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1.
Gene ; 779: 145494, 2021 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33588036

RESUMO

Microalgae, one of the most important classes of biomass producers, can produce exopolysaccharides similar to bacteria. The exopolysaccharide from Chlorella (CEPS) displays remarkable anticancer activity the mechanism of which remains to be elucidated. In this study, we analyzed the inhibitory effect of CEPS on the growth of HeLa cells. The results showed that CEPS inhibited the proliferation, decreased the viability, and changed the morphology of HeLa cells. Transcriptome analysis showed that 1894 genes were differentially expressed in the CEPS-treated group compared with the control group, including 1076 genes that were upregulated and 818 genes that were downregulated. The results of gene function enrichment analysis showed that the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were significantly enriched in apoptosis and tumor-related biological processes and participated in several cancer and apoptosisrelated signaling pathways, including the MAPK signaling pathway, TNF signaling pathway, and the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway. The protein-protein interaction network identified 13 DEGs including PTPN11, RSAD2, ISG15, IFIT1, MX2, IFIT2, OASL, OAS1, JUN, OAS2, XAF1, ISG20, and IRF9 as hub genes. Our results suggest that CEPS is a promising therapeutic drug for the follow-up interventional therapy of cancer.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Chlorella/química , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Animais , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/genética , Chlorocebus aethiops , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Células HeLa , Humanos , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Polissacarídeos/administração & dosagem , Polissacarídeos/química , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas/efeitos dos fármacos , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas/genética , Células Vero
2.
Carbohydr Polym ; 255: 117388, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33436217

RESUMO

Pectins are a part of daily diet as well as food additives that are indigestible polysaccharides by human enzymes, however, they can be easily degraded by gut bacteria with the production of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs). Knowledge of pectin gut homeostasis and further how pectin affect gut bacterial communities is insufficient and limited. This review focuses on providing the whole story of how pectin functions as prebiotics in the gut. Understanding the interplay between functional and immunological responses inside animal or human gut as influenced by pectin in diets is provided. The interaction between pectin and gut microbiota is presented from both sides, in terms of how pectin affects gut microbiome and or the fermentation products produced in response by gut bacteria. This knowledge can be used to define preferred dietary pectins, targeting beneficial bacteria, and favoring balanced microbiota communities in the gut to maximize pectins' health benefits.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Homeostase/imunologia , Imunomodulação/fisiologia , Pectinas/farmacologia , Polissacarídeos/administração & dosagem , Prebióticos/administração & dosagem , Animais , Bacteroidetes/genética , Bacteroidetes/imunologia , Biotransformação , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Dieta/métodos , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/biossíntese , Fermentação , Firmicutes/genética , Firmicutes/imunologia , Humanos , Pectinas/imunologia , Pectinas/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/análise , Prebióticos/análise
3.
Carbohydr Polym ; 254: 117280, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33357856

RESUMO

Polysaccharides have been used widely in many industries, from food technology and mining to cosmetics and biomedical applications. Over recent years there has been growing interest in the development of responsive polysaccharides with unique and switchable properties, particularly systems that display lower-critical solution temperatures (LCSTs). Therefore, in this study we aimed to investigate a novel strategy that would allow the conversion of non-responsive polysaccharides into thermoresponsive polysaccharides with tuneable LCSTs. Through the functionalisation of dextran with alkylamide groups (isopropyl amide, diethyl amide, piperidinyl and diisobutyl amide) using a carbodiimide coupling approach in conjunction with amic acid derivatives, we prepared a library of novel dextrans with various degrees of substitution (DS), which were characterised via nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and gel permeation chromatography (GPC). The alkylamide-functionalised dextrans were found to have good solubility in aqueous solutions, with the exception of those having a high DS of large hydrophobic substituents. Determination of the thermoresponsive characteristics of the polymer solutions via UV-vis spectroscopy revealed that the LCST of the alkylamide-functionalised dextrans was highly dependent on the type of alkylamide group and the DS and could be tuned over a large range (5-35 °C). Above the LCST, all of the thermoresponsive alkylamide-functionalised dextrans formed colloidal dispersions with particles sizes ranging from 400 -600 nm, as determined by dynamic light scattering (DLS). In addition, the polymers were found to exhibit a fast and reversible phase transition in solution with narrow hysteresis (∼ 1-5 °C). Finally, the injectability and biocompatibility of the novel thermoresponsive dextrans was confirmed in vivo via subcutaneous and intracranial ventricle injections, with no local or systemic toxicity noted over a 14 d period. Overall, the alkylamide-functionalised dextrans display interesting thermoresponsive properties and trends that may make them useful in biomedical applications, such as drug-delivery.


