Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 8.647
Filtrar
1.
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205154

RESUMO

The genus Curculigo, as a folk herbal medicine, has been used for many years in China, treating impotence, limb limpness, and arthritis of the lumbar and knee joints. The last systematic review of the genus Curculigo was written in 2013, scientifically categorizing the phytochemistry and biological activities. Hitherto, the original compounds and their pharmacological activities were presented as the development of this genus, but there is not an updated review. To conclude the progression of the genus Curculigo, we collected the new literature published from 2013 to 2021 in PubMed, Web of Science, Google Scholar databases, and the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure. The novel chlorophenolic glucosides, curculigine, phenolic glycosides, orcinosides and polysaccharides were isolated from Curculigo. The new analyzing methods were established to control the quality of Curculigo as a herbal medicine. In addition, the pharmacological effects of Curculigo focused on anti-diabetes, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, osteoporosis, antioxidation, etc. The antitumor and neuroprotective activities were newly explored in recent years. The application of herbal medicine was gradually developed in scientific methods. The medicinal value of the genus Curculigo needs to further investigate its pharmacological mechanisms. This new review offers more insights into the exploitation of the pharmacological value of the genus Curculigo.


Assuntos
Curculigo/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Etnofarmacologia , Glucosídeos/química , Glucosídeos/farmacologia , Lignanas/química , Lignanas/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Polissacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia
2.
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205200

RESUMO

Excessive use of nitrogen fertilizer in intensively managed agriculture has resulted in abundant accumulation of nitrate in soil, which limits agriculture sustainability. How to reduce nitrate content is the key to alleviate secondary soil salinization. However, the microorganisms used in soil remediation cause some problems such as weak efficiency and short survival time. In this study, seaweed polysaccharides were used as stimulant to promote the rapid growth and safer nitrate removal of denitrifying bacteria. Firstly, the growth rate and NO3--N removal capacity of three kinds of denitrifying bacteria, Bacillus subtilis (BS), Pseudomonas stutzeri (PS) and Pseudomonas putida (PP), were compared. The results showed that Bacillus subtilis (BS) had a faster growth rate and stronger nitrate removal ability. We then studied the effects of Enteromorpha linza polysaccharides (EP), carrageenan (CA), and sodium alginate (AL) on growth and denitrification performance of Bacillus subtilis (BS). The results showed that seaweed polysaccharides obviously promoted the growth of Bacillus subtilis (BS), and accelerated the reduction of NO3--N. More importantly, the increased NH4+-N content could avoid excessive loss of nitrogen, and less NO2--N accumulation could avoid toxic effects on plants. This new strategy of using denitrifying bacteria for safely remediating secondary soil salinization has a great significance.


Assuntos
Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Nitratos/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Alga Marinha/química , Bacillus subtilis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bacillus subtilis/metabolismo , Bactérias/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Desnitrificação , Pseudomonas putida/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pseudomonas putida/metabolismo , Pseudomonas stutzeri/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pseudomonas stutzeri/metabolismo , Solo/química , Microbiologia do Solo
3.
Food Chem ; 362: 130233, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34090043

RESUMO

The present study aimed to investigate the bioavailability of soybean polysaccharides and their metabolites on gut microbiota in the simulator of the human intestinal microbial ecosystem (SHIME). The effects of soybean polysaccharides on probiotics and pathogenic bacteria were investigated in vitro. Our results showed that soybean polysaccharides were only partially degraded in the oral, gastric, and small intestinal compartments of the SHIME. Moreover, the polysaccharides could be mainly broken down and utilized by the gut microbiota in the colon of the SHIME. Soybean polysaccharides could significantly reduce the ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes at the phylum level. Therefore, the number of beneficial bacteria were noticeably enhanced, and the pathogenic bacteria were inhibited. Furthermore, soybean polysaccharides promoted the growth of probiotics and improved the ability of these probiotics to inhibit pathogenic bacteria. Therefore, soybean polysaccharides could potentially be functional food to prevent disease by promoting gut health.


