroyed redox equilibrium, accompanied by increased blood glucose accumulation, decreased insulin and hepatic glycogen contents, impaired blood glucose tolerance ability, abnormal changes in activities of glucose metabolism-related enzymes and damaged hepatic and pancreatic function, while SNAAP can restore the disordered glucose metabolism to some extent. Increased phosphorylation of JNK and FoxO1, reduced phosphorylation of Akt and GSK-3ß and increased expression of PEPCK, G6Pase and GYS2 in the liver as well as the decreased expression of PDX1, GLUT2 and IRS1 in the pancreas of radiated mice were recovered after treated with SNAAP, leading to an improved gluconeogenesis and glycogen synthesis. These findings clearly indicate that SNAAP has significant potency in radiation-induced glucose metabolism disorder through modulating the JNK pathway in the liver as well as the PDX1/GLUT2 in the pancreas.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota/química , Glicemia/metabolismo , Radioisótopos de Cobalto/efeitos adversos , Carpóforos/química , Polissacarídeos Fúngicos/farmacologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Peso Corporal/efeitos da radiação , Ingestão de Líquidos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ingestão de Líquidos/efeitos da radiação , Jejum/sangue , Proteína Forkhead Box O1/metabolismo , Glicogênio/metabolismo , Insulina/sangue , Proteínas Quinases JNK Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos da radiação , Lipídeos/sangue , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/efeitos da radiação , Masculino , Camundongos , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Fosforilação/efeitos da radiação , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo
18.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 135: 706-716, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31129213

RESUMO

The aim of this work is to characterize the primary structure and physicochemical properties of natural polysaccharides (GLP) and degraded polysaccharides (GLPUD) from Ganoderma lucidum, and evaluate their hypolipidemic and antioxidant activities. The results of particle size distribution and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides were effectively degraded by ultrasonic method. GLPUD was composed of the same monosaccharide units as GLP but with different molar ratios. Infrared spectra and NMR showed that the primary structure of polysaccharides had not been changed by ultrasonic degradation. Meanwhile, the thermal stability of polysaccharides increased after ultrasonic treatment. After administration by GLP and GLPUD four weeks, body weight, visceral index, atherosclerosis index (AI) and biochemical indicators in serum and in liver were determined. The results showed that GLPUD had stronger hypolipidemic and antioxidant activities than GLP. GLPUD was more effective than the GLP for reducing AI, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), raising high density lipoprotein (HDL-C) (p < 0.01), reducing malondialdehyde (MDA) content, as well as increasing the glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in mice serum, increasing superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and reducing MDA content in liver (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01). In addition, the histopathological observations of mice livers showed that GLPUD could significantly improve lipid metabolism disorder in hepatocytes. Thus, GLPUD might be tested as a more effective hypolipidemic drug.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Polissacarídeos Fúngicos/química , Polissacarídeos Fúngicos/farmacologia , Ganoderma/química , Hipolipemiantes/química , Hipolipemiantes/farmacologia , Animais , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenômenos Químicos , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Glutationa Peroxidase/sangue , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Malondialdeído/sangue , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Camundongos , Monossacarídeos/análise , Superóxido Dismutase/sangue , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Ondas Ultrassônicas
19.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 134: 976-983, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31121230

RESUMO

The production, physicochemical characteristics, antioxidant and antitumor activities of partial purified exopolysaccharides from Chlorella zofingiensis, Chlorella vulgaris were investigated. The final exopolysaccharides productions were 208.4, 364.3 mg/L and the average molecular weights were 2.66×104, 1.88×104 Da, respectively. Monosaccharide analysis indicating that these exopolysaccharides consisted of 10 or 11 different kinds of sugars and derivatives, respectively. Additionally, they exhibited obvious radical scavenging activities on DPPH and hydroxyl radicals, which reached to 59.6-71.5% and 44.5-70.4%, respectively. Moreover, the antitumor effects were studied using human colon cancer cell lines HCT8. The results showed that they had significant antitumor effects considering the inhibitory effects on cell viabilities (28.3-18.0% on HCT8, respectively). Thus, these exopolysaccharides from microalgae species are worth further investigating as alternative potential antitumor agents.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/metabolismo , Chlorella vulgaris/metabolismo , Chlorella/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos Fúngicos/biossíntese , Polissacarídeos Fúngicos/química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Polissacarídeos Fúngicos/farmacologia , Humanos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Peso Molecular , Monossacarídeos/química
20.
Carbohydr Polym ; 216: 270-281, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31047067

RESUMO

The fine structure and chain conformation of a heteropolysaccharide (PCIPS3) from mycelium of Paecilomyces cicadae were investigated via the analysis of HPLC, IR, methylation, NMR spectroscopy and multiangle light scattering. It was determined to be a 2.23 × 104 g/mol heteropolysaccharide primarily composed of glucose, galactose and mannose in a molar ratio of 23.8:2.1:1.0. The PCIPS3 backbone consisted of 1,4-linked α-d-Glcp and 1,4-linked 6-O-Me-α-d-Glcp residues, which were occasionally interrupted by branched ß-Galf residues through 1,6-linkage. Moreover, the α (0.60) from Mark-Houwink-Sakurada (MHS) equation suggested that PCIPS3 adopted a flexible chain conformation in 0.1 mol/L NaNO3 at 25 °C. The worm-like chains model parameters for PCIPS3 were estimated as following: ML = 437 nm-1, q = 0.46 nm and 0.79 nm, which were further evidenced by AFM. Furthermore, PCIPS3 showed excellent scavenging capacities of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical, superoxide radical, hydroxyl radical, ORAC radical and moderate immunomodulatory activity.


Assuntos
Depuradores de Radicais Livres/farmacologia , Polissacarídeos Fúngicos/farmacologia , Fatores Imunológicos/farmacologia , Paecilomyces/química , Animais , Configuração de Carboidratos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/química , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/isolamento & purificação , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/toxicidade , Polissacarídeos Fúngicos/química , Polissacarídeos Fúngicos/isolamento & purificação , Polissacarídeos Fúngicos/toxicidade , Radical Hidroxila/química , Fatores Imunológicos/química , Fatores Imunológicos/isolamento & purificação , Fatores Imunológicos/toxicidade , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Camundongos , Peróxidos/química , Células RAW 264.7 , Superóxidos/química , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
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