Assuntos
Polissacarídeos/química , Alquilação , Amidas/química , Animais , Materiais Biocompatíveis/administração & dosagem , Materiais Biocompatíveis/química , Materiais Biocompatíveis/toxicidade , Cromatografia em Gel , Dextranos/administração & dosagem , Dextranos/química , Dextranos/toxicidade , Difusão Dinâmica da Luz , Teste de Materiais , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Estrutura Molecular , Peso Molecular , Ressonância Magnética Nuclear Biomolecular , Tamanho da Partícula , Transição de Fase , Polissacarídeos/administração & dosagem , Polissacarídeos/toxicidade , Espectrofotometria , Temperatura
4.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 87(6)2021 02 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33355114

RESUMO

The human colon contains a community of microbial species, mostly bacteria, which is often referred to as the gut microbiota. The community is considered essential to human well-being by conferring additional energy-harvesting capacity, niche exclusion of pathogens, and molecular signaling activities that are integrated into human physiological processes. Plant polysaccharides (glycans, dietary fiber) are an important source of carbon and energy that supports the maintenance and functioning of the gut microbiota. Therefore, the daily quantity and quality of plant glycans consumed by the human host have the potential to influence health. Members of the gut microbiota differ in ability to utilize different types of plant glycans. Dietary interventions with specific glycans could modulate the microbiota, counteracting ecological perturbations that disrupt the intricate relationships between microbiota and host (dysbiosis). This review considers prospects and research options for modulation of the gut microbiota by the formulation of diets that, when consumed habitually, would correct dysbiosis by building diverse consortia that boost functional resilience. Traditional "prebiotics" favor bifidobacteria and lactobacilli, whereas dietary mixtures of plant glycans that are varied in chemical complexity would promote high-diversity microbiotas. It is concluded that research should aim at improving knowledge of bacterial consortia that, through shared nourishment, degrade and ferment plant glycans. The consortia may vary in composition from person to person, but functional outputs will be consistent in a given context because of metabolic redundancy among bacteria. Thus, the individuality of gut microbiotas could be encompassed, functional resilience encouraged, and correction of dysbiosis achieved.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Polissacarídeos/administração & dosagem , Animais , Dieta , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Disbiose/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Plantas
5.
Life Sci ; 268: 118859, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33358907

RESUMO

Nanoscience and nanotechnology is a recently emerging and rapid developing field of science and has also been explored in the fields of Biotechnology and Medicine. Nanoparticles are being used as tools for diagnostic purposes and as a medium for the delivery of therapeutic agents to the specific targeted sites under controlled conditions. The physicochemical properties of these nanoparticles give them the ability to treat various chronic human diseases by site specific drug delivery and to use in diagnosis, biosensing and bioimaging devices, and implants. According to the type of materials used nanoparticles can be classified as organic (micelles, liposomes, nanogels and dendrimers) and inorganic (including gold nanoparticles (GNPs), super-paramagnetic iron oxide nanomaterials (SPIONs), quantum dots (QDs), and paramagnetic lanthanide ions). Different types of nanoparticle are being used in conjugation with various types of biomoities (such as peptide, lipids, antibodies, nucleotides, plasmids, ligands and polysaccharides) to form nanoparticle-drug conjugates which has enhanced capacity of drug delivery at targeted sites and hence improved disease treatment and diagnosis. In this study, the summary of various types of nanoparticle-drug conjugates that are being used along with their mechanism and applications are included. In addition, the various nanoparticle-drug conjugates which are being used and which are under clinical studies along with their future opportunities and challenges are also discussed in this review.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Nanomedicina/métodos , Nanopartículas/administração & dosagem , Nanopartículas/química , Animais , Portadores de Fármacos/administração & dosagem , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Humanos , Imunoconjugados/administração & dosagem , Imunoconjugados/farmacologia , Lipídeos/química , Nanotecnologia/métodos , Peptídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/administração & dosagem , Polissacarídeos/química
6.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 264: 113280, 2021 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822821