Assuntos
Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Probióticos , Soja/química , Bactérias/metabolismo , Disponibilidade Biológica , Colo/metabolismo , Colo/microbiologia , Ecossistema , Humanos , Intestino Delgado/metabolismo , Intestino Delgado/microbiologia , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo
4.
J Food Sci ; 86(7): 3082-3096, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34146417

RESUMO

The present study discussed the optimization of the ultrasonic-assisted extraction of polysaccharides from daylily polysaccharides (DPs). The extracted crude polysaccharides were further separated and purified, and the antioxidant activities including 1,1-diphenyl-2-111 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonate) (ABTS) radical scavenging, hydroxyl radical scavenging, and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) activities of the obtained fractions were also evaluated. The results showed that the optimal ultrasonic-assisted extraction parameters with DPs yield of 15.25 ± 1.13% were water to powder ratio of 25 ml/g, extraction power of 694 W, extraction temperature of 71°C, extraction time of 38 min, and three times extraction. By DEAE Sepharose Fast Flow column, four water-soluble polysaccharide fractions (DP-1, DP-2, DP-3, and DP-4) were successfully obtained. Monosaccharide component analysis showed that the four obtained fractions were all hetero-polysaccharides that mainly contained rhamnose, arabinose, fructose, galactose, glucose, galacturonic acid, and glucuronic acid in different molar ratios. All the four DP fractions did show obvious antioxidant activities in vitro, and the DP-3 component had relatively high ABTS free radical scavenging activity. Overall, our research showed that DPs could provide cheap raw materials for the development of natural antioxidants in medicines, functional foods, and even cosmetics. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: This article deals with the optimization of the ultrasonic-assisted extraction of polysaccharides from daylily and its antioxidant activities. The results showed that the optimal ultrasonic-assisted extraction yield of DPs was 15.25 ± 1.13%. By DEAE Sepharose Fast Flow column, four water-soluble polysaccharide fractions were successfully obtained, and all the four DP fractions did show obvious antioxidant activities in vitro. Daylily polysaccharides could provide cheap raw materials for the development of natural antioxidants in medicines, functional foods, and even cosmetics.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Hemerocallis/química , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Ultrassom/métodos , Antioxidantes/química , Hemerocallis/efeitos da radiação , Polissacarídeos/química
5.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3611, 2021 06 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34127673

RESUMO

Yeast is an integral part of mammalian microbiome, and like commensal bacteria, has the potential of being harnessed to influence immunity in clinical settings. However, functional specificities of yeast-derived immunoregulatory molecules remain elusive. Here we find that while under steady state, ß-1,3-glucan-containing polysaccharides potentiate pro-inflammatory properties, a relatively less abundant class of cell surface polysaccharides, dubbed mannan/ß-1,6-glucan-containing polysaccharides (MGCP), is capable of exerting potent anti-inflammatory effects to the immune system. MGCP, in contrast to previously identified microbial cell surface polysaccharides, through a Dectin1-Cox2 signaling axis in dendritic cells, facilitates regulatory T (Treg) cell induction from naïve T cells. Furthermore, through a TLR2-dependent mechanism, it restrains Th1 differentiation of effector T cells by suppressing IFN-γ expression. As a result, administration of MGCP display robust suppressive capacity towards experimental inflammatory disease models of colitis and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in mice, thereby highlighting its potential therapeutic utility against clinically relevant autoimmune diseases.


Assuntos
Imunomodulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunomodulação/imunologia , Polissacarídeos/imunologia , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , beta-Glucanas/imunologia , Animais , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Colite/imunologia , Colite/patologia , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2 , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental , Glucanos , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Imunidade , Lectinas Tipo C , Mananas , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Linfócitos T Reguladores/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Células Th1 , Zimosan , beta-Glucanas/metabolismo , beta-Glucanas/farmacologia
6.
Life Sci ; 279: 119707, 2021 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34102195