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Astragalus membranaceus and Codonopsis pilosula which are two Chinese medicinal herbs are often combinedly used as monarch drugs in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) prescriptions to treat ulcerative colitis (UC). However, the exact mechanisms and effective constituents of the two herbs remain unclear. AIM OF THE STUDY: Polysaccharides are the main active ingredients of the two medicinal herbs and some specific polysaccharides extracted from the two medicinal herbs have been proven effective in relieving colitis. Hence, we speculated that polysaccharides of the two medicinal herbs may be the material basis for compatibility in TCM prescriptions to treat UC. In the research, total polysaccharides of A. membranaceus and C. pilosula extractum, named AERP and CERP respectively, were administrated to 2.5% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced acute colitis mice by dosing alone and in combination to test this hypothesis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA, 100 mg/kg/d) was selected as the positive drug. The basic indexes of colitis mice including body weight, stool bleeding, stool consistency and colon lengths were recorded. In addition, tissue inflammatory factors, mucosa-associated proteins, fecal short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and gut microbiota were also analyzed. RESULTS: The co-administration of AERP and CERP at specific doses could improve the clinical symptoms, reestablish the immune balance, and alleviate colonic mucosal injury in colitis mice. The unique efficacy of co-administration relied on activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and up-regulation of isovaleric acid and butyrate. In addition, the structure of intestinal flora was recovered in the co-administration group. CONCLUSION: Our research proved the efficacy after co-administration of total polysaccharides from A. membranaceus and C. pilosula on colitis mice which provided a theoretical basis for their compatibility in TCM prescriptions to treat UC.


Assuntos
Astragalus propinquus , Codonopsis , Colite/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Polissacarídeos/administração & dosagem , Animais , Colite/metabolismo , Colite/patologia , Quimioterapia Combinada , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação
7.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2183: 477-487, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32959261

RESUMO

Pneumococcal disease is caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, a colonizing microorganism characterized by transitioning from a benign commensal to a virulent pathogen in the presence of suitable circumstances, which then poses a serious infectious disease threat afflicting millions of people. Especially affected are the young and elderly through outcomes that include pneumonia, bacteremia, meningitis, and otitis media. Current prevention vaccine options on the market contain capsular polysaccharides conjugated to the Diphtheria CRM197 protein (Pfizer) or are composed of only pneumococcal polysaccharides (Merck), and in both cases, limitations prevent the generation of comprehensive disease protection. Through the use of a liposomal carrier, we present an alternative methodology for producing a vaccine product via noncovalent colocalization of both polysaccharide and protein classes of complementary pneumococcal disease immunogens.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Bactérias/imunologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/imunologia , Vacinas Bacterianas/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Bacterianas/imunologia , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Lipossomos , Polissacarídeos/imunologia , Animais , Antígenos de Bactérias/administração & dosagem , Proteínas de Bactérias/administração & dosagem , Genes Reporter , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Imunidade , Imunização , Camundongos , Polissacarídeos/administração & dosagem , Ligação Proteica , Vacinação/métodos
8.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(52): 15449-15459, 2020 Dec 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33320666

RESUMO

DNA methylation is an epigenetic event that plays critical roles in the pathogenesis, progression, and treatment of human diseases. In this study, we investigated the epigenetic mechanisms for Astragalus polysaccharide (APS)-improved osteoporosis in a rat model. The results showed that APS significantly changed the DNA methylome in colonic epithelia with great efficiency. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) based on differentially methylated sites (DMSs) revealed that APS caused promoter DNA methylation changes of genes associated with calcium homeostasis, osteoclast/osteoblast balance, Wnt signaling, and hormone-related processes. Further analysis showed high consistency of APS-induced gene methylomic changes in colonic epithelia and its effects on diabetes, virus infection, and wound healing, which had been reported already. Moreover, we suggested new functions and the involved mechanisms of APS in heart disease, neurological disorder, reproductive problem, and olfactory dysfunction. In this study, we offered epigenetic mechanisms for APS-improved osteoporosis. More importantly, we proposed and proved a reliable method to explore the beneficial effects of bioactive polysaccharides by studying DNA methylation changes at nonfocal sites. We firmly believed the promising prospects of this method for its great efficiency, rapidness, and economy in exploring possible beneficial or therapeutic effects of functional macromolecules with one single experiment.


Assuntos
Astrágalo (Planta)/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/administração & dosagem , Osteoporose/tratamento farmacológico , Polissacarídeos/administração & dosagem , Animais , Cálcio/metabolismo , Metilação de DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Epigênese Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Epigenoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Osteoporose/genética , Osteoporose/metabolismo , Projetos Piloto , Polissacarídeos/química , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
9.
Am J Chin Med ; 48(6): 1491-1509, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32924531

RESUMO

Astragalus membranaceus is the most popular traditional Chinese medicine for managing vital energy deficiency. Its injectable polysaccharide PG2 has been used for relieving cancer-related fatigue, and PG2 has immune-modulatory and anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, we explored the effects of PG2 in lung adenocarcinoma A549 and CL1-2 cells and investigated its anticancer activity, and the results were validated in severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice. Although PG2 did not inhibit the growth of these cells, it dose-dependently suppressed their migration and invasion, accompanied by reduced vimentin and AXL and induced epithelial cadherin (E-cadherin) expression. Regarding the underlying molecular mechanism, PG2 treatment reduced the macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), an inflammatory cytokine that promotes the epithelial-mesenchymal transition and aggressiveness of cancer cells. Consistent with the previous finding that MIF regulates matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), treatment with PG2 reduced MMP-13 and activated AMPK in A549 and CL1-2 cells in this study. In SCID mice injected with A549 cells through the tail vein, intraperitoneal injection with PG2 reduced lung and abdominal metastases in parallel with decreased immunohistochemical staining of AXL, vimentin, MMP-13, and MIF in the tumor. Collectively, data revealed a potential application of PG2 in integrative cancer treatment through the suppression of MIF in cancer cells and their aggressiveness.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Astragalus propinquus/química , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Oxirredutases Intramoleculares/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Fatores Inibidores da Migração de Macrófagos/metabolismo , Fitoterapia , Polissacarídeos/administração & dosagem , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Células A549 , Adenocarcinoma/metabolismo , Animais , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Injeções Intraperitoneais , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Camundongos SCID , Invasividade Neoplásica , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Polissacarídeos/uso terapêutico
10.
J Food Sci ; 85(9): 2943-2951, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32702186

RESUMO

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic intestinal disease, which was commonly found in westerners whereas is increasingly prevalent in Asia because of the changing eating habits. In previous research, we found that a water-soluble polysaccharide isolated from Auricularia auricular-judae (Bull.)-a kind of edible mushroom (Aap)-is composed of ß-1,3 glycosidic bonds, which is regarded as therapeutic or protective substance in enteritis. We therefore aimed to find the preventing effect of Aap on IBD. Here, we reported that pre-administration of Aap not only ameliorated weight loss, colon damage, and mucosal inflammation in colitis mice, but also prevented the damage of intestinal barrier by reducing the D-lactic acid and diamine oxidase level in plasma. Through high-throughput sequencing, we found that Aap changed gut microbiota composition. Furthermore, the preventing effect was transmissible via horizontal feces transfer from Aap-treated mice to normal mice. Our results indicated that oral administration of Aap is a promising protective substance of IBD. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Our study proved that Auricularia auricula polysaccharide had substantial preventing effect on DSS-induced colitis in mice. This research might lay the theoretical foundation and technical support for the development of related functional foods. People could also enhance their gut immunity by eating Auricularia auricular in their daily life. Auricularia auricular as a highly nutritious agricultural product showed the broad significance in nutrition and food function.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota/química , Colite Ulcerativa/microbiologia , Colite Ulcerativa/prevenção & controle , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Polissacarídeos/administração & dosagem , Animais , Colite Ulcerativa/induzido quimicamente , Sulfato de Dextrana/efeitos adversos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fezes/microbiologia , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação
11.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0232972, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32512581