RESUMO

AIMS: The present study investigated if treatment with the immunotherapeutic, lacto-N-fucopentaose-III (LNFPIII), resulted in amelioration of acute and persisting deficits in synaptic plasticity and transmission as well as trophic factor expression along the hippocampal dorsoventral axis in a mouse model of Gulf War Illness (GWI). MAIN METHODS: Mice received either coadministered or delayed LNFPIII treatment throughout or following, respectively, exposure to a 15-day GWI induction paradigm. Subsets of animals were subsequently sacrificed 48 h, seven months, or 11 months post GWI-related (GWIR) exposure for hippocampal qPCR or in vitro electrophysiology experiments. KEY FINDINGS: Progressively worsened impairments in hippocampal synaptic plasticity, as well as a biphasic effect on hippocampal synaptic transmission, were detected in GWIR-exposed animals. Dorsoventral-specific impairments in hippocampal synaptic responses became more pronounced over time, particularly in the dorsal hippocampus. Notably, delayed LNFPIII treatment ameliorated GWI-related aberrations in hippocampal synaptic plasticity and transmission seven and 11 months post-exposure, an effect that was consistent with enhanced hippocampal trophic factor expression and absence of increased interleukin 6 (IL-6) in animals treated with LNFPIII. SIGNIFICANCE: Approximately a third of Gulf War Veterans have GWI; however, GWI therapeutics are presently limited to targeted and symptomatic treatments. As increasing evidence underscores the substantial role of persisting neuroimmune dysfunction in GWI, efficacious neuroactive immunotherapeutics hold substantial promise in yielding GWI remission. The findings in the present report indicate that LNFPIII may be an efficacious candidate for ameliorating persisting neurological abnormalities presented in GWI.


Assuntos
Amino Açúcares/farmacologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Plasticidade Neuronal/efeitos dos fármacos , Síndrome do Golfo Pérsico/prevenção & controle , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Transmissão Sináptica/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Síndrome do Golfo Pérsico/etiologia , Síndrome do Golfo Pérsico/patologia
7.
Biomater Sci ; 9(13): 4679-4690, 2021 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34018502

RESUMO

We have demonstrated that alginate with negligible anticoagulant activity can be converted into carbonized nanogels with potent anticoagulant activity through a solid-state heating process. The conversion of alginate into graphene-like nanosheet (GNS)-embedded polyphenolic-alginate nanogels (GNS/Alg-NGs) has been carried out through condensation and carbonization processes. The GNS/Alg-NGs exhibit much stronger anticoagulant activity (>520-fold) compared to untreated alginate, mainly because their polyphenolic structures have a high binding affinity [dissociation constant (Kd) = 2.1 × 10-10 M] toward thrombin. In addition, the thrombin clotting time delay caused by the GNS/Alg-NGs is 10-fold longer than that of natural polyphenolic compounds, such as quercetin, catechin, naringenin, caffeic acid, and ferulic acid. The thrombin- or kaolin-activated thromboelastography of whole-blood coagulation reveals that the GNS/Alg-NGs display a much stronger anticoagulant ability than that of untreated alginate and naturally sulfated polysaccharides (fucoidan). The GNS/Alg-NGs exhibit superior biocompatibility and anticoagulant activity, as observed with an in vivo rat model, revealing their potential as a blood thinner for the treatment of thrombotic disorders.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes , Polissacarídeos , Animais , Anticoagulantes/farmacologia , Coagulação Sanguínea , Nanogéis , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Ratos , Trombina/farmacologia
8.
Biomacromolecules ; 22(6): 2451-2459, 2021 06 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34024108

RESUMO

The present study aimed to purify, structurally characterize, and evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of the polysaccharide extracted from Typha angustifolia. Two purified polysaccharides (PTA-1 and PTA-2) were obtained via DEAE-52 cellulose chromatography. Their structural characterizations and antioxidant activity were in vitro analyzed. To evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of PTA-2, the levels of inflammatory cytokines, intracellular ROS production, and the inhibitory effects of the transcriptional activation of the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathway were determined. PTA-1 comprises glucose (100%) with α-(1 → 3) glycosidic bonds, and PTA-2 comprises glucose (66.7%) and rhamnose (33.3%) formed by ß-(1 → 3) glycosidic bonds. PTA-1 and PTA-2 showed strong antioxidant activity in vitro. Moreover, PTA-2 intervention (50, 100, and 200 µg/mL) suppressed the production of inflammatory cytokines, the activation of NF-κB signaling, and reactive oxygen species production significantly. The results identified PTA-2 as a natural product that could be applied in anti-inflammatory drugs.