RESUMO

Various dietary fibers are considered to prevent obesity by modulating the gut microbiota. Cordyceps sinensis polysaccharide (CSP) is a soluble dietary fiber known to have protective effects against obesity and related diseases, but whether these effects induce any side effects remains unknown. The function and safety of CSP were tested in high-fat diet (HFD)-feding C57BL/6J mice. The results revealed that even though CSP supplementation could prevent an increase in body weight, it aggravated liver fibrosis and steatosis as evidenced by increased inflammation, lipid metabolism markers, insulin resistance (IR) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in HFD-induced obesity. 16S rDNA gene sequencing was used to analyze the gut microbiota composition, and the relative abundance of the Actinobacteria phylum, including the Olsenella genus, was significantly higher in CSP-treated mice than in HFD-fed mice. CSP supplementation may increase the proportion of Actinobacteria, which can degrade CSP. The high level of Actinobacteria aggravated the disorder of the intestinal flora and contributed to the progression from obesity to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and related diseases.


Assuntos
Cordyceps , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/administração & dosagem , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/patologia , Animais , Peso Corporal , Cordyceps/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Inflamação/etiologia , Inflamação/metabolismo , Resistência à Insulina , Lipídeos/sangue , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32450013

RESUMO

Because viruses still represent a significant threat to human and animal health worldwide, the development of effective weapons against viral infections remains a top priority for the biopharmaceutical industry. This article reviews the dietary and pharmaceutical applications of polysaccharides (PS), first of all chitosan, in the prevention and treatment of viral diseases, focusing more particularly on solid or gel micro/nanoparticulate systems. The intrinsic antiviral activity of PS and their immunostimulatory effects, implemented in animal and human diets, are first surveyed. Then the review discusses the potential of PS-based particles as carriers of antiviral drugs and vaccines, with emphasis on the adjuvant potency of PS in solid vaccine formulations. The gap between the abundance of academic studies in this area and the lack of actual antiviral formulations dispensed to human patients is underlined, notwithstanding a number of branded products on the market.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Polissacarídeos/administração & dosagem , Polissacarídeos/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Viroses/prevenção & controle , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/farmacologia , Animais , Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Viroses/imunologia , Viroses/terapia
13.
J Int Soc Sports Nutr ; 17(1): 20, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32293471

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study examined the effects of whey protein supplementation, compared with an isocaloric carbohydrate beverage and water, consumed immediately following an intense swimming trial on bone turnover in adolescent swimmers. METHODS: Fifty-eight (31 female, 27 male) swimmers (14.1 ± 0.4 years) were stratified into three groups matched for age, sex and body mass. The protein and carbohydrate groups consumed two isocaloric post-exercise beverages each containing 0.3 g.kg- 1 of whey protein (with ~ 6 mg of calcium) or maltodextrin while the control group consumed water. Participants provided a morning, fasted, resting blood sample, then performed an intense swimming trial consisting of a maximal 200 m swim followed by a high intensity interval swimming protocol (5x100m, 5x50m and 5x25m; 1:1 work-to-rest ratio). Following swimming, they consumed their first respective post-exercise beverage, and 2 h later, they performed a second maximal swim immediately followed by the second beverage. Approximately 3 h after the second beverage, two post-consumption blood samples were collected at 8 h and 24 h from baseline. Procollagen type 1 intact N-terminal propeptide (PINP) and carboxy-terminal collagen crosslinks (CTXI) were measured in serum. The multiples of medians of PINP and CTXI were also used to calculate bone turnover rate and balance. RESULTS: No significant changes were observed in PINP. CTXI increased (+ 11%) at 8 h in all groups, but then significantly decreased (- 22%) at 24 h in the protein group only. The protein group also had a significantly higher calculated rate of bone turnover at 8 h and 24 h compared to baseline, which was not observed in the other groups. CONCLUSIONS: These results shed light on the potential importance of protein consumed shortly after intense swimming in promoting positive bone turnover responses up to 24 h following exercise in adolescent athletes. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov PRS; NCT04114045. Registered 1 October 2019 - Retrospectively registered.