Assuntos
Typhaceae , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Citocinas , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , NF-kappa B/genética , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Transdução de Sinais , Typhaceae/metabolismo
9.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 31(6): 1929-1938, 2021 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33992512

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Atherosclerosis is characterized by lipid deposition, oxidative stress, and inflammation in the arterial intima. Ganoderma lucidum triterpenoids (GLTs) and polysaccharides (GLPs) are traditional Chinese medicines with potential cardiovascular benefits. We aimed to comprehensively evaluate the effect of GLTs and GLPs on atherosclerosis and the associated underlying mechanisms in vivo and in vitro. METHODS AND RESULTS: Japanese big-ear white rabbits were randomly divided into three groups of blank, model, and treatment, and the treatment group was fed with GLSO and GLSP (0.3 g/kg body-weight/day) for 4 months. Serum levels of triglyceride (TG), total (TC), and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in GL treatment group were significantly lower than those in the model group. The area of aortic plaques was significantly reduced in the treatment group. Further, GL administration in oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) stimulated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) reduced the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA) by inhibiting the upregulation of the nuclear transcription factor (NF)-κB p65 and the relative receptor LOX-1. In THP-1 cells treated with phorbol myristate acetate, GL inhibited the inflammatory polarization of macrophages (as evidenced by reduced TNF-α levels) via regulation of Notch1 and DLL4 pathways. Ox-LDL-stimulated THP-1 cells treated with GL showed an increase in the apoptosis of foam cells. CONCLUSIONS: GLTs and GLPs attenuated the progression of atherosclerosis by alleviating endothelial dysfunction and inflammatory polarization of macrophages, thus promoting apoptosis of foam cells.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Aorta/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças da Aorta/prevenção & controle , Aterosclerose/prevenção & controle , Células Espumosas/efeitos dos fármacos , Placa Aterosclerótica , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Triterpenos/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Aorta/metabolismo , Aorta/patologia , Doenças da Aorta/metabolismo , Doenças da Aorta/patologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Aterosclerose/patologia , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Citocinas/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Células Espumosas/metabolismo , Células Espumosas/patologia , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/patologia , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Coelhos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Reishi/química , Células THP-1 , Triterpenos/isolamento & purificação
10.
Molecules ; 26(9)2021 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1217102

RESUMO

Hemostasis disorders play an important role in the pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, and outcome of COVID-19. First of all, the hemostasis system suffers due to a complicated and severe course of COVID-19. A significant number of COVID-19 patients develop signs of hypercoagulability, thrombocytopenia, and hyperfibrinolysis. Patients with severe COVID-19 have a tendency toward thrombotic complications in the venous and arterial systems, which is the leading cause of death in this disease. Despite the success achieved in the treatment of SARS-CoV-2, the search for new effective anticoagulants, thrombolytics, and fibrinolytics, as well as their optimal dose strategies, continues to be relevant. The wide therapeutic potential of seaweed sulfated polysaccharides (PSs), including anticoagulant, thrombolytic, and fibrinolytic activities, opens up new possibilities for their study in experimental and clinical trials. These natural compounds can be important complementary drugs for the recovery from hemostasis disorders due to their natural origin, safety, and low cost compared to synthetic drugs. In this review, the authors analyze possible pathophysiological mechanisms involved in the hemostasis disorders observed in the pathological progression of COVID-19, and also focus the attention of researchers on seaweed PSs as potential drugs aimed to correction these disorders in COVID-19 patients. Modern literature data on the anticoagulant, antithrombotic, and fibrinolytic activities of seaweed PSs are presented, depending on their structural features (content and position of sulfate groups on the main chain of PSs, molecular weight, monosaccharide composition and type of glycosidic bonds, the degree of PS chain branching, etc.). The mechanisms of PS action on the hemostasis system and the issues of oral bioavailability of PSs, important for their clinical use as oral anticoagulant and antithrombotic agents, are considered. The combination of the anticoagulant, thrombolytic, and fibrinolytic properties, along with low toxicity and relative cheapness of production, open up prospects for the clinical use of PSs as alternative sources of new anticoagulant and antithrombotic compounds. However, further investigation and clinical trials are needed to confirm their efficacy.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/farmacologia , COVID-19/complicações , Hemostasia/efeitos dos fármacos , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Alga Marinha , Sulfatos/farmacologia , Trombose/complicações , Animais , Anticoagulantes/química , Anticoagulantes/farmacocinética , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/sangue , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Descoberta de Drogas , Humanos , Polissacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/farmacocinética , Polissacarídeos/uso terapêutico , Alga Marinha/química , Sulfatos/química , Sulfatos/farmacocinética , Sulfatos/uso terapêutico , Trombose/sangue , Trombose/tratamento farmacológico
11.
Food Res Int ; 143: 110281, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33992381