Assuntos
Remodelação Óssea , Suplementos Nutricionais , Natação , Proteínas do Soro do Leite/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Bebidas , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Polissacarídeos/administração & dosagem , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Esportiva , Água/administração & dosagem
14.
Poult Sci ; 99(4): 2100-2107, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32241495

RESUMO

The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary marine-derived polysaccharides (MDP) from seaweed Enteromorpha on productive performance, egg quality, antioxidant capacity, and jejunal morphology in late-phase laying hens. A total of 240 Lohmann white laying hens (62 wk of age) were assigned to 4 dietary treatments that included MDP at concentrations of 0, 1,000, 2,500, and 5,000 mg/kg for 6 wk. Each treatment had 6 replicates with 5 cages (2 birds/cage). The results showed that dietary MDP quadratically improved egg production (P < 0.05) during 5 to 6 wk and 1 to 6 wk. There was a linear reduction in cracked egg rate (P < 0.05) with dietary MDP levels increased during 3 to 4 wk and 1 to 6 wk. After 4 wk of feeding trial, the egg shell thickness, yolk color, and Haugh unit showed a linear increase (P < 0.05) in response to increasing dietary MDP levels. Besides, the egg shell breaking strength, egg shell thickness, yolk color, and Haugh unit were improved linearly (P < 0.05) by dietary MDP at the end of the experiment. Moreover, dietary MDP showed a linear and quadratic reduction in serum malondialdehyde (MDA) content (P < 0.05) at the end of third week. At the end of experiment, the activity of total superoxide dismutase in serum was increased quadratically (P < 0.05) by dietary MDP, and dietary MDP quadratically improved the liver catalase (CAT) activity (P < 0.05) and linearly enhanced jejunal CAT activity (P < 0.05), whereas linearly decreased jejunal MDA concentration (P < 0.05). Furthermore, supplemental MDP linearly improved the villus height (P < 0.05) and quadratically increased villus height/crypt depth ratio (P < 0.05) of jejunum. However, dietary MDP had no effect on jejunal trypsin, amylase, and protease activity (P > 0.10). Taken together, these findings provided new insights into the role of MDP in improving the productive performance, egg quality, antioxidant capacity, and jejunal morphology of late-phase laying hens.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Galinhas/fisiologia , Clorófitas/química , Carboidratos da Dieta/metabolismo , Jejuno/efeitos dos fármacos , Óvulo/efeitos dos fármacos , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Galinhas/anatomia & histologia , Dieta/veterinária , Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Jejuno/anatomia & histologia , Óvulo/fisiologia , Polissacarídeos/administração & dosagem , Distribuição Aleatória
15.
J Nutr ; 150(5): 1126-1134, 2020 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32125421

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stevia is a zero-calorie alternative to caloric sugars. Substituting caloric sweeteners with noncaloric sweeteners reduces available energy, but their effects on appetite, subsequent food intake, and neurocognitive responses are still unclear. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to examine whether sweetness with or without calories influences food intake, appetite, blood glucose concentrations, and attentional bias (AB) to food cues. METHODS: This was a randomized, controlled, double-blind crossover study. Healthy participants [n = 20; aged 27 ± 5 y,  55% female; BMI (kg/m2): 21.8 ± 1.5] completed 5 visits, consuming 5 study beverages: 330 mL water (control, no sweet taste, no calories) and either 330 mL water containing 40 g glucose or sucrose (sweet taste; calories, both 160 kcal), maltodextrin (no sweet taste; calories, 160 kcal), or 240 ppm stevia (sweet taste, no calories). Glucose and stevia beverages were matched for sweetness. Subjective appetite ratings and blood glucose were measured at baseline and at 15, 30, and 60 min postprandially. At 15 min participants performed a visual-dot probe task to assess AB to food cues; at 30 min, participants were offered an ad libitum lunch; food intake was measured. RESULTS: Subjective appetite ratings showed that preload sweetness and calorie content both affected appetite. The total AUC for glycemia was significantly higher after the caloric beverages (mean ± SD: maltodextrin, 441 ± 57.6;  glucose, 462 ± 68.1;  sucrose, 425 ± 53.6 mmol × min × L-1 ) compared with both stevia (320 ± 34.2 mmol × min × L-1) and water (304 ± 32.0 mmol × min × L-1) (all P < 0.001). Total energy intake (beverage and meal) was significantly lower after the stevia beverage (727 ± 239 kcal) compared with water (832 ± 198 kcal,  P = 0.013), with no significant difference between the water and caloric beverages (P = 1.00 for water vs. maltodextrin, glucose, and sucrose). However, food-related AB did not differ across conditions (P = 0.140). CONCLUSIONS: This study found a beneficial and specific effect of a stevia beverage consumed prior to a meal on appetite and energy intake in healthy adults. This trial is registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03711084.


Assuntos
Apetite/efeitos dos fármacos , Bebidas , Glicemia/análise , Ingestão de Energia/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicosídeos/administração & dosagem , Stevia/química , Adulto , Estudos Cross-Over , Método Duplo-Cego , Ingestão de Alimentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Glucose/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Almoço , Masculino , Polissacarídeos/administração & dosagem , Saciação/efeitos dos fármacos , Sacarose/administração & dosagem , Paladar
16.
Biomater Sci ; 8(8): 2084-2101, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32118241

RESUMO

Acute and chronic wounds cause severe physical trauma to patients and also bring an immense socio-economic burden. Hydrogels are considered to be effective wound dressings. Polysaccharides possessing distinctive properties such as biocompatibility, biodegradability, and nontoxicity are promising candidates to structure hydrogels for wound healing. Polysaccharide-based hydrogels can provide suitable moisture for the wound and act as a shield against bacteria. Adequate mechanical properties, degradability, and therapeutic agent controlled release of polysaccharide-based hydrogels have been already characterized for effective utilization. This review presented several crucial design considerations about hydrogels for wound healing, and the current state of polysaccharide (chitosan, alginate, hyaluronic acid, cellulose, dextran, and starch)-based hydrogels as wound dressings was also summarized. The commonly used crosslinking techniques, including physical, chemical, and enzymatic crosslinking, are discussed in detail. Finally, we outline the challenges and perspectives about the improvement of polysaccharide-based hydrogels.


Assuntos
Hidrogéis , Polissacarídeos , Animais , Desenho de Fármacos , Humanos , Hidrogéis/administração & dosagem , Hidrogéis/química , Polissacarídeos/administração & dosagem , Polissacarídeos/química , Cicatrização
17.
Mar Drugs ; 18(3)2020 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32120786

RESUMO

Nephrotic syndrome (NS) is a clinical syndrome with a variety of causes, mainly characterized by heavy proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia, and edema. At present, identification of effective and less toxic therapeutic interventions for nephrotic syndrome remains to be an important issue. In this study, we isolated fucoidan from Saccharina japonica and prepared its depolymerized fragment by oxidant degradation. Fucoidan and its depolymerized fragment had similar chemical constituents. Their average molecular weights were 136 and 9.5 kDa respectively. The effect of fucoidan and its depolymerized fragment on adriamycin-induced nephrotic syndrome were investigated in a rat model. The results showed that adriamycin-treated rats had heavy proteinuria and increased blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine (SCr), total cholesterol (TC), and total triglyceride (TG) levels. Oral administration of fucoidan or low-molecular-weight fucoidan for 30 days could significantly inhibit proteinuria and decrease the elevated BUN, SCr, TG, and TC level in a dose-dependent manner. At the same dose (100 mg/kg), low-molecular-weight fucoidan had higher renoprotective activity than fucoidan. Their protective effect on nephrotic syndrome was partly related to their antioxidant activity. The results suggested that both fucoidan and its depolymerized fragment had excellent protective effect on adriamycin-induced nephrotic syndrome, and might have potential for the treatment of nephrotic syndrome.