RESUMO

In this study, H2O2-Vc (hydrogen peroxide-ascorbic acid) oxidation system under 50 and 70 °C was developed to degrade blue honeysuckle polysaccharides. The results suggested that viscosity-average molecular weight was decreased and reducing sugar content was raised with the rise of time or temperature. The degradation was fitted to the second-order reaction kinetics. The gas chromatography revealed two degraded polysaccharides were consisted of six monosaccharides (Gal A, Rha, Ala, Gal, Glu, Man) with different ratios, and eight types of sugar residues were confirmed using nuclear magnetic resonance. Based on the linearity (R1), branching (R2), branch size (R3) calculation, PD70 (purified degraded polysaccharide at 70 °C) had a more linear structure and longer side chains comparing to PD50 (purified degraded polysaccharide at 50 °C). The absence of triple helical structure and sheet-like aggregation with rough surface were confirmed by the Congo red test and scanning electron. Rheological characterization proved the two degraded polysaccharides exhibited shear-thinning behavior and viscoelastic property. Besides, the two degraded polysaccharides displayed strong antiglycation activities, inhibitory effects against α-amylase and α-glucosidase, and exhibited competitive inhibitory kinetics. These findings support the potential application of blue honeysuckle polysaccharides as the treatment of diabetes.


Assuntos
Hipoglicemiantes , Lonicera , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Lonicera/química , alfa-Glucosidases
12.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 114: 207-217, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33965522

RESUMO

We previously identified a novel acidic polysaccharide, silkrose-AY, from the Japanese oak silkmoth (Antheraea yamamai), which can activate an innate immune response in mouse macrophage cells. However, innate immune responses stimulated by silkrose-AY in teleosts remain unclear. Here, we show the influence of dietary silkrose-AY in medaka (Oryzias latipes), a teleost model, in response to Edwardsiella tarda infection. Dietary silkrose-AY significantly improved the survival of fish and decreased the number of bacteria in their kidneys after the fish were artificially infected with E. tarda by immersion. We also performed a microarray analysis of the intestine, which serves as a primary barrier against microbial infection, to understand the profiles of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) evoked by silkrose-AY. The dietary silkrose-AY group showed differential expression of 2930 genes when compared with the control group prior to E. tarda infection. Gene ontology and pathway analysis of the DEGs highlighted several putative genes involved in pathogen attachment/recognition, the complement and coagulation cascade, antimicrobial peptides/enzymes, opsonization/phagocytosis, and epithelial junctional modification. Our findings thus provide fundamental information to help understand the molecular mechanism of bacterial protection offered by insect-derived immunostimulatory polysaccharides in teleosts.


Assuntos
Edwardsiella tarda , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/veterinária , Doenças dos Peixes/microbiologia , Mariposas/metabolismo , Oryzias , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Animais , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/microbiologia , Doenças dos Peixes/tratamento farmacológico , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo
13.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 114: 238-252, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33989765

RESUMO

The effect of Agaricus bisporus polysaccharides (ABPs) supplemented diet on growth rate, antioxidant capacity, innate-adaptive immune response, proinflammatory and antiinflammatory genes expression in Ctenopharyngodon idella against Aeromonas hydrophila is reported. In both normal and challenged groups fed with 1.0 and 1.5 mg kg-1 ABPs diets resulted in a significant weight gain and feed intake. The survival was 100% in normal fish fed without or with any ABPs diet; the challenged fish fed with 1.0 mg kg-1 ABPs diet had 98.6% survival. The RBC and WBC counts, Hb, and Hct levels were significant in both normal and challenged groups fed with 1.0 and 1.5 mg kg-1 ABPs diets. A significant increase in total protein and albumin level was observed in both groups fed with 1.0 and 1.5 mg kg-1 ABPs diets. Significant increase in GPx, ROS, GR, GSH, PC, and MnSOD activity was observed in HK of both groups fed with 1.0 and 1.5 mg kg-1 ABPs diets; similarly both groups when fed with the same ABPs diets showed significant Lz, C3, and C4 activity. However, both groups fed with 1.0 mg kg-1 ABPs diet showed significant ß-defensin, LEAP-2A, IL-6, and NF-κB P65 mRNA expression. Similarly, IFN-γ2, IL-10, and TNFα mRNA expressions were significant in both groups fed with 1.0 mg kg-1 ABPs diet. The results indicate that both normal and challenged C. idella fed with a 1.0 mg kg-1 ABPs diet had better growth, antioxidant status, immune response, and pro-anti-inflammatory gene modulation against A. hydrophila.


Assuntos
Agaricus/química , Ração Animal/análise , Carpas/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Imunidade Adaptativa/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Polissacarídeos/química
14.
J Food Biochem ; 45(6): e13748, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33998679

RESUMO

Mushrooms are consumed for their nutrients and therapeutic bioactive compounds and are used medicinally in Chinese and Japanese medicine traditions since time immemorial. Members of the genus Pleurotus form a heterogeneous group of edible species with outstanding nutritional profiles rich in fiber, vitamins (thiamine, riboflavin, ascorbic acid, ergosterine, and niacin), micro and macro-elements (phosphorus and iron), and carbohydrates. Pleurotus is one of the most diversified medicinal and edible mushrooms related to the composition of chemical structures such as polysaccharides, glycoproteins, and secondary metabolites such as alkaloids and betalains. The cultivation of Pleurotus spp. on lignocellulosic wastes represents one of the most economically and cost-effective organic recycling processes, especially for the utilization of different feasible and cheap recyclable residues. Also, several Pleurotus spp. have the ability to remove phenolic compounds from wastewater with the action of phenoloxidase activity. Here, we have reviewed the chemistry of such polysaccharides and their reported biological activities, namely, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, anti-diabetic, anti-tumor, antioxidant, etc. The mechanism of action and effects of novel polysaccharides extracted from various species of Pleurotus have been studied. The current study will be beneficial for guiding future research projects on the above concept and investigating more deeply the health of human beings. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Mushrooms are one of the most delicious foods around the globe and have many medicinal properties for decades. Various Pleurotus species have been in focus in recent years because of their palatability and medicinal importance too. It contains many bioactive compounds among which polysaccharides are valued to a great extent. Many biological activities are exerted by polysaccharides derived from the Pleurotus spp., namely, anti-tumor, antioxidant, and many more. They are responsible for significant physiological responses in animals, animal-alternative in vitro models, and humans. Their important physicochemical characteristics benefit their use in the food industry as well. So, the biological activities of these Pleurotus spp. polysaccharides will provide an insight to develop Pleurotus spp. as functional foods, because of their nutritional value and presence of bioactive components.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Pleurotus , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Alimento Funcional , Humanos , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34052560

RESUMO

Although Cynomorium songaricum Rupr. polysaccharide (CSP) has been examined for its effects on glucose regulation, its underlying mechanism is still unclear. To address this issue, a MS-based lipidomics strategy was developed to gain a system-level understanding of the mechanism of CSP on improving type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). UPLC-QTOF/MS and multivariate statistical tools were used to identify the alteration of serum metabolites associated with T2DM and responses to CSP treatment. As a result, 35 potential biomarkers were found and identified in serum, amongst which 26 metabolites were regulated to normal like levels after the administration of CSP. By analyzing the metabolic pathways, glycerophospholipid metabolism was suggested to be closely involved. These results indicated that the intake of CSP exhibited promising anti-diabetic activity, largely due to the regulation of phospholipid metabolism, including phosphatidylcholines, lysophosphatydylcholines, phosphtatidylethanolamines and sphingomyelins.


Assuntos
Cynomorium/química , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Lipidômica , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Animais , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Pâncreas/efeitos dos fármacos , Pâncreas/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
16.
Food Chem ; 358: 129908, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33933948

RESUMO

A fucoidan SFP, having novel structure, was extracted from Sargassum fusiforme. It had a molecular weight of 703 kDa and was composed of fucose and galactose with the ratio of 73.16:26.84 (mol%). Structural analyses showed that it mainly consisted of 1,3-, 1,4-, 1,3,4-linked-α-l-Fucp and 1,3-, 1,6-linked-ß-d-Galp, with partial sulfation at C-4, C-3 of fucose units and C-6, C-3 of galactose units. The branches consisted of sulfated fucosyl and galactofucosyl oligosaccharides. The regulatory effects of SFP on the intestinal microbiota in high-fat diet-fed mice were investigated. The high-dosage SFP exhibited good hypolipidemic effects, especially in regulating the high-densitylipoproteincholesterol, non-esterified fatty acid levels and lipase activity. It also significantly decreased the ratio of phyla Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes (P < 0.05). Besides, SFP had certain effects on the richness and diversity of intestinal microbiota. Therefore, SFP exhibited novel structure and certain beneficial effects on the disorder of intestinal microbiota in high-fat diet-fed mice.