Assuntos
Síndrome Nefrótica/prevenção & controle , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Alga Marinha/química , Administração Oral , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Oceanos e Mares , Polissacarídeos/administração & dosagem , Substâncias Protetoras/administração & dosagem , Ratos
18.
Mar Drugs ; 18(3)2020 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32121066

RESUMO

Fucoidans are a class of fucose-rich sulfated polysaccharides derived from brown macroalgae that exert a range of biological activities in vitro and in vivo. To generate an unbiased assessment of pathways and processes affected by fucoidan, a placebo-controlled double-blind pilot study was performed in healthy volunteers. Blood samples were taken immediately before and 24 h after ingestion of a single dose of 1 g of Undaria pinnatifida fucoidan (UPF) or placebo. Levels of isolated miRNAs were analyzed using Taqman Open Array Human MicroRNA panels. Out of 754 miRNAs screened, UPF affected a total of 53 miRNAs. Pathway analysis using the TALOS data analysis tool predicted 29 different pathways and processes that were largely grouped into cell surface receptor signaling, cancer-related pathways, the majority of which were previously associated with fucoidans. However, this analysis also identified nine pathways and processes that have not been associated with fucoidans before. Overall, this study illustrates that even a single dose of fucoidans has the potential to affect the expression of genes related to fundamental cellular processes. Moreover, it confirms previous data that fucoidans influence immunity, cancer cells, inflammation, and neurological function.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacocinética , Polissacarídeos/farmacocinética , Administração Oral , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos/sangue , Método Duplo-Cego , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , MicroRNAs/análise , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polissacarídeos/administração & dosagem , Polissacarídeos/sangue , Alga Marinha
19.
Carbohydr Polym ; 235: 115937, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32122479

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of inulin (IL) and maltodextrin (MD) as matrix formers on the physical properties of drug nanocrystal-embedded microparticles (NEM) during spray-drying and storage. The redispersibility, aerodynamic performance and phase behaviour of NEM/MD and NEM/IL stored at different water activity (aw) values were evaluated. NEM with 2 g/g (relative to the weight of drug) of IL and MD exhibited the excellent performance after spray-drying. The water activity significantly influenced the redispersibility and aerodynamic performance of NEM/MD and NEM/IL. The NEM/MD presented a higher Tg at all aw values than did NEM/IL. The moisture-induced collapse of the amorphous glassy matrix of IL and MD could be responsible for the poor redispersibility and aerodynamic performance of NEM/IL and NEM/MD, respectively. The NEM/MD exhibited better aerodynamic performance at high aw (0.528) than did NEM/IL. Therefore, MD could be an excellent matrix former for inhalable NEM.


Assuntos
Inulina/química , Nanopartículas/química , Polissacarídeos/química , Administração por Inalação , Inulina/administração & dosagem , Nanopartículas/administração & dosagem , Tamanho da Partícula , Polissacarídeos/administração & dosagem , Propriedades de Superfície
20.
G Chir ; 41(1): 84-93, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32038017

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: For several years the scientific anaesthesia societies declared a preoperative fast of 6 hours for solid foods and 2 hours for clear liquids before elective surgical interventions to be sufficient. The aim of this study is to identify the extent of the gap that exists between the preoperative fasting time required and that actually encountered in operating rooms. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The safety and clinical applicability of a reduction of the preoperative fasting time was investigated through the use of oral solutions enriched with maltodextrin and their effects on the pre- and postoperative well-being that this may have on patients who are candidates for elective abdominal surgery. The study was conducted in two successive phases (I and II) and patients divided into two groups (A and B). DISCUSSION: Clinical practice is slow to change, in fact, in our study the duration of fasting was an average of 19 hours for solids and 13 hours for liquids. The duration of the fasting did not show differences in the various surgical departments, demonstrating that it is a transversal practice and is not only limited to abdominal surgery in which the utility of fasting would theoretically be greater. Among Group patients A, the fasting time for liquids was about 9 hours. This shows that the time is certainly shorter but not much different when compared to the fasting time for liquids in group B which was on average 14 hours. It is important how difficult it is to achieve good compliance from patients when trying to reduce the time of preoperative fasting based on scientific evidence that is now well established. CONCLUSION: The use of carbohydrate-enriched drinks up to 2 hours after induction of anaesthesia appears to be a safe procedure. The use of these solutions reduces the catabolic response to surgery and contributes to maintaining a pre-operative state of well-being by reducing feelings of hunger and thirst and the state of preoperative anxiety.


Assuntos
Abdome/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos , Jejum , Polissacarídeos/administração & dosagem , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/métodos , Fatores de Tempo , Humanos , Fome , Cooperação do Paciente , Soluções Farmacêuticas/administração & dosagem , Sede
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