Assuntos
Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Polissacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Sargassum/química , Animais , Sequência de Carboidratos , Fucose/química , Galactose/química , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Hipolipemiantes/química , Hipolipemiantes/farmacologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Peso Molecular , Sulfatos/química
17.
Food Funct ; 12(9): 3842-3854, 2021 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33977968

RESUMO

For alcoholic liver disease (ALD), mitophagy has been reported as a promising therapeutic strategy to alleviate the hepatic lesion elicited by ethanol. This study was conducted to investigate the regulatory effects of fucoidan on mitophagy induced by chronic ethanol administration in rats. Here, 20 male rats in each group were treated with fucoidan (150 and 300 mg per kg body weight) by gavage once daily. Up to 56% liquor (7 to 9 mL per kg body weight) was orally administered 1 h after the fucoidan treatment for 20 weeks. The results showed that chronic ethanol consumption elevated the levels of hepatic enzymes (ALT, AST, and GGT) and triglyceride (TG) contents, with liver antioxidant enzymes being decreased and lipid peroxidation products increased and thus initiating the mitochondria-induced endogenous apoptotic pathway. Furthermore, ethanol-induced excessive oxidative stress inhibited the function of mitochondria and promoted damaged mitochondria accumulation which stimulated the PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) and Parkin associated mitophagic pathway in the liver. In contrast, the fucoidan pretreatment alleviated ethanol-induced histopathological changes, disorders of lipid metabolism, and oxidative damage with mitophagy related proteins and mitochondrial dynamics-related proteins namely mitochondrial E3 ubiquitin ligase 1 (Mul1), mitofusin2 (Mfn2) and dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) being restored to a normal level. In summary, our findings suggest that fucoidan pretreatment protects against ethanol-induced damaged mitochondria accumulation and over-activated mitophagy, which plays a pivotal role in maintaining mitochondrial homeostasis and ensuring mitochondrial quality.


Assuntos
Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/fisiopatologia , Fígado/fisiopatologia , Mitocôndrias Hepáticas/fisiologia , Mitofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Peso Corporal , Etanol/administração & dosagem , Etanol/toxicidade , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatócitos/fisiologia , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/patologia , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/patologia , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Mitocôndrias Hepáticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Dinâmica Mitocondrial , Proteínas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Polissacarídeos/uso terapêutico , Ratos
18.
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao ; 41(4): 504-513, 2021 Apr 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33963708

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the synergistic inhibitory effect of polysaccharide from Trichoderma pseudokoningii (EPS) and oxaliplatin (Oxa) on colorectal cancer (CRC) HCT116 cells. OBJECTIVE: HCT116 cells were treated with 8 µg/mL Oxa and 100 µg/mL EPS alone or in combination, and the changes in cell viability was assessed with CCK-8 assay. CompuSyn software was used for fitting the Fa-CI curve to evaluate the combined effect of the two agents. Flow cytometry was performed to analyze cell apoptosis and cell cycle changes, and wound healing assay and Transwell assay were used to examine the migration ability of the treated cells. Oxa- and EPS-related genes and CRC-related genes were intersected for protein-protein interaction (PPI) analysis and GO and KEGG enrichment analyses. OBJECTIVE: Treatment with Oxa alone or in combination with EPS significantly inhibited the viability of HCT116 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner, and the two agents exhibited a significant synergistic effect (CI < 1). The combined treatment with Oxa and EPS resulted in a significantly higher total cell apoptosis rate and a higher percentage of cells in S phase than Oxa alone and the control treatment (P < 0.05). EPS and Oxa alone both inhibited the migration of HCT116 cells, and their combination produced a stronger inhibitory effect. GO enrichment analysis of the key genes related with Oxa, EPS and CRC suggested that these genes were involved mainly in such biological processes as exogenous apoptosis signaling, cell response to chemical stress, and reactive oxygen metabolism; KEGG analysis showed that these genes were involved in the pathways of drug resistance, apoptosis and angiogenesis. OBJECTIVE: EPS and Oxa can synergistically inhibit the proliferation of HCT116 cells possibly through the PI3K-Akt, MAPK, VEGF, and p53 signaling pathways.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Neoplasias Colorretais , Trichoderma , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Apoptose , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Células HCT116 , Humanos , Hypocreales , Compostos Organoplatínicos/farmacologia , Oxaliplatina/farmacologia , Oxaliplatina/uso terapêutico , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia
19.
Molecules ; 26(9)2021 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33947107

RESUMO

Hemostasis disorders play an important role in the pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, and outcome of COVID-19. First of all, the hemostasis system suffers due to a complicated and severe course of COVID-19. A significant number of COVID-19 patients develop signs of hypercoagulability, thrombocytopenia, and hyperfibrinolysis. Patients with severe COVID-19 have a tendency toward thrombotic complications in the venous and arterial systems, which is the leading cause of death in this disease. Despite the success achieved in the treatment of SARS-CoV-2, the search for new effective anticoagulants, thrombolytics, and fibrinolytics, as well as their optimal dose strategies, continues to be relevant. The wide therapeutic potential of seaweed sulfated polysaccharides (PSs), including anticoagulant, thrombolytic, and fibrinolytic activities, opens up new possibilities for their study in experimental and clinical trials. These natural compounds can be important complementary drugs for the recovery from hemostasis disorders due to their natural origin, safety, and low cost compared to synthetic drugs. In this review, the authors analyze possible pathophysiological mechanisms involved in the hemostasis disorders observed in the pathological progression of COVID-19, and also focus the attention of researchers on seaweed PSs as potential drugs aimed to correction these disorders in COVID-19 patients. Modern literature data on the anticoagulant, antithrombotic, and fibrinolytic activities of seaweed PSs are presented, depending on their structural features (content and position of sulfate groups on the main chain of PSs, molecular weight, monosaccharide composition and type of glycosidic bonds, the degree of PS chain branching, etc.). The mechanisms of PS action on the hemostasis system and the issues of oral bioavailability of PSs, important for their clinical use as oral anticoagulant and antithrombotic agents, are considered. The combination of the anticoagulant, thrombolytic, and fibrinolytic properties, along with low toxicity and relative cheapness of production, open up prospects for the clinical use of PSs as alternative sources of new anticoagulant and antithrombotic compounds. However, further investigation and clinical trials are needed to confirm their efficacy.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/farmacologia , COVID-19/complicações , Hemostasia/efeitos dos fármacos , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Alga Marinha , Sulfatos/farmacologia , Trombose/complicações , Animais , Anticoagulantes/química , Anticoagulantes/farmacocinética , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/sangue , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Descoberta de Drogas , Humanos , Polissacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/farmacocinética , Polissacarídeos/uso terapêutico , Alga Marinha/química , Sulfatos/química , Sulfatos/farmacocinética , Sulfatos/uso terapêutico , Trombose/sangue , Trombose/tratamento farmacológico
20.
Acta Cir Bras ; 36(4): e360403, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34008744

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To study effects of Rehmannia glutinosa polysaccharides (RGP) on bone tissue structure and skeletal muscle atrophy in rats with disuse. METHODS: A rat model of disuse osteoporosis combined with muscle atrophy was established by removing the bilateral ovaries of rats and fixing their hind limbs for a long time. Forty SD rats were administered intragastrically for 12 weeks. The bone histomorphometry parameters and the level of oxidative stress were measured. In addition, the changes of muscle atrophy F-box (MAFbx), muscle RING-finger protein-1 (MuRF1), forkhead box O1 (FOXO1) mRNA expression in skeletal muscle of rats were observed. RESULTS: RGP significantly increased the percentage of fluorescence perimeter and bone mineralization deposition rate of the second lumbar vertebrae of rats. It also significantly increased the wet weight ratio and muscle fiber cross-sectional area of the gastrocnemius muscle of rats. At the same time, RGP significantly increased the levels of super oxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in the skeletal muscle of rats, and reduced the content of malondialdehyde (MDA). Rehmannia glutinosa polysaccharides also significantly reduced the expression levels of FOXO1, MAFbx and MuRF1 mRNA in rat skeletal muscle. CONCLUSIONS: RGP could improve the bone structure of osteoporotic rats. It could also improve muscle that atrophy may be related to the inhibition of FOXO1-mediated ubiquitin-proteasome pathway.


Assuntos
Rehmannia , Animais , Osso e Ossos , Músculo Esquelético/patologia , Atrofia Muscular/patologia , